Created by Sreeja Jijith at 03 Aug 2011 09:57 and updated at 03 Aug 2011 09:57


vp.1.1 OM! Glory TO Vasudeva 1. Victory be to thee, Pundarikaksha;
vp.1.2 Prayer of Parasara to Vishnu. Successive narration of the Vishnu Purana. Explanation of Vasudeva: his existence before creation: his first manifestations. Description of Pradhana or the chief principle of things. Cosmogony. Of Prakrita, or material creation; of time; of the active cause. Developement of effects; Mahat; Ahankara; Tanmatras; elements; objects of sense; senses; of the mundane egg. Vishnu the same as Brahma the creator; Vishnu the preserver; Rudra the destroyer.
vp.1.2 the world: to Vasudeva, the liberator of his worshippers: to him, whose essence is both single and manifold; who is both subtile and corporeal, indiscrete and discrete: to Vishnu, the cause of final emancipation 2, Glory to the supreme Vishnu, the cause of the creation, existence, and end of this world; who is the root of the world, and who consists of the world 3.
vp.1.2 Who can describe him who is not to be apprehended by the senses: who is the best of all things; the supreme soul, self existent: who is devoid of all the distinguishing characteristics of complexion, caste, or the like; and is exempt front birth, vicissitude, death, or decay: who is always, and alone: who exists every where, and in whom all things here exist; and who is thence named Vasudeva 10? He is Brahma 11, supreme, lord, eternal, unborn, imperishable, undecaying; of one essence; ever pure as free from defects. He, that Brahma, was all things; comprehending in his own nature the indiscrete and discrete. He then existed in the forms of Purusha and of Kala. Purusha (spirit) is the first form, of the supreme; next proceeded two other forms, the discrete and indiscrete; and Kala (time) was the last. These four Pradhana (primary or crude matter), Purusha (spirit), Vyakta (visible substance), and Kala (time) the wise consider to be the pure and supreme condition of Vishnu 12. These four forms, in their due proportions, are the causes of
vp.1.4 Prithivi Earth(). Hail to thee, who art all creatures; to thee, the holder of the mace and shell: elevate me now from this place, as thou hast upraised me in days of old. From thee have I proceeded; of thee do I consist; as do the skies, and all other existing things. Hail to thee, spirit of the supreme spirit; to thee, soul of soul; to thee, who art discrete and indiscrete matter; who art one with the elements and with time. Thou art the creator of all things, their preserver, and their destroyer, in the forms, oh lord, of Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra, at the seasons of creation, duration, and dissolution. When thou hast devoured all things, thou reposest on the ocean that sweeps over the world, meditated upon, oh Govinda, by the wise. No one knoweth thy true nature, and the gods adore thee only in the forms it bath pleased thee to assume. They who are desirous of final liberation, worship thee as the supreme Brahma; and who that adores not Vasudeva, shall obtain emancipation? Whatever may be apprehended by the mind, whatever may be perceived by the senses, whatever may he discerned by the intellect, all is but a form of thee. I am of thee, upheld by thee; thou art my creator, and to thee I fly for refuge: hence, in this universe, Madhavi (the bride of Madhava or Vishnu) is my designation. Triumph to the essence of all wisdom, to the unchangeable, the imperishable: triumph to the eternal; to the indiscrete, to the essence of discrete things: to him who is both cause and
vp.1.8 eternal, imperishable; in like manner as he is all pervading, so also is she, oh best of Brahmans, omnipresent. Vishnu is meaning; she is speech. Hari is polity Naya(); she is prudence Niti(). Vishnu is understanding; she is intellect. He is righteousness; she is devotion. He is the creator; she is creation. sri is the earth; Hari the support of it. The deity is content; the eternal Lakshmi is resignation. He is desire; sri is wish. He is sacrifice; she is sacrificial donation Dakshina(). The goddess is the invocation which attends the oblation; Janarddana is the oblation. Lakshmi is the chamber where the females are present (at a religious ceremony); Madhusudana the apartment of the males of the family. Lakshmi is the altar; Hari the stake (to which the victim is bound). sri is the fuel; Hari the holy grass Kusa(). He is the personified Sama veda; the goddess, lotus throned, is the tone of its chanting. Lakshmi is the prayer of oblation Swaha(); Vasudeva, the lord of the world, is the sacrificial fire. Sauri Vishnu() is sankara (siva); and sri is the bride of siva Gauri(). Kesava, oh Maitreya, is the sun; and his radiance is the lotus seated goddess. Vishnu is the tribe of progenitors Pitrigana(); Padma. is their bride Swadha(), the eternal bestower of nutriment. sri is the heavens; Vishnu, who is one with all things, is wide extended space. The lord of sri is the moon; she is his unfading light. She is called the moving principle of the world; he, the wind which bloweth
vp.1.11 Dhruva replied to them; "You have told me, humbly bending before you, what deity is to be propitiated: now inform me what prayer is to he meditated by me, that will offer him gratification. May the great Rishis, looking upon me with favour, instruct me how I am to propitiate the god." The Rishis answered; Prince", thou deservest to hear how the adoration of Vishnu has been performed by those who have been devoted to his service. The mind must first be made to forsake all external impressions, and a man must then fix it steadily on that being in whom the world is. By him whose thoughts are thus concentrated on one only object, and wholly filled by it; whose spirit is firmly under control; the prayer that we shall repeat to thee is to be inaudibly recited: Om! glory to Vasudeva, whose essence is divine wisdom; whose form is inscrutable, or is manifest as Brahma, Vishnu, and siva 2. This prayer, which was formerly uttered by your grandsire, the Manu Swayambhuva, and propitiated by which, Vishnu conferred upon him the prosperity he desired, and which was unequalled in the three worlds, is to be recited by thee. Do thou constantly repeat this prayer, for the gratification of Govinda."
vp.1.15 [paragraph continues] Sinka, the wife of Viprachitti. Hiranyakasipu was the father of four mighty sons, Anuhlada, Hlada, the wise Prahlada, and the heroic Sanhlada, the augmentor of the Daitya race 28. Amongst these, the illustrious Prahlada, looking on all things with indifference, devoted his whole faith to Janarddana. The flames that were lighted by the king of the Daityas consumed not him, in whose heart Vasudeva was cherished; and all the earth trembled when, bound with bonds, he moved amidst the waters of the ocean. His firm body, fortified by a mind engrossed by Achyuta, was unwounded by the weapons hurled on him by order of the Daitya monarch; and the serpents sent to destroy him breathed their venomous flames upon him in vain. Overwhelmed with rocks, he yet remained unhurt; for he never forgot Vishnu, and the recollection of the deity was his armour of proof. Hurled from on high by the king of the Daityas, residing in Swerga, earth received him unharmed. The wind sent into his body to wither him up was itself annihilated by him, in whom Madhusudana was present. The fierce elephants of the spheres broke their tusks, and vailed their pride, against the firm breast which the lord of the Daityas had ordered them to assault. The ministrant priests of the monarch were baffled in all their rites for the destruction of one so steadily attached to Govinda: and the thousand delusions of the fraudulent Samvara, counteracted by the discus of Krishna, were practised without
vp.1.19 glory to that imperishable form which, soul of all, is another manifestation 7 of thy might, the asylum of all qualities, existing in all creatures. I salute her, the supreme goddess, who is beyond the senses; whom the mind, the tongue, cannot define; who is to be distinguished alone by the wisdom of the truly wise. Om! salutation to Vasudeva: to him who is the eternal lord; he from whom nothing is distinct; he who is distinct from all. Glory be to the great spirit again and again: to him who is without name or shape; who sole is to be known by adoration; whom, in the forms manifested in his descents upon earth, the dwellers in heaven adore; for they behold not his inscrutable nature. I glorify the supreme deity Vishnu, the universal witness, who seated internally, beholds the good and ill of all. Glory to that Vishnu from whom this world is not distinct. May he, ever to be meditated upon as the beginning of the universe, have compassion upon me: may he, the supporter of all, in whom every thing is warped and woven 8, undecaying, imperishable, have compassion upon me. Glory, again and again, to that being to whom all returns, from whom all proceeds; who is all, and in whom all things are: to him whom I also am; for he is every where; and through whom all things are from me. I am all things: all things are in me, who am everlasting. I am undecayable, ever enduring, the receptacle of the spirit of the supreme. Brahma is my name; the supreme soul, that is before all things,
vp.1.20 ous; minute and vast; visible and invisible; hideousness and beauty; ignorance and wisdom; cause and effect; existence and non existence; comprehending all that is good and evil; essence of perishable and imperishable elements; asylum of undeveloped rudiments. Oh thou who art both one and many, Vasudeva, first cause of all; glory be unto thee. Oh thou who art large and small, manifest and hidden; who art all beings, and art not
vp.2.6 whose mind is devoted to Hari in silent prayer, burnt offering, or adoration, is impatient even of the glory of the king of the gods. Of what avail is ascent to the summit of heaven, if it is necessary to return from thence to earth. How different is the meditation on Vasudeva, which is the seed of eternal freedom. Hence, Muni, the man who thinks of Vishnu, day and night, goes not to Naraka after death, for all his sins are atoned for.
vp.2.12 Description of the moon: his chariot, horses, and course: fed by the sun: drained periodically of ambrosia by the progenitors and gods. The chariots and horses of the planets: kept in their orbits by aerial chains attached to Dhruva. Typical members of the planetary porpoise. Vasudeva alone real.
vp.2.12 nature? How can reality be predicated of that which is subject to change, and reassumes no more its original character? Earth is fabricated into a jar; the jar is divided into two halves; the halves are broken to pieces; the pieces become dust; the dust becomes atoms. Say, is this reality? though it be so understood by man, whose self knowledge is impeded by his own acts. Hence, Brahman, except discriminative knowledge, there is nothing any where, or at any time, that is real. Such knowledge is but one, although it appear manifold, as diversified by the various consequences of our own acts. Knowledge perfect, pure, free from pain, and detaching the affections from all that causes affliction; knowledge single and eternal is the supreme Vasudeva, besides whom there is nothing. The truth has been thus communicated to you by me; that knowledge which is truth; from which all that differs is false. That information, however, which is of a temporal and worldly nature has also been imparted to you; the sacrifice, the victim, the fire, the priests, the acid juice, the gods, the desire for heaven, the path pursued by acts of devotion and the rest, and the worlds that are their consequences, have been displayed to you. In that universe which I have described, he for ever migrates who is subject to the influence of works; but he who knows Vasudeva to be eternal, immutable, and of one unchanging, universal form, may continue to perform them 8, as thereby he enters into the deity.
vp.2.13 Maitreya. Reverend sir 1, all that I asked of you has been thoroughly explained; namely, the situation of the earth, oceans, mountains, rivers, and planetary bodies; the system of the three worlds, of which Vishnu is the stay. The great end of life has also been expounded by you, and the preeminence of holy knowledge. It now remains that you fulfil the promise you made some time since 2, of relating to me the story of king Bharata, and how it happened that a monarch like him, residing constantly at the sacred place salagrama, and engaged in devotion, with his mind ever applied to Vasudeva, should have failed, through time sanctity of the shrine, and the efficacy of his abstractions, to obtain final emancipation; how it was that he was born again as a Brahman; and what was done by the magnanimous Bharata in that capacity: all this it is fit that you inform me.
vp.2.15 "Having heard these words, conveying the substance of ultimate truth, Nidagha fell at the feet of his visitor, and said, Shew favour unto me, illustrious Brahman, and tell me who it is that for my good has come hither, and by whose words the infatuation of my mind is dissipated. To this, Ribhu answered, I am Ribhu, your preceptor, come hither to communicate to you true wisdom; and having declared to you what that is, I shall depart. Know this whole universe to be the one undivided nature of the supreme spirit, entitled Vasudeva. Thus having spoken, and receiving the prostrate homage of Nidagha, rendered with fervent faith, Ribhu went his way."
vp.3.3 That form of Vasudeva, who is the same with supreme spirit, which is Brahma, and which, although diversified as threefold, is identical, is the lord, who is conceived by those that contemplate variety in creation to be distinct in all creatures. He, composed of the Rik, Sauna, and Yajur Vedas, is at the same time their essence, as he is the soul of all embodied spirits. He, distinguished as consisting of the Vedas, creates the Vedas, and divides them by many subdivisions into branches: he is the author of those branches: he is those aggregated branches; for he, the eternal lord, is the essence of true knowledge.
vp.3.7 of clear crystal; for how can Vishnu abide in the hearts of men with malice and envy, and other evil passions? the glowing heat of fire abides not in a cluster of the cooling rays of the moon. He who lives pure in thought, free from malice, contented, leading a holy life, feeling tenderness for all creatures, speaking wisely and kindly, humble and sincere, has Vasudeva ever present in his heart. As the young Sal tree by its beauty declares the excellence of the juices which it has imbibed from the earth, so when the eternal has taken up his abode in the bosom of any one, that man is lovely amidst the beings of this world. Depart, my servant, quickly from those men whose sins have been dispersed by moral and religious merit 2, whose minds are daily dedicated to the imperceptible deity, and who are exempt from pride, uncharitableness, and malice. In the heart in which the divine Hari, who is without beginning or end, abides, armed with a sword, a shell, and a mace, sin cannot remain; for it cannot coexist with that which destroys it, as darkness cannot continue in the world when the sun is shining. The eternal makes not his abode in the heart of that man who covets another s wealth, who injures living creatures, who speaks harshness and untruth, who is proud of his iniquity, and whose mind is evil. Janarddana occupies not his thoughts who envies another s prosperity, who calumniates the virtuous, who never sacrifices nor bestows gifts upon the pious, who is blinded by the
vp.3.7 erty of darkness. That vile wretch is no worshipper of Vishnu, who through avarice is unkind to his nearest friends and relations, to his wife, children, parents, and dependants. The brute like man whose thoughts are evil, who is addicted to unrighteous acts, who ever seeks the society of the wicked, and suffers no day to pass without the perpetration of crime, is no worshipper of Vasudeva. Do you proceed afar off from those in whose hearts Ananta is enshrined;
vp.3.7 from him whose sanctified understanding conceives the supreme male and ruler, Vasudeva, as one with his votary, and with all this world. Avoid those holy persons who are constantly invoking the lotus eyed Vasudeva, Vishnu, the supporter of the earth, the immortal wielder of the discus and the shell, the asylum of the world. Come not into the sight of him in whose heart the imperishable soul resides, for he is defended from my power by the discus of his deity: he is designed for another world (for the heaven of Vishnu).
vp.3.17 dances with delight after he has swallowed up all things, the gods and the rest, without distinction. Glory to thee, Janarddana, who art man, the agent in developing the results of that activity which proceeds from the quality of foulness. Glory to thee, who art brute animals, the universal spirit that tends to perversity, which proceeds from the quality of darkness, and is encumbered with the twenty eight kinds of obstructions 3. Glory to thee, who art that chief spirit which is diversified in the vegetable world, and which, as the essence of sacrifice, is the instrument of accomplishing the perfection of the universe. Glory to thee, who art every thing, and whose primeval form is the objects of perception, and heaven, and animals, and men, and gods. Glory to thee, who art the cause of causes, the supreme spirit; who art distinct from us and all beings composed of intelligence and matter and the like, and with whose primeval nature there is nothing that can be compared. We bow to thee, O lord, who hast neither colour, nor extension, nor bulk, nor any predicable qualities; and whose essence, purest of the pure, is appreciable only by holy sages. We bow to thee, in the nature of Brahma, untreated, undecaying; who art in our bodies, and in all other bodies, and in all living creatures; and besides whom there is nothing else. We glorify that Vasudeva, the sovereign lord of all, who is without soil, the seed of all things, exempt from dissolution, unborn, eternal, being in
vp.4.4 [paragraph continues] (having women for armour) 12. The son of Mulaka was Dasaratha; his son was Ilavila; his son was Viswasaha; his son was Khatwanga, called also Dilipa 13, who in a battle between the gods and the Asuras, being called by the former to their succour, killed a number of the latter. Having thus acquired the friendship of the deities in heaven, they desired him to demand a boon. He said to them, "If a boon is to be accepted by me, then tell me, as a favour, what is the duration of my life." "The length of your life is but an hour," the gods replied. On which, Khatwanga, who was swift of motion, descended in his easy gliding chariot to the world of mortals. Arrived there, he prayed, and said, "If my own soul has never been dearer to me than the sacred Brahmans; if I have never deviated from the discharge of my duty; if I have never regarded gods, men, animals, vegetables, all created things, as different from the imperishable; then may I, with unswerving step, attain to that divine being on whom holy sages meditate!" Having thus spoken, he was united with that supreme being, who is Vasudeva; with that elder of all the gods, who is abstract existence, and whose form cannot be described. Thus he obtained absorption, according to this stanza, which was repeated formerly by the seven Rishis; "Like unto Khatwanga will be no one upon earth, who having come from heaven, and dwelt an hour amongst men, became united with the three worlds by his liberality and knowledge
vp.4.13 and accomplished her hundred leagues; but when she reached the country of Mithila, her strength was exhausted, and she dropped down and died. satadhanwan 11 dismounting, continued his flight on foot. When his pursuers came to the place where the mare had perished, Krishna said to Balarama, "Do you remain in the car, whilst I follow the villain on foot, and put him to death; the ground here is bad; and the horses will not be able to drag the chariot across it." Balarama accordingly stayed with the car, and Krishna followed satadhanwan on foot: when he had chased him for two kos, he discharged his discus, and, although satadhanwan was at a considerable distance, the weapon struck off his head. Krishna then coining up, searched his body and his dress for the Syamantaka jewel, but found it not. He then returned to Balabhadra, and told him that they had effected the death of satadhanwan to no purpose, for the precious gem, the quintessence of all worlds, was not upon his person. When Balabhadra heard this, he flew into a violent rage, and said to Vasudeva, Shame" light upon you, to be thus greedy of wealth! I acknowledge no brotherhood with you. Here lies my path. Go whither you please; I have done with Dwaraka, with you, with all our house. It is of no use to seek to impose upon me with thy perjuries." Thus reviling his brother, who fruitlessly endeavoured to appease him, Balabhadra went to the city of Videha, where Janaka 12 received him hospitably, and there he remained.
vp.4.14 Descendants of sini, of Anamitra, of swaphalka and Chitraka, of Andhaka. The children of Devaka and Ugrasena. The descendants of Bhajamana. Children of sura: his son Vasudeva: his daughter Pritha married to Pandu: her children Yudhishthira and his brothers; also Karna by aditya. The sons of Pandu by Madri. Husbands and children of sura s other daughters. Previous births of sisupala.
vp.4.14 his son was Bhava 9, who was also called Chandanodakadundubhi 10; he was a friend of the Gandharba Tumburu; his son was Abhijit; his son was Punarvasu; his son was ahuka, and he had also a daughter named ahuki. The sons of ahuka were Devaka and Ugrasena. The former had four sons, Devavat, Upadeva, Sudeva, and Devarakshita, and seven daughters, Vrikadeva, Upadeva, Devarakshita, srideva, santideva, Sahadeva, and Devaki: all the daughters were married to Vasudeva. The sons of Ugrasena were Kansa, Nyagrodha, Sunaman, Kanka, sanku, Subhumi, Rashtrapala, Yuddhamushthi, and Tushtimat; and his daughters were Kansa, Kansavati, Sutanu, Rashtrapali, and Kanki.
vp.4.14 The son of Bhajamana 11 was Viduratha; his son was sura; his son was samin 12; his son was Pratikshatra 13; his son was Swayambhoja 14; his son was Hridika, who had Kritavarman, satadhanu, Devamidhusha, and others 15. sura, the son of Devamidhusha 16, was married to Marisha, and had by her ten sons. On the birth of Vasudeva, who was one of these sons, the gods, to whom the future is manifest, foresaw that the divine being would take a human form in his family, and thereupon they sounded with joy the drums of heaven: from this circumstance Vasudeva was also called anakadunbubhi 17. His brothers were Devabhaga, Devasravas, Anadhrishti, Karundhaka, Vatsabalaka, srinjaya,
vp.4.15 Explanation of the reason why sisupala in his previous births as Hiranyakasipu and Ravana was not identified with Vishnu on being slain by him, and was so identified when killed as sisupala. The wives of Vasudeva: his children: Balarama and Krishna his sons by Devaki: born apparently of Rohini and Yasoda. The wives and children of Krishna. Multitude of the descendants of Yadu.
vp.4.15 Vasudeva, also called anakadandubhi, had Rohini, Pauravi 1, Bhadra, Madira, Devaki, and several other wives. His sons by Rohini were Balabhadra, Sarana, saru, Durmada, and others. Balabhadra espoused Revati, and had by her Nisatha and Ulmuka. The sons of sarana were Marshti, Marshtimat, sisu, Satyadhriti, and others. Bhadraswa, Bhadrabahu, Durgama, Bhuta, and others, were born in the family of Rohini (of the race of Puru). The sons of Vasudeva by Madira were Nanda, Upananda, Kritaka, and others. Bhadra bore him Upanidhi, Gada, and others. By his wife Vaisali he had one son named Kausika. Devaki bore him six sons, Kirttimat, Sushena, Udayin, Bhadrasena, Rijudasa, and Bhadradeha; all of whom Kansa put to death 2.
vp.4.15 When Devaki was pregnant the seventh time, Yoganidra (the sleep of devotion), sent by Vishnu, extricated the embryo from its maternal womb at midnight, and transferred it to that of Rohini; and from having been thus taken away, the child (who was Balarama) received the name of Sankarshana. Next, the divine Vishnu himself, the root of the vast universal tree, inscrutable by the understandings of all gods, demons, sages, and men, past, present, or to come, adored by Brahma and all the deities, he who is without beginning, middle, or end, being moved to relieve the earth of her load, descended into the womb of Devaki, and was born as her son Vasudeva. Yoganidra, proud to execute his orders, removed the embryo to Yasoda, the wife of Nanda the cowherd. At his birth the earth was relieved from all iniquity; the sun, moon, and planets shone with unclouded splendour; all fear of calamitous portents was dispelled; and universal happiness prevailed. From the moment he appeared, all mankind were led into the righteous path in him.
vp.4.24 Devabhuti, the last sunga prince, being addicted to, immoral indulgences, his minister, the Kanwa named Vasudeva will murder him, and usurp the kingdom: his son will be Bhumimitra; his son will be Narayana; his son will be Susarman. These four Kanwas will be kings of the earth for forty five years 38.
vp.4.24 [paragraph continues] Parikshit they were in Magha, and the Kali age then commenced, which consists of 1200 (divine) years. When the portion of Vishnu (that had been born from Vasudeva) returned to heaven, then the Kali age commenced. As long as the earth was touched by his sacred feet, the Kali age could not affect it. As soon as the incarnation of the eternal Vishnu had departed, the son of Dharma, Yudhishthira, with his brethren, abdicated the sovereignty. Observing unpropitious portents, consequent upon Krishna s disappearance, he placed Parikshit upon the throne. When the seven Rishis are in Purvashadha, then Nanda will begin to reign 83, and thenceforward the influence of the Kali will augment.
vp.5.1 The death of Kansa announced. Earth, oppressed by the Daityas, applies to the gods. They accompany her to Vishnu, who promises to give her relief. Kansa imprisons Vasudeva and Devaki. Vishnu s instructions to Yoganidra.
vp.5.1 Vasudeva formerly married the daughter of Devaka, the illustrious Devaki, a maiden of celestial beauty. After their nuptials, Kansa, the increaser of the race of Bhoja, drove their car as their charioteer. As they were going along, a voice in the sky, sounding aloud and deep as thunder, addressed Kansa, and said, "Fool that you are, the eighth child of the damsel whom you are driving in the car shall take away your life 4!" On hearing this, Kansa drew his sword, and was about to put Devaki to death; but Vasudeva interposed, saying, "Kill not Devaki, great warrior; spare her life, and I will deliver to you every child that she may bring forth." Appeased by which promise, and relying on the character of Vasudeva, Kansa desisted from the attempt.
vp.5.1 [paragraph continues] Let all the gods also, in their own portions, go down to earth, and wage war with the haughty Asuras, who are there incorporate, and who shall every one of them be destroyed. Doubt not of this: they shall perish before the withering glance of mine eyes. This my (black) hair shall be impersonated in the eighth conception of the wife of Vasudeva, Devaki, who is like a goddess; and shall slay Kansa, who is the demon Kalanemi." Thus having spoken, Hari disappeared; and the gods bowing to him, though invisible, returned to the summit of mount Meru, from whence they descended upon earth.
vp.5.1 The Muni Narada informed Kansa that the supporter of the earth, Vishnu, would be the eighth child of Devaki; and his wrath being excited by this report, he placed both Vasudeva and Devaki in confinement. Agreeably to his promise, the former delivered to Kansa each infant as soon as it was born. It is said that these, to the number of six, were the children of the demon Hiranyakasipu, who were introduced into the womb of Devaki, at the command of Vishnu, during the hours of Devaki s repose, by the goddess Yoganidra 24, the great illusory energy of Vishnu, by whom, as utter ignorance, the whole world is beguiled. To her Vishnu said, "Go, Nidra, to the nether regions, and by my command conduct successively six of their princes to be conceived of Devaki. When these shall have been put to death by Kansa, the seventh conception shall be formed of a portion of sesha, who is a part of me; and this you shall transfer, before the time of birth, to Rohini, another wife of Vasudeva, who resides at Gokula. The report shall run, that Devaki miscarries, through the anxiety of imprisonment, and dread of the Raja of the Bhojas. From being extracted from his mother s womb, the child shall be known by the name of Sankarshana, and he shall be valiant and strong, and like the peak of the white mountain in
vp.5.1 bulk and complexion. I will myself become incarnate in the eighth conception of Devaki; and you shall immediately take a similar character as the embryo offspring of Yasoda. In the night of the eighth lunation of the dark half of the month Nabhas, in the season of the rains, I shall be born. You shall receive birth on the ninth. Impelled and aided by my power, Vasudeva shall bear me to the bed of Yasoda, and you to that of Devaki. Kansa shall take you, and hold you up to dash you against a stone; but you shall escape from his grasp into the sky, where the hundred eyed Indra shall meet and do homage to you, through reverence for me, and shall bow before you, and acknowledge you as his sister. Having slain Sumbha, Nisumbha, and numerous other demons 25, you shall sanctify the earth in many places 26. Thou art wealth, progeny, fame, patience, heaven and earth, fortitude, modesty, nutrition, dawn, and every other female (form or property). They who address thee morning and afternoon with reverence and praise, and call thee arya, Durga, Vedagarbha, Ambika, Bhadra, Bhadrakali, Kshemi, or Kshemankari, shall receive from my bounty whatever they desire. Propitiated with offerings of wine and flesh and various viands, thou shalt bestow upon mankind all their prayers. Through my favour all men shall ever have faith in thee. Assured of this, go, goddess, and execute my commands."
vp.5.3 Birth of Krishna: conveyed by Vasudeva to Mathura, and exchanged with the new born daughter of Yasoda. Kansa attempts to destroy the latter, who becomes Yoganidra.
vp.5.3 As soon as anakadundubhi beheld the child, of the complexion of the lotus leaves, having four arms, and the mystic mark srivatsa on his breast, he addressed him in terms of love and reverence, and represented the fears he entertained of Kansa. "Thou art born," said Vasudeva, "O sovereign god of gods, bearer of the shell, the discus, and the mace; but now in mercy withhold this thy celestial form, for Kansa will assuredly put me to death when he knows that thou hast descended in my dwelling." Devaki also exclaimed, God" of gods, who art all things, who comprisest all the regions of the world in thy person, and who by thine illusion hast assumed the condition of an infant, have compassion upon us, and forego this thy four armed shape, nor let Kansa, the impious son of Diti, know of thy descent."
vp.5.3 To these applications Bhagavat answered and said, Princess", in former times I was prayed to by thee and adored in the hope of progeny: thy prayers have been granted, for I am born thy son." So saying, he was silent: and Vasudeva, taking the babe, went out that same night; for the guards were all charmed by Yoganidra, as were the warders at
vp.5.3 the gates of Mathura, and they obstructed not the passage of anakadundubhi. To protect the infant from the heavy rain that fell from the clouds of night, sesha, the many headed serpent, followed Vasudeva, and spread his hoods above their heads; and when the prince, with the child in his arms, crossed the Yamuna river, deep as it was, and dangerous with numerous whirlpools, the waters were stilled, and rose not above his knee.. On the bank he saw Nanda and the rest, who had come thither to bring tribute due to Kansa; but they beheld him not 1. At the same time Yasoda was also under the influence of Yoganidra, whom she had brought forth as her daughter, and whom the prudent Vasudeva took up, placing his son in her place by the side of the mother: he then quickly returned home. When Yasoda awoke, she found that she had been delivered of a boy, as black as the dark leaves of the lotus, and she was greatly rejoiced.
vp.5.3 Vasudeva, bearing off the female infant of Yasoda, reached his mansion unobserved, and entered and placed the child in the bed of Devaki: he then remained as usual. The guards were awakened by the cry of the new born babe, and, starting up, they sent word to Kansa that Devaki had borne a child. Kansa immediately repaired to the residence of Vasudeva, where he seized upon the infant. In vain Devaki convulsively entreated him to relinquish the child: he threw it ruthlessly against a stone; but it rose into the sky, and expanded into a gigantic figure, having eight arms, each wielding some formidable weapon. This terrific being laughed aloud, and said to Kansa, "What avails it thee, Kansa, to have hurled me to the ground? he is born who shall kill thee, the mighty one amongst the gods, who was formerly thy destroyer. Now quickly secure him, and provide for thine own welfare." Thus having spoken, the goddess, decorated with heavenly perfumes and garlands, and hymned by the spirits of the air, vanished from before the eyes of Bhoja raja 2.
vp.5.4 Having issued these commands, Kansa retired into his palace, and liberated Vasudeva and Devaki from their captivity. "It is in vain,"
vp.5.5 WHEN Vasudeva was set at liberty, he went to the waggon of Nanda, and found Nanda there rejoicing that a son was born to him 1. Vasudeva spake to him kindly, and congratulated him on having a son in his old age. "The yearly tribute," he added, "has been paid to the king, and men of property should not tarry near the court, when the business that brought them there has been transacted. Why do you delay, now that your affairs are settled? Up, Nanda, quickly, and set off to your own pastures; and let this boy, the son whom Rohini has borne me, accompany you, and be brought up by you as this your own son." Accordingly Nanda and the other cowherds, their goods being placed in their waggons, and their taxes having been paid to the king, returned to their village.
vp.5.6 The initiatory rites requisite for the two boys were performed by Garga, who was sent to Gokula by Vasudeva for that purpose: he celebrated them without the knowledge of the cowherds 1; and the wise sage, eminent amongst the wise, named the elder of them Rama, and the other Krishna. In a short time they began to crawl about the ground, supporting themselves on their hands and knees, and creeping every where, often amidst ashes and filth. Neither Rohini nor Yasoda was able to prevent them from getting into the cowpens, or amongst the calves, where they amused themselves by pulling their tails. As they disregarded the prohibitions of Yasoda, and rambled about together constantly, she became angry, and taking up a stick, followed them, and threatened the dark complexioned Krishna with a whipping. Fastening a cord round his waist, she tied him to the wooden mortar 2, and being in
vp.5.9 WHEN the demon in the form of an ass, and all his tribe, had been destroyed, the grove of palms became the favourite resort of the Gopas and their wives, and the sons of Vasudeva, greatly pleased, repaired to the Bhandira fig tree. They continued to wander about, shouting and singing, and gathering fruits and flowers from the trees; now driving the cows afar to pasture; now calling them by their names; now carrying the foot ropes of the kine upon their shoulders; now ornamenting themselves with garlands of forest flowers, they looked like two young bulls when the horns first appear. Attired the one in yellow, and the other in sable garments, they looked like two clouds, one white, and one black, surmounted by the bow of Indra. Sporting mutually with frolics beneficial to the world, they roamed about like two monarchs over all the collected sovereigns of the earth. Assuming human duties, and maintaining the human character, they strayed through the thickets, amusing themselves with sports suited to their mortal species and condition, in swinging on the boughs of trees, or in boxing and wrestling and hurling stones.
vp.5.15 AFTER these things had come to pass, Arishta the bull demon and Dhenuka and Pralamba had been slain, Govarddhana had been lifted up, the serpent Kaliya had been subdued, the two trees had been broken, the female fiend Putana had been killed, and the waggon had been overturned, Narada went to Kansa, and related to him the whole, beginning with the transference of the child from Devaki to Yasoda, Hearing this from Narada, Kansa was highly incensed with Vasudeva, and bitterly reproached him, and all the Yadavas, in an assembly of the tribe. Then reflecting what was to be done, he determined to destroy both Krishna and Rama whilst they were yet young, and before they had attained to manly vigour: for which purpose he resolved to invite them from Vraja, under pretext of the solemn rite of the lustration of arms, when he would engage them in a trial of strength with his chief boxers, Chanura and Mushtika, by whom they would assuredly be killed. "I will send," he said, "the noble Yadu, Akrura the son of Swaphalka, to Gokula, to bring them hither: I will order the fierce Kesin, who haunts the woods of Vrindavana, to attack them, and he is of unequalled might, and will surely kill them; or, if they arrive here, my elephant Kuvalayapida shall trample to death these two cow boy sons of Vasudeva." Having thus laid his plans to destroy Rama and Janarddana, the impious Kansa sent for the heroic Akrura, and said to him, Lord" of liberal gifts 1, attend to my words, and, out of friendship
vp.5.15 you, to take part in the games, and that the people may see them engage in a boxing match with my two dexterous athlet, Chanura and Mushtika; or haply my elephant Kuvalayapida, driven against them by his rider, shall kill these two iniquitous youngsters, sons of Vasudeva. When they are out of the way, I will put to death Vasudeva himself, the cowherd Nanda, and my foolish father, Ugrasena, and I will seize upon the herds and flocks, and all the possessions, of the rebellious Gopas, who have ever been my foes. Except thou, lord of liberality, all the Yadavas are hostile to me; but I will devise schemes for their extirpation, and I shall then reign over my kingdom, in concert with thee, without any annoyance. Through regard for me, therefore, do thou go as I direct thee; and thou shalt command the cowherds to bring in with speed their supplies of milk and butter and curds."
vp.5.17 name. Glory to that being, whose deceptive adoption of father, son, brother, friend, mother, and relative, the world is unable to penetrate. Glory to him, who is one with true knowledge, who is inscrutable, and through whom, seated in his heart, the Yogi crosses the wide expanse of worldly ignorance and illusion. I bow to him, who, by the performers of holy rites, is called the male of sacrifice Yajnapurusha(); by pious worshippers is termed Vasudeva; and by the cultivators of philosophy, Vishnu. May he in whom cause and effect, and the world itself, is comprehended, be propitious to me, through his truth; for always do I put my trust in that unborn, eternal Hari; by meditation on whom, man becomes the repository of all good things."
vp.5.17 When Akrura saw these two youths, his countenance expanded with delight, and the down of his body stood erect with pleasure: for this he thought to be supreme happiness and glory; this, the double manifestation of the divine Vasudeva; this was the twofold gratification of his sight, to behold the creator of the universe: now he hoped that his bodily form would yield fruit, as it would bring him in contact with the person of Krishna; and that the wearer of infinite forms would place his hand on his back; the touch of whose finger alone is sufficient to dispel sin, and to secure imperishable felicity: that hand which launches the fierce
vp.5.18 various purposes. Thou, identical with the solar ray, createst the universe; all elementary substance is composed of thy qualities; and thy supreme form is denoted by the imperishable term Sat (existence). To him who is one with true knowledge, who is and is not perceptible, I bow. Glory be to him, the lord Vasudeva, to Sankarshana, to Pradyumna, and to Aniruddha 7."
vp.5.19 THUS the Yadava Akrura, standing in the river, praised Krishna, and worshipped him with imaginary incense and flowers. Disregarding all other objects, he fixed his whole mind upon the deity; and having continued for a long time in spiritual contemplation, he at last desisted from his abstraction, conceiving he had effected the purposes of soul. Coming up from the water of the Yamuna, he went to the car, and there he beheld Rama and Krishna seated as before. As his looks denoted surprise, Krishna said to him, "Surely, Akrura, you have seen some marvel in the stream of the Yamuna, for your eyes are staring as if with astonishment." Akrura replied, "The marvel that I have seen in the stream of the Yamuna I behold before me, even here, in a bodily shape; for he whom I have encountered in the water, Krishna, is also your wondrous self, of whose illustrious person the whole world is the miraculous developement. But enough of this; let us proceed to Mathura: I am afraid Kansa will be angry at our delay; such is the wretched consequence of eating the bread of another." Thus speaking, he urged on the quick horses, and they arrived after sunset at Mathura. When they came in sight of the city, Akrura said to Krishna and Rama, "You must now journey on foot, whilst I proceed alone in the car; and you must not go to the house of Vasudeva, for the elder has been banished by Kansa on your account."
vp.5.20 Krishna and Balarama meet Kubja; she is made straight by the former: they proceed to the palace. Krishna breaks a bow intended for a trial of arms. Kansa s orders to his servants. Public games. Krishna and his brother enter the arena: the former wrestles with Chanura, the latter with Mushtika, the king s wrestlers; who are both killed. Krishna attacks and slays Kansa: he and Balarama do homage to Vasudeva and Devaki: the former praises Krishna.
vp.5.20 cowherds had places appropriated to them, at the end of which sat Akrura and Vasudeva. Amongst the wives of the citizens appeared
vp.5.20 felled! This is the boy who trampled and danced on the serpent Kaliya; who upheld the mountain Govarddhana for seven nights; who killed, as if in play, the iniquitous Arishta, Dhenuka, and Kesin! This whom we see is Achyuta! This is he who has been foretold by the wise, skilled in the sense of the Puranas, as Gopala, who shall exalt the depressed Yadava race! This is a portion of the all existing, all generating Vishnu, descended upon earth, who will assuredly lighten her load!" Thus did the citizens describe Rama and Krishna, as soon as they appeared; whilst the breast of Devaki glowed with maternal affection; and Vasudeva, forgetting his infirmities, felt himself young again, on beholding the countenances of his sons as a season of rejoicing. The women of the palace, and the wives of the citizens, wide opened their eyes, and gazed intently upon Krishna. "Look, friends," said they to their companions; "look at the face of Krishna; his eyes are reddened by his conflict with the elephant, and the drops of perspiration stand upon his cheeks, outvieing a full blown lotus in autumn, studded with glittering dew. Avail yourself now of the faculty of vision. Observe his breast, the seat of splendour, marked with the mystic sign; and his arms, menacing destruction to his foes. Do you not notice Balabhadra, dressed in a blue garment; his countenance as fair as the jasmine, as the moon, as the fibres of the lotus stem? See how he gently smiles at the gestures of Mushtika and Chanura,
vp.5.20 breast with his knees, he stretched him on the ground, and pummelled him there till he was dead. Again, Krishna encountered the royal bruiser Tomalaka, and felled him to the earth with a blow of his left hand. When the other athlet saw Chanura, Mushtika, and Tomalaka killed, they fled from the field; and Krishna and Sankarshana danced victorious on the arena, dragging along with them by force the cowherds of their own age. Kansa, his eyes reddening with wrath, called aloud to the surrounding people, "Drive those two cow boys out of the assembly: seize the villain Nanda, and secure him with chains of iron: put Vasudeva to death with tortures intolerable to his years: and lay hands upon the cattle, and whatever else belongs to those cowherds who are the associates of Krishna."
vp.5.20 Upon hearing these orders, the destroyer of Madhu laughed at Kansa, and, springing up to the place where he was seated, laid hold of him by the hair of his head, and struck his tiara to the ground: then casting him down upon the earth, Govinda threw himself upon him. Crushed by the weight of the upholder of the universe, the son of Ugrasena, Kansa the king, gave up the ghost. Krishna then dragged the dead body, by the hair of the head, into the centre of the arena, and a deep furrow was made by the vast and heavy carcass of Kansa, when it was dragged along the ground by Krishna, as if a torrent of water had run through it 7. Seeing Kansa thus treated, his brother Sumalin came to his succour; but he was encountered, and easily killed, by Balabhadra. Then arose a general cry of grief from the surrounding circle, as they beheld the king of Mathura thus slain, and treated with such contumely, by Krishna. Krishna, accompanied by Balabhadra, embraced the feet of Vasudeva and of Devaki; but Vasudeva raised him up; and he and Devaki recalling to recollection what he had said to them at his birth, they bowed to Janarddana, and the former thus addressed him: "Have compassion upon mortals, O god, benefactor and lord of deities: it is by thy favour to us two that thou hast become the (present) upholder of the
vp.5.21 HAVING permitted to Devaki and Vasudeva an interval of true knowledge, through the contemplation of his actions, Hari again spread the delusions of his power over them and the tribe of Yadu. He said to them, Mother"; venerable father; you have both been long observed by Sankarshana and myself with sorrow, and in fear of Kansa. He whose time passes not in respect to his father and mother, is a vile being, who descends in vain from virtuous parents. The lives of those produce good fruit, who reverence their parents, their spiritual guides, the Brahmans, and the gods. Pardon therefore, father, the impropriety of which we may have been culpable, in resenting without your orders, to which we acknowledge that we are subject, the oppression we suffered from the power and violence of Kansa." Thus speaking, they offered homage to the elders of the Yadu tribe in order, and then in a suitable manner paid their respects to the citizens. The wives of Kansa, and those of his father, then surrounded the body of the king, lying on the ground, and bewailed his fate in deep affliction. Hari in various ways expressed his regret for what had chanced, and endeavoured to console them, his own eyes being suffused with tears. The foe of Madhu then liberated Ugrasena from confinement, and placed him on the throne, which the death of his son had left vacant. The chief of the Yadavas, being crowned, performed the funeral rites of Kansa, and of the rest of the slain. When the ceremony was over, and
vp.5.23 When the hostile army encamped round Mathura, Krishna unarmed went forth, and beheld the Yavana king. Kalayavana, the strong armed, recognizing Vasudeva, pursued him; him whom the thoughts of perfect ascetics cannot overtake. Thus pursued, Krishna entered a large cavern, where Muchukunda, the king of men, was asleep. The rash Yavana entering the cave, and beholding a man lying asleep there, concluded it
vp.5.23 Having burnt up the iniquitous Yavana, and beholding the foe of Madhu, Muchukunda asked him who he was. "I am born," he replied, "in the lunar race, in the tribe of Yadu, and am the son of Vasudeva." Muchukunda, recollecting the prophecy of old Garga, fell down before the lord of all, Hari, saying, "Thou art known, supreme lord, to be a portion of Vishnu; for it was said of old by Garga, that at the end of the twenty eighth Dwapara age Hari would be born in the family of Yadu. Thou art he, without doubt, the benefactor of mankind; for thy glory I am unable to endure. Thy words are of deeper tone than the muttering of the rain cloud; and earth sinks down beneath the pressure of thy feet. As in the battle between the gods and demons the Asuras were unable to sustain my lustre, so even am I incapable of bearing thy radiance. Thou alone art the refuge of every living being who has lighted on the world. Do thou, who art the alleviator of all distress, shew favour upon me, and remove from me all that is evil. Thou art the oceans, the mountains, the rivers, the forests: thou art earth, sky, air, water, and fire: thou art mind, intelligence, the unevolved principle, the vital airs, the lord of life the soul; all that is beyond the soul; the all pervading; exempt from the vicissitudes of birth; devoid of sensible
vp.5.34 Paundraka, a Vasudeva, assumes the insignia and style of Krishna, supported by the king of Kasi. Krishna marches against, and destroys them. The son of the king sends a magical being against Krishna: destroyed by his discus, which also sets Benares on fire, and consumes it and its inhabitants.
vp.5.34 There was a Vasudeva who was called Paundraka 1, and who, though not the Vasudeva, was flattered by ignorant people as the descended deity, until he fancied himself to be the Vasudeva 2 who had come down upon earth. Losing all recollection of his real character, he assumed the emblems of Vishnu, and sent an ambassador to the magnanimous Krishna with this message; "Relinquish, thou foolish fellow, the discus; lay aside all my insignia, my name, and the character of Vasudeva; and come and do me homage; and I will vouchsafe thee means of subsistence." At which Janarddana laughed, and replied, "Go, messenger, back to Paundraka, and say to him from me, I will dispatch to thee my emblem the discus without fail. Thou wilt rightly apprehend my meaning, and consider what is to be done; for I shall come to thy city, bringing the discus with me, and shall undoubtedly consign it to thee. If thou wilt command me to come, I will immediately obey, and be with
vp.5.34 When the king of Kasi heard of the preparations of Kesava, he sent his army (to the aid of Paundraka), himself bringing up the rear; and with the force of the king of Kasi, and his own troops, Paundraka, the false Vasudeva, marched to meet Krishna. Hari beheld him afar off, standing in his car, holding a discus, a club, a mace, a scimitar, and a lotus, in his hands; ornamented with a garland of flowers; bearing a bow; and having his standard made of gold: he had also the Srivatsa mark delineated on his breast; he was dressed in yellow garments, and decorated with earrings and a tiara. When the god whose standard is Garuda beheld him, he laughed with a deep laugh, and engaged in conflict with the hostile host of cavalry and elephants, fighting with swords, scimitars, maces, tridents, spears, and bows. Showering upon the enemy the shafts from his saranga bow, and hurling at them his mace and discus, he quickly destroyed both the army of Paundraka and that of the king of Kasi. He then said to the former, who was foolishly wearing his emblems, Paundraka", you desired me by your envoy to resign to you all my insignia. I now deliver them to you. Here is
vp.5.37 Then the Yadavas ascended their rapid cars, and drove to Prabhasa 9, along with Krishna, Rama, and the rest of their chiefs 10. They bathed there, and, excited by Vasudeva, the Kukkuras and Andhakas indulged in liquor. As they drank, the destructive flame of dissension was kindled amongst them by mutual collision, and fed with the fuel of abuse. Infuriated by the divine influence, they fell upon one another with missile weapons, and when those were expended, they had recourse to the rushes growing nigh. The rushes in their hands became like thunderbolts,
vp.5.37 was sitting at the root of a tree, they beheld a large serpent coming out of his mouth. Having issued from his mouth, the mighty snake proceeded towards the ocean, hymned by saints and by other great serpents. Bringing an offering of respect, Ocean came to meet him; and then the majestic being, adored by attendant snakes, entered into the waters of the deep. Beholding the departure of the spirit of Balabhadra, Kesava said to Daruka, "All this is to be related by you to Vasudeva and Ugrasena. Go and inform them of the departure of Balabhadra, and the destruction of the Yadavas; also that I shall engage in religious meditation, and quit this body. Apprise ahuka and all the inhabitants of Dwaraka 13, that the sea will inundate the town: be ready therefore in expectation of the coming of Arjuna, and when he quits Dwaraka, no longer abide there, but go whithersoever that descendant of Kuru shall repair. Do you also go to the son of Kunti, and tell him, that it is my request that he will grant what protection he can to all my family. Then depart with Arjuna and all the people of Dwaravati, and let Vajra be installed sovereign over the tribe of Yadu."
vp.5.37 Daruka, being thus instructed, prostrated himself again and again before Krishna, and walked round him repeatedly, and then departed as he had been desired; and having conducted Arjuna to Dwaravati, the intelligent servant of Krishna established Vajra as king. The divine Govinda then, having concentrated in himself that supreme spirit which is one with Vasudeva, was identified with all beings 14. Respecting the words of the Brahman, the imprecation of Durvasas 15, the illustrious
vp.5.37 [paragraph continues] Krishna sat engaged in thought, resting his foot upon his knee. Then came there a hunter, named Jara 16, whose arrow was tipped with a blade made of the piece of iron of the club, which had not been reduced to powder; and beholding from a distance the foot of Krishna, he mistook it for part of a deer, and shooting his arrow, lodged it in the sole 17. Approaching his mark, he saw the four armed king, and, falling at his feet, repeatedly besought his forgiveness, exclaiming, "I have done this deed unwittingly, thinking I was aiming at a deer! Have pity upon me, who am consumed by my crime; for thou art able to consume me!" Bhagavat replied, "Fear not thou in the least. Go, hunter, through my favour, to heaven, the abode of the gods." As soon as he had thus spoken, a celestial car appeared, and the hunter, ascending it, forthwith proceeded to heaven. Then the illustrious Krishna, having united himself with his own pure, spiritual, inexhaustible, inconceivable, unborn, undecaying, imperishable, and universal spirit, which is one with Vasudeva, abandoned his mortal body and the condition of the threefold qualities 18.
vp.5.38 I have thus narrated to you, Maitreya, in detail, the actions of Vasudeva, when he was born in the race of Yadu.
vp.6.4 WHEN the waters have reached the region of the seven Rishis, and the whole of the three worlds is one ocean, they stop. The breath of Vishnu becomes a strong wind, which blows for more than a hundred years, until all the clouds are dispersed. The wind is then reabsorbed, and he of whom all things are made, the lord by whom all things exist, he who is inconceivable, without beginning of the universe, reposes, sleeping upon sesha, in the midst of the deep. The creator, Hari, sleeps upon the ocean, in the form of Brahma glorified by Sanaka And the saints who had gone to the Janaloka, and contemplated by the holy inhabitants of Brahmaloka, anxious for final liberation involved in mystic slumber, the celestial personification of his own illusions, and meditating on his own ineffable spirit, which is called Vasudeva. This, Maitreya, is the dissolution termed incidental, because Hari, in the form of Brahma, sleeps there, as its incidental cause.
vp.6.5 The third kind of dissolution, or final liberation from existence. Evils of worldly life. Sufferings in infancy, manhood, old age. Pains of hell. Imperfect felicity of heaven. Exemption from birth desirable by the wise. The nature of spirit or god. Meaning of the terms Bhagavat and Vasudeva.
vp.6.5 supreme is defined by the term Bhagavat 8: the word Bhagavat is the denomination of that primeval and eternal god: and he who fully understands the meaning of that expression, is possessed of holy wisdom, the sum and substance of the three Vedas. The word Bhagavat is a convenient form to be used in the adoration of that supreme being, to whom no term is applicable; and therefore Bhagavat expresses that supreme spirit, which is individual, almighty, and the cause of causes of all things. The letter Bh implies the cherisher and supporter of the universe. By ga is understood the leader, impeller, or creator. The dissyllable Bhaga indicates the six properties, dominion, might, glory, splendour, wisdom, and dispassion. The purport of the letter va is that elemental spirit in which all beings exist, and which exists in all beings 9. And thus this great word Bhagavan is the name of Vasudeva, who is one with the supreme Brahma, and of no one else. This word therefore, which is the general denomination of an adorable object, is not used in reference to the supreme in a general, but a special signification. When applied to any other (thing or person) it is used in its customary or general import. In the latter case it may purport one who knows the origin and end and revolutions of beings, and what is wisdom, what ignorance. In the former it denotes wisdom, energy, power, dominion, might, glory, without end, and without defect.
vp.6.5 The term Vasudeva means that all beings abide in that supreme being, and that he abides in all beings 10, as was formerly explained by Kesidhwaja to Khandikya, called Janaka, when he inquired of him an explanation of the name of the immortal, Vasudeva. He said, "He
vp.6.5 dwelleth internally in all beings, and all things dwell in him; and thence the lord Vasudeva is the creator and preserver of the world. He, though one with all beings, is beyond and separate from material nature Prakriti(), front its products, from properties, from imperfections: he is beyond all investing substance: he is universal soul; all the interstices of the universe are filled up by him: he is one with all good qualities; and all created beings are endowed with but a small portion of his individuality. Assuming at will various forms, he bestows benefits on the whole world, which was his work. Glory, might, dominion, wisdom, energy, power, and other attributes, are collected in him. Supreme of the supreme, in whom no imperfections abide, lord over finite and infinite, god in individuals and universals, visible and invisible, omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, almighty. The wisdom, perfect, pure, supreme, undefiled, and one only, by which he is conceived, contemplated, and known, that is wisdom; all else is ignorance."

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