Created by Sreeja Jijith at 03 Aug 2011 09:50 and updated at 03 Aug 2011 09:50


vp.2.1 The eight Varshas, or countries, Kimpurusha and the rest, are places of perfect enjoyment, where happiness is spontaneous and uninterrupted. In them there is no vicissitude, nor the dread of decrepitude or death: there is no distinction of virtue or vice, nor difference of degree as better or worse, nor any of the effects produced in this region by the revolutions of ages.
vp.2.2 Description of the earth. The seven Dwipas and seven seas. Jambu dwipa. Mount Meru: its extent and boundaries. Extent of Ilavrita. Groves, lakes, and branches of Meru. Cities of the gods. Rivers. The forms of Vishnu worshipped in different Varshas.
vp.2.2 The boundary mountains (of the earth) are Himavan, Hemakuta, and Nishadha, which lie south of Meru; and Nila, sweta, and sringi, which are situated to the north of it. The two central ranges (those next to Meru, or Nishadha and Nila) extend for a hundred thousand Yojanas(, running east and west). Each of the others diminishes ten thousand Yojanas, as it lies more remote from the centre. They are two thousand Yojanas in height, and as many in breadth 3. The Varshas or countries between these ranges are Bharata (India), south of the Himavan mountains;
vp.2.2 In the country of Bhadraswa, Vishnu resides as Hayasira (the horse headed); in Ketumala, as Varaha (the boar); in Bharata, as the tortoise Kurma(); in Kuru, as the fish Matsya(); in his universal form, every where; for Hari pervades all places: he, Maitreya, is the supporter of all things; he is all things. In the eight realms of Kimpurusha and the rest (or all exclusive of Bharata) there is no sorrow, nor weariness, nor anxiety, nor hunger, nor apprehension; their inhabitants are exempt from all infirmity and pain, and live in uninterrupted enjoyment for ten or twelve thousand years. Indra never sends rain upon them, for the earth abounds with water. In those places there is no distinction of Krita, Treta, or any succession of ages. In each of these Varshas there are respectively seven principal ranges of mountains, from which, oh best of Brahmans, hundreds of rivers take their rise.
vp.2.3 Description of Bharata varsha: extent: chief mountains: nine divisions: principal rivers and mountains of Bharata proper: principal nations: superiority over other Varshas, especially as the seat of religious acts. (Topographical lists.)
vp.2.4 Medhatithi, who was made sovereign of Plaksha, had seven sons, santabhaya, sisira, Sukhodaya, ananda, siva, Kshemaka, and Dhruva; and the Dwipa was divided amongst them, and each division was named after the prince to whom it was subject. The several kingdoms were bounded by as many ranges of mountains, named severally Gomeda, Chandra, Narada, Dundubhi, Somaka, Sumanas, and Vaibhraja. In these mountains the sinless inhabitants ever dwell along with celestial spirits and gods: in them are many holy places; and the people there live for a long period, exempt from care and pain, and enjoying uninterrupted felicity. There are also, in the seven divisions of Plaksha, seven rivers, flowing to the sea, whose names alone are sufficient to take away sin: they are the Anutapta, sikhi, Vipasa, Tridiva, Kramu, Amrita, and Sukrita. These are the chief rivers and mountains of Plaksha dwipa, which I have enumerated to you; but there are thousands of others of inferior magnitude. The people who drink of the waters of those rivers are always contented and happy, and there is neither decrease nor increase amongst them 1, neither are the revolutions of the four ages known in these Varshas: the character of the time is there uniformly that of
vp.2.4 The hero Vapushmat was king of the next or salmala dwipa, whose seven sons also gave designations to seven Varshas, or divisions. Their names were sweta, Harita, Jimuta, Rohita, Vaidyuta, Manasa, and Suprabha. The Ikshu sea is encompassed by the continent of Salmala, which is twice its extent. There are seven principal mountain ranges, abounding in precious gems, and dividing the Varshas from each other; and there are also seven chief rivers. The mountains are called Kumuda, Unnata, Valahaka, Drona, fertile in medicinal herbs, Kanka, Mahisha, and Kakkudwat. The rivers are Yauni, Toya, Vitrishna, Chandra, sukla, Vimochani, and Nivritti; all whose waters cleanse away sins. The Brahmans, Kshetriyas, Vaisyas, and sudras of this Dwipa, called severally Kapilas, Arunas, Pitas, and Rohitas (or tawny, purple, yellow, and red), worship the imperishable soul of all things, Vishnu, in the form of Vayu (wind), with pious rites, and enjoy frequent association with the gods. A large salmali (silk cotton) tree grows in this Dwipa, and gives it its name. The Dwipa is surrounded by the Sura sea (sea of wine), of the same extent as itself.
vp.2.4 The Sura sea is entirely encircled by Kusa dwipa, which is every way twice the size of the preceding continent. The king, Jyotishmat, had seven sons, Udbhida, Venuman, Swairatha, Lavana, Dhriti, Prabhakara, and Kapila, after whom the seven portions or Varshas of the island were called Udbhida, &c. There reside mankind along with Daityas and Danavas, as well as with spirits of heaven and gods. The four
vp.2.4 The sea of Ghrita is encompassed by Krauncha dwipa, which is twice as large as Kusa dwipa. The king of this Dwipa was Dyutiman, whose sons, and the seven Varshas named after them, were Kusala, Mallaga, Ushna, Pivara, Andhakaraka, Muni, and Dundubhi. The seven boundary mountains, pleasing to gods and celestial spirits, are Krauncha, Vamana, Andhakaraka, Devavrit, Pundarikavan, Dundubhi, and Mahasaila; each of which is in succession twice as lofty as the series that precedes it, in the same manner as each Dwipa is twice as extensive as the one before it. The inhabitants reside there without apprehension, associating with the bands of divinities. The Brahmans are called Pushkaras; the Kshetriyas, Pushkalas: the Vaisyas are termed Dhanyas; and the sudras, Tishyas. They drink of countless streams, of which the principal are denominated Gauri, Kumudwati, Sandhya, Ratri, Manojava, Kshanti, and Pundarika. The divine Vishnu, the protector of mankind, is worshipped there by the people, with holy rites, in the form of Rudra. Krauncha is surrounded by the sea of curds, of a similar extent; and that again is encompassed by saka dwipa.
vp.2.4 The sons of Bhavya, the king of saka dwipa, after whom its Varshas were denominated, were Jalada, Kumara, Sukumara, Manichaka, Kusumoda, Maudaki, and Mahadruma. The seven mountains separating the countries were Udayagiri, Jaladhara, Raivataka, syama, ambikeya, Ramya, and Kesari. There grows a large Saka Teak() tree, frequented
vp.2.4 The Kshiroda ocean (or sea of milk) is encompassed by the seventh Dwipa, or Pushkara, which is twice the size of Saka dwipa. Savana, who was made its sovereign, had but two sons, Mahavira and Dhataki, after whom the two Varshas of Pushkara were so named. These are divided by one mighty range of mountains, called Manasottara, which runs in a circular direction (forming an outer and an inner circle). This mountain is fifty thousand Yojanas in height, and as many in its breadth; dividing the Dwipa in the middle, as if with a bracelet, into two divisions, which are also of a circular form, like the mountain that separates them. Of these two, the Mahavira varsha is exterior to the circumference of Manasottara, and Dhataki lies within the circle; and both are frequented by heavenly spirits and gods. There are no other mountains in Pushkara, neither are there any rivers 3. Men in this Dwipa live a thousand years, free from sickness and sorrow, and unruffled by anger or affection.
vp.2.12 I have now described to you the disposition of the earth and of the stars; of the insular zones, with their oceans and mountains, their Varshas or regions, and their inhabitants: their nature has also been explained, but it may be briefly recapitulated.

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