Created by Sreeja Jijith at 03 Aug 2011 08:35 and updated at 03 Aug 2011 08:35


vp.1.6 Parasara. Formerly, oh best of Brahmans, when the truth meditating Brahma was desirous of creating the world, there sprang from his mouth beings especially endowed with the quality of goodness; others from his breast, pervaded by the quality of foulness; others from his thighs, in whom foulness and darkness prevailed; and others from his feet, in whom the quality of darkness predominated. These were, in succession, beings of the several castes, Brahmans, Kshetriyas, Vaisyas, and sudras, produced from the mouth, the breast, the thighs, and the feet of Brahma 2. These he created for the performance of sacrifices, the four castes being the fit instruments of their celebration. By sacrifices, oh thou who knowest the truth, the gods are nourished; and by the rain which they bestow, mankind are supported 3: and thus sacrifices, the source of happiness, are performed by pious men, attached to their duties, attentive to prescribed obligations, and walking in the paths of virtue. Men acquire (by them) heavenly fruition, or final felicity: they go, after death, to whatever sphere they aspire to, as the consequence of their human
vp.1.6 [paragraph continues] Kshetriyas who fly not from the field. The region of the winds is assigned to the Vaisyas who are diligent in their occupations and submissive. sudras are elevated to the sphere of the Gandharbas. Those Brahmans who lead religious lives go to the world of the eighty eight thousand saints: and that of the seven Rishis is the seat of pious anchorets and hermits. The world of ancestors is that of respectable householders: and the region of Brahma is the asylum of religious mendicants 10. The imperishable region of the Yogis is the highest seat of Vishnu, where they perpetually meditate upon the supreme being, with minds intent on him alone: the sphere where they reside, the gods themselves cannot behold. The sun, the moon, the planets, shall repeatedly be, and cease to be; but those who internally repeat the mystic adoration of the divinity, shall never know decay. For those who neglect their duties, who revile the Vedas, and obstruct religious rites, the places assigned after death are the terrific regions of darkness, of deep gloom, of fear, and of great terror; the fearful hell of sharp swords, the hell of scourges and of a waveless sea.
vp.1.12 derived, and all oblations, and curds, and ghee, and animals of either class (domestic or wild). From thee the Rig Veda, the Sama, the metres of the Vedas, and the Yajur Veda are born. Horses, and cows having teeth in one jaw only 5, proceed from thee; and from thee come goats, sheep, deer. Brahmans sprang from thy mouth; warriors from thy arms; Vaisyas from thy thighs; and sudras from thy feet. From thine eyes come the sun; from thine ears, the wind; and from thy mind, the moon: the vital airs from thy central vein; and fire from thy mouth: the sky from thy navel; and heaven from thy head: the regions from thine ears; the earth from thy feet. All this world was derived from thee. As the wide spreading Nyagrodha (Indian fig) tree is compressed in a small seed 6, so, at the time of dissolution, the whole universe is comprehended in thee as its germ. As the Nyagrodha germinates from the seed, and becomes first a shoot, and then rises into loftiness, so the created world proceeds from thee, and expands into magnitude. As the bark and leaves of the Plantain tree are to be seen in its stem, so thou art the stem of the universe, and all things are visible in thee. The faculties of the intellect, that are the cause of pleasure and of pain, abide in thee as one with all existence; but the sources of pleasure and of pain, singly or blended, do not exist in thee, who art exempt from all qualities 7. Salutation to thee, the subtile rudiment, which, being single, becomes
vp.2.3 On the east of Bharata dwell the Kiratas (the barbarians); on the west, the Yavanas; in the centre reside Brahmans, Kshetriyas, Vaisyas, and sudras, occupied in their respective duties of sacrifice, arms, trade, and service 4.
vp.2.3 other fierce barbarians Mlechchhas(), Yavanas 144, Chinas 145, Kambojas 146; ferocious and uncivilized races, sakridgrahas 147, Kulatthas 148, Hunas, and Parasikas 149; also Ramanas 150, Chinas, Dasamalikas 151, those living near the Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas and sudras 152; also
vp.2.4 The hero Vapushmat was king of the next or salmala dwipa, whose seven sons also gave designations to seven Varshas, or divisions. Their names were sweta, Harita, Jimuta, Rohita, Vaidyuta, Manasa, and Suprabha. The Ikshu sea is encompassed by the continent of Salmala, which is twice its extent. There are seven principal mountain ranges, abounding in precious gems, and dividing the Varshas from each other; and there are also seven chief rivers. The mountains are called Kumuda, Unnata, Valahaka, Drona, fertile in medicinal herbs, Kanka, Mahisha, and Kakkudwat. The rivers are Yauni, Toya, Vitrishna, Chandra, sukla, Vimochani, and Nivritti; all whose waters cleanse away sins. The Brahmans, Kshetriyas, Vaisyas, and sudras of this Dwipa, called severally Kapilas, Arunas, Pitas, and Rohitas (or tawny, purple, yellow, and red), worship the imperishable soul of all things, Vishnu, in the form of Vayu (wind), with pious rites, and enjoy frequent association with the gods. A large salmali (silk cotton) tree grows in this Dwipa, and gives it its name. The Dwipa is surrounded by the Sura sea (sea of wine), of the same extent as itself.
vp.2.4 The sea of Ghrita is encompassed by Krauncha dwipa, which is twice as large as Kusa dwipa. The king of this Dwipa was Dyutiman, whose sons, and the seven Varshas named after them, were Kusala, Mallaga, Ushna, Pivara, Andhakaraka, Muni, and Dundubhi. The seven boundary mountains, pleasing to gods and celestial spirits, are Krauncha, Vamana, Andhakaraka, Devavrit, Pundarikavan, Dundubhi, and Mahasaila; each of which is in succession twice as lofty as the series that precedes it, in the same manner as each Dwipa is twice as extensive as the one before it. The inhabitants reside there without apprehension, associating with the bands of divinities. The Brahmans are called Pushkaras; the Kshetriyas, Pushkalas: the Vaisyas are termed Dhanyas; and the sudras, Tishyas. They drink of countless streams, of which the principal are denominated Gauri, Kumudwati, Sandhya, Ratri, Manojava, Kshanti, and Pundarika. The divine Vishnu, the protector of mankind, is worshipped there by the people, with holy rites, in the form of Rudra. Krauncha is surrounded by the sea of curds, of a similar extent; and that again is encompassed by saka dwipa.
vp.3.10 and Dasa are best fitted for the names of Vaisyas and sudras 4. A name should not be void of meaning; it should not be indecent, nor absurd, nor ill omened, nor fearful; it should consist of an even number of syllables; it should not be too long nor too short, nor too full of long vowels; but contain a due proportion of short vowels, and be easily articulated. After this and the succeeding initiatory rites 5, the purified youth is to acquire religious knowledge, in the mode that has been described, in the dwelling of his spiritual guide.
vp.4.24 Thus age after age Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and sudras, excellent Brahman, men of great souls, have passed away by thousands; whose names and tribes and families I have not enumerated to you, from their great number, and the repetition of appellations it would involve. Two persons, Devapi of the race of Puru, and Maru of the family of Ikshwaku, through the force of devotion continue alive throughout the whole four ages, residing at the village of Kalapa: they will return hither in the beginning of the Krita age, and, becoming members of the family of the Manu, give origin to the Kshatriya dynasties 84. In this manner the earth is possessed through every series of the three first ages, the Krita, Treta, and Dwapara, by the sons of the Manu; and some remain in the Kali age, to serve as the rudiments of renewed generations, in the same way as Devapi and Maru are still in existence.
vp.6.1 the Kali age every one who has cars and elephants and steeds will be a Raja 9: every one who is feeble will be a slave. Vaisyas will abandon agriculture and commerce, and gain a livelihood by servitude or the exercise of mechanical arts. sudras, seeking a subsistence by begging, and assuming the outward marks of religious mendicants, will become the impure followers of impious and heretical doctrines 10.

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