Rama

Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 25 Jul 2011 10:57 and updated at 25 Jul 2011 10:57

VISHNU PURANA NOUN

vp.1.9 Parasara proceeded. Thus, Maitreya, in former times the goddess sri conferred these boons upon the king of the gods, being pleased by his adorations; but her first birth was as the daughter of Bhrigu by Khyati: it was at a subsequent period that she was produced from the sea, at the churning of the ocean by the demons and the gods, to obtain ambrosia 11. For in like manner as the lord of the world, the god of gods, Janarddana, descends amongst mankind (in various shapes), so does his coadjutrix sri. Thus when Hari was born as a dwarf, the son of Aditi, Lakshmi appeared from a lotus (as Padma, or Kamala); when he was born as Rama, of the race of Bhrigu (or Parasurama), she was Dharani; when he was Raghava Ramachandra(), she was Sita; and when he was Krishna, she became Rukmini. In the other descents of Vishnu, she is his associate. If he takes a celestial form, she appears as divine; if a mortal, she becomes a mortal too, transforming her own person agreeably to whatever character it pleases Vishnu to put on. Whosoever hears this
vp.1.12 THE prince, having received these instructions, respectfully saluted the sages, and departed from the forest, fully confiding in the accomplishment of his purposes. He repaired to the holy place, on the banks of the Yamuna, called Madhu or Madhuvana, the grove of Madhu, after the demon of that name, who formerly abided there. satrughna (the younger brother of Rama) having slain the Rakshas Lavana, the son of Madhu, founded a city on the spot, which was named Mathura. At this holy shrine, the purifier from all sin, which enjoyed the presence of the sanctifying god of gods, Dhruva performed penance, as enjoined by Marichi and the sages: he contemplated Vishnu, the sovereign of all the gods, seated in himself. Whilst his mind was wholly absorbed in meditation, the mighty Hari, identical with all beings and with all natures, (took possession of his heart.) Vishnu being thus present in his mind, the earth, the supporter of elemental life, could not sustain the weight of the ascetic. As he stood upon his left foot, one hemisphere bent beneath him; and when he stood upon his right, the other half of the earth sank down. When he touched the earth with his toes, it shook with all its mountains, and the rivers and the seas were troubled, and the gods partook of the universal agitation.
vp.3.2 The son of Chhaya, who was called also a Manu, was denominated Savarni 6, from being of the same caste Savarna() as his elder brother, the Manu Vaivaswata. He presides over the ensuing or eighth Manwantara; the particulars of which, and the following, I will now relate. In the period in which Savarni shall be the Manu, the classes of the gods will be Sutapas, Amitabhas, and Mukhyas; twenty one of each. The seven Rishis will be Diptimat, Galava, Rama, Kripa, Drauni; my son Vyasa will be the sixth, and the seventh will be Rishyasringa 7. The Indra will be Bali, the sinless son of Virochana, who through the favour of Vishnu is actually sovereign of part of Patala. The royal progeny of Savarni will be Virajas, Arvarivas, Nirmoha, and others.
vp.4.4 The progeny of Sagara: their wickedness: he performs an Aswamedha: the horse stolen by Kapila: found by Sagara s sons, who are all destroyed by the sage: the horse recovered by Ansumat: his descendants. Legend of Mitrasaha or Kalmashapada, the son of Sudasa. Legend of Khatwanga. Birth of Rama and the other sons of Dasaratha. Epitome of the history of Rama: his descendants, and those of his brothers. Line of Kusa. Vrihadbala, the last, killed in the great war.
vp.4.4 lotus springs became fourfold, as the four sons of Dasaratha, Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and satrughna, for the protection of the world. Rama, whilst yet a boy, accompanied Viswamitra, to protect his sacrifice, and slew Tadaka. He afterwards killed Maricha with his resistless shafts; and Subahu and others fell by his arms. He removed the guilt of Ahalya by merely looking upon her. In the palace of Janaka he broke with ease the mighty bow of Maheswara, and received the hand of Sita, the daughter of the king, self born from the earth, as the prize of his prowess. He humbled the pride of Parasurama, who vaunted his triumphs over the race of Haihaya, and his repeated slaughters of the Kshatriya tribe. Obedient to the commands of his father, and cherishing no regret for the loss of sovereignty, he entered the forest,
vp.4.4 Having thus, by their unequalled valour and might, rescued the whole world from the dominion of malignant fiends, Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and satrughna reascended to heaven, and were followed by those of the people of Kosala who were fervently devoted to these incarnate portions of the supreme Vishnu.
vp.4.4 Rama and his brothers had each two sons. Kusa and Lava were the sous of Rama; those of Lakshmana were Angada and Chandraketu; the sons of Bharata were Taksha and Pushkara; and Subahu and surasena 17 were the sons of satrughna.
vp.4.7 understanding, and were like unto beasts or birds. Lastly, Rama returned to the hermitage, when the mighty and holy Jamadagni said unto him, Kill thy mother, who has sinned; and do it, son, without repining. Rama accordingly took up his axe, and struck off his mother s head; whereupon the wrath of the illustrious and mighty Jamadagni was assuaged, and he was pleased with his son, and said, Since thou hast obeyed my commands, and done what was hard to be performed, demand from me whatever blessings thou wilt, and thy desires shall be all fulfilled. Then Rama begged of his father these boons; the restoration of his mother to life, with forgetfulness of her having been slain, and purification from all defilement; the return of his brothers to their natural condition; and, for himself, invincibility in single combat, and length of days: and all these did his father bestow.
vp.4.7 "It happened on one occasion, that, during the absence of the Rishi s sons, the mighty monarch Karttavirya, the sovereign of the Haihaya tribe, endowed by the favour of Dattatreya with a thousand arms, and a golden chariot that went wheresoever he willed it to go, came to the hermitage 16 of Jamadagni, where the wife of the sage received him with all proper respect. The king, inflated with the pride of valour, made no return to her hospitality, but carried off with him by violence the calf of the milch cow of the sacred oblation 17, and cast down the tall trees surrounding the hermitage. When Rama returned, his father told him what had chanced, and he saw the cow in affliction, and he was filled with wrath. Taking up his splendid bow 18, Bhargava, the slayer of hostile heroes, assailed Karttavirya, who had now become subject to
vp.4.7 the power of death, and overthrew him in battle. With sharp arrows Rama cut off his thousand arms, and the king perished. The sons of Karttavirya, to revenge his death, attacked the hermitage of Jamadagni, when Rama was away, and slew the pious and unresisting sage, who called repeatedly, but fruitlessly, upon his valiant son. They then departed; and when Rama returned, bearing fuel from the thickets, he found his father lifeless, and thus bewailed his unmerited fate: Father, in resentment of my actions have you been murdered by wretches as foolish as they are base! by the sons of Karttavirya are you struck down, as a deer in the forest by the huntsman s shafts! Ill have you deserved such a death; you who have ever trodden the path of virtue, and never offered wrong to any created thing! How great is the crime that they have committed, in slaying with their deadly shafts an old man like you, wholly occupied with pious cares, and engaging not in strife! Much have they to boast of to their fellows and their friends, that they have shamelessly slain a solitary hermit, incapable of contending in arms! Thus lamenting, bitterly and repeatedly, Rama performed his father s last obsequies, and lighted his funeral pile. He then made a vow that he would extirpate the whole Kshatriya race. In fulfilment of this purpose he took up his arms, and with remorseless and fatal rage singly destroyed in fight the sons of Karttavirya; and after them, whatever Kshatriyas he encountered, Rama,
vp.4.7 called Khandavayana Brahmans. Having given the earth to Kasyapa, the hero of immeasurable prowess retired to the Mahendra mountain, where he still resides: and in this manner was there enmity between him and the race of Kshatriyas, and thus was the whole earth conquered by Rama 21."
vp.4.14 srutadeva was married to the Karusha prince Vriddhasarman, and bore him the fierce Asura Dantavaktra. Dhrishtaketu, raja of Kaikeya 19, married srutakirtti, and had by her Santarddana and four other sons, known as the five Kaikeyas. Jayasena, king of Avanti, married Rajadhidevi, and had Vinda and Anavinda. srutasravas was wedded to Damaghosha, raja of Chedi, and bore him sisupala 20. This prince was in a former existence the unrighteous but valiant monarch of the Daityas, Hiranyakasipu, who was killed by the divine guardian of creation (in the man lion Avatara). He was next the ten headed sovereign Ravana, whose unequalled prowess, strength, and power were overcome by the lord of the three worlds, Rama. Having been killed by the deity in the form of Raghava, he had long enjoyed the reward of his virtues in exemption from an embodied state, but had now received birth once more as sisupala, the son of Damaghosha, king of Chedi. In this character he renewed, with greater inveteracy than ever, his hostile hatred towards the god surnamed Pundarikaksha, a portion of the supreme being, who had descended to lighten the burdens of the earth; and was in consequence slain by him: but from the circumstance of his thoughts being constantly engrossed by the supreme being, sisupala was united with him after death; for the lord giveth to those to whom he is favourable whatever they desire, and he bestows a heavenly and exalted station even upon those whom he slays in his displeasure.
vp.4.24 lands, or wealth, his own. The arduous penances that have been performed by heroic men obstructing fate for countless years, religious rites and sacrifices of great efficacy and virtue, have been made by time the subject only of narration. The valiant Prithu traversed the universe, every where triumphant over his foes; yet he was blown away, like the light down of the Simal tree, before the blast of time. He who was Kartaviryya subdued innumerable enemies, and conquered the seven zones of the earth; but now he is only the topic of a theme, a subject for affirmation and contradiction 85. Fie upon the empire of the sons of Raghu, who triumphed over Dasanana, and extended their sway to the ends of the earth; for was it not consumed in an instant by the frown of the destroyer? Mandhatri, the emperor of the universe, is embodied only in a legend; and what pious man who hears it will ever be so unwise as to cherish the desire of possession in his soul? Bhagiratha, Sagara, Kakutstha, Dasanana, Rama, Lakshmana, Yudhishthira, and others, have been. Is it so? Have they ever really existed? Where are they now? we know not! The powerful kings who now are, or who will be, as I have related them to you, or any others who are unspecified, are all subject to the same fate, and the present and the future will perish and be forgotten, like their predecessors. Aware of this truth, a wise man will never be influenced by the principle of individual appropriation; and regarding them as only
vp.5.6 The initiatory rites requisite for the two boys were performed by Garga, who was sent to Gokula by Vasudeva for that purpose: he celebrated them without the knowledge of the cowherds 1; and the wise sage, eminent amongst the wise, named the elder of them Rama, and the other Krishna. In a short time they began to crawl about the ground, supporting themselves on their hands and knees, and creeping every where, often amidst ashes and filth. Neither Rohini nor Yasoda was able to prevent them from getting into the cowpens, or amongst the calves, where they amused themselves by pulling their tails. As they disregarded the prohibitions of Yasoda, and rambled about together constantly, she became angry, and taking up a stick, followed them, and threatened the dark complexioned Krishna with a whipping. Fastening a cord round his waist, she tied him to the wooden mortar 2, and being in
vp.5.6 As the two boys, Rama and Damodara, grew up, they were ever together in the same place, and engaged in the same boyish sports. They made themselves crests of the peacocks plumes, and garlands of forest flowers, and musical instruments of leaves and reeds, or played upon the pipes used by the cowherds: their hair was trimmed like the wings of the crow 5, and they resembled two young princes, portions of the deity of war: they were robust, and they roamed about, always laughing and playing, sometimes with each other, sometimes with other boys; driving along with the young cowherds the calves to pasture. Thus the two guardians of the world were keepers of cattle, until they had attained seven years of age, in the cow pens of Vrindavana.
vp.5.6 At this time Krishna and Rama, accompanied by the cow boys, traversed the forests, that echoed with the hum of bees and the peacock s cry. Sometimes they sang in chorus, or danced together; sometimes they sought shelter from the cold beneath the trees; sometimes they decorated themselves with flowery garlands, sometimes with peacocks feathers; sometimes they stained themselves of various hues with the minerals of the mountain; sometimes weary they reposed on beds of leaves, and sometimes imitated in mirth the muttering of the thundercloud; sometimes they excited their juvenile associates to sing, and sometimes they mimicked the cry of the peacock with their pipes. In this manner participating in various feelings and emotions, and affectionately attached to each other, they wandered, sporting and happy, through the wood. At eveningtide came Krishna and Balarama, like two cow boys, along with the cows and the cowherds. At eveningtide the two immortals, having come to the cow pens, joined heartily in whatever sports amused the sons of the herdsmen.
vp.5.7 ONE day Krishna, unaccompanied by Rama, went to Vrindavana: he was attended by a troop of cowherds, and gaily decorated with wild flowers. On his way he came to the Yamuna, which was flowing in sportive undulations, and sparkling with foam, as if with smiles, as the waves dashed against the borders. Within its bed, however, was the fearful pool of the serpent Kaliya, boiling with the fires of poison 1; from the fumes of which, large trees upon the bank were blighted, and by whose waters, when raised by a gale into the air, birds were scorched. Beholding this dreadful lake, which was like another mouth of death, Madhusudana reflected that the wicked and poisonous Kaliya, who had been vanquished by himself (in the person of Garuda), and had been obliged to fly from the ocean (where he had inhabited the island Ramanaka), must be lurking at its bottom, and defiling the Yamuna, the consort of the sea, so that neither men nor cattle could slake their thirst by her waters. Such being the case, he determined to dislodge the Naga, and enable the dwellers of Vraja to frequent the vicinage without fear; for it was the especial purpose he considered of his descent upon earth to reduce to subjection all such violators of law. "Here," thought he, "is a Kadamba tree, which is sufficiently near; I can climb up it, and thence leap into the serpent s pool." Having thus resolved, he bound his clothes tightly about him, and jumped boldly into the lake of the serpent king. The waters, agitated
vp.5.7 poisonous vapour combined with the water; and the whole horizon was in a blaze. Krishna, having dived into the pool, struck his arms in defiance 3, and the snake king, hearing the sound, quickly came forth: his eyes were coppery red, and his hoods were flaming with deadly venom: he was attended by many other powerful and poisonous snakes, feeders upon air, and by hundreds of serpent nymphs, decorated with rich jewels, whose earrings glittered with trembling radiance as the wearers moved along. Coiling themselves around Krishna, they all bit him with teeth from which fiery poison was emitted. Krishna s companions, beholding him in the lake, encompassed by the snakes, twining around him, ran off to Vraja, lamenting and bewailing aloud his fate. Krishna"," they called out, "has foolishly plunged into the serpent s pool, and is there bitten to death by the snake king! Come and see." The cowherds and their wives and Yasoda, hearing this news, which was like a thunderbolt, ran immediately to the pool, frightened out of their senses, and crying, "Alas! alas! where is he?" The Gopis were retarded by Yasoda, who in her agitation stumbled and slipped at every step; but Nanda and the cowherds and the invincible Rama hastened to the banks of the Yamuna, eager to assist Krishna. There they beheld him apparently in the power of the serpent king, encompassed by twining snakes, and making no effort to escape. Nanda, as soon as he set his eyes upon his son, became senseless; and Yasoda
vp.5.7 Thus reminded of his real character by Rama, Krishna smiled gently, and speedily extricated himself from the coils of the snakes. Laying hold of the middle hood of their chief with both his hands, he bent it down, and set his foot upon the hitherto unbended head, and danced upon it in triumph. Wherever the snake attempted to raise his head, it was again trodden down, and many bruises were inflicted on the hood by the pressure of the toes of Krishna. Trampled upon by the feet of Krishna, as they changed position in the dance, the snake fainted, and vomited forth much blood 3. Beholding the head and neck of their lord thus injured, and the blood flowing from his mouth, the females of the snake king implored the clemency of Madhusudana. "Thou art recognised,
vp.5.8 The demon Dhenuka destroyed by Rama.
vp.5.8 AGAIN, tending upon the herds, Kesava and Rama wandered through the woods, and on one occasion came to a pleasing grove of palms, where dwelt the fierce demon Dhenuka, feeding upon the flesh of deer. Beholding the trees covered with fruit, and desirous of gathering it, the cowherds called out to the brothers, and said, "See, Rama; see, Krishna; in this grove, belonging to the great Dhenuka, the trees are loaded with ripe fruit, the smell of which perfumes the air: we should like to eat some. Will you throw some down?" As soon as the boys had spoken, Sankarshana and Krishna shook the trees, and brought down the fruit on the ground. Hearing the noise of the falling fruit, the fierce and malignant demon Dhenuka, in the form of an ass, hastened to the spot in a great passion, and began to kick Rama on the breast with his hinder heels. Rama, however, seized him by both hind legs, and whirling him round until he expired, tossed his carcass to the top of a palm tree, from the branches of which it struck down abundance of fruit, like rain drops poured upon earth by the wind. The animals that were of kin to Dhenuka came running to his aid; but Krishna and Rama treated them in the same manner, until the trees were laden with dead asses, and the ground was strewed with ripe fruit. Henceforward the cattle grazed unobstructed in the palm grove, and cropped the new pasturage, where they had never before ventured 1.
vp.5.9 Sports of the boys in the forest. Pralamba the Asura comes amongst them: is destroyed by Rama, at the command of Krishna.
vp.5.10 WHILST Kesava and Rama were sporting thus in Vraja, the rainy season ended, and was succeeded by the season of autumn, when the lotus is full blown. The small Saphari fish, in their watery burrows, were oppressed by the heat, like a man by selfish desires, who is devoted to his family. The peacocks, no longer animated by passion, were silent amidst the woods, like holy saints, who have come to know the unreality of the world. The clouds, of shining whiteness, exhausted of their watery wealth, deserted the atmosphere, like those who have acquired wisdom, and depart from their homes. Evaporated by the rays of the autumnal sun, the lakes were dried up, like the hearts of men when withered by the contact of selfishness. The pellucid waters of the season were suitably embellished by white water lilies, as are the minds of the pure by the apprehension of truth. Brightly in the starry sky shone the moon with undiminished orb, like the saintly being, who has reached the last stage of bodily existence, in the company of the pious. The rivers and lakes slowly retired from their banks, as the wise by degrees shrink from the selfish attachment that connects them with wife and child. First abandoned by the waters of the lake, the swans again began to congregate, like false ascetics, whose devotions are interrupted, and they are again assailed by innumerable afflictions. The ocean was still and calm, and exhibited no undulations, like the perfect sage, who has completed his course of
vp.5.13 But Krishna, observing the clear sky bright with the autumnal moon, and the air perfumed with the fragrance of the wild water lily, in whose buds the clustering bees were murmuring their songs, felt inclined to join with the Gopis in sport. Accordingly he and Rama commenced
vp.5.15 AFTER these things had come to pass, Arishta the bull demon and Dhenuka and Pralamba had been slain, Govarddhana had been lifted up, the serpent Kaliya had been subdued, the two trees had been broken, the female fiend Putana had been killed, and the waggon had been overturned, Narada went to Kansa, and related to him the whole, beginning with the transference of the child from Devaki to Yasoda, Hearing this from Narada, Kansa was highly incensed with Vasudeva, and bitterly reproached him, and all the Yadavas, in an assembly of the tribe. Then reflecting what was to be done, he determined to destroy both Krishna and Rama whilst they were yet young, and before they had attained to manly vigour: for which purpose he resolved to invite them from Vraja, under pretext of the solemn rite of the lustration of arms, when he would engage them in a trial of strength with his chief boxers, Chanura and Mushtika, by whom they would assuredly be killed. "I will send," he said, "the noble Yadu, Akrura the son of Swaphalka, to Gokula, to bring them hither: I will order the fierce Kesin, who haunts the woods of Vrindavana, to attack them, and he is of unequalled might, and will surely kill them; or, if they arrive here, my elephant Kuvalayapida shall trample to death these two cow boy sons of Vasudeva." Having thus laid his plans to destroy Rama and Janarddana, the impious Kansa sent for the heroic Akrura, and said to him, Lord" of liberal gifts 1, attend to my words, and, out of friendship
vp.5.18 THUS meditating, the Yadava approached Govinda, and addressed him, and said, "I am Akrura," and bowed his head down to the feet of Hari; but Krishna laid upon him his hand, which was marked with the flag, the thunderbolt, and the lotus, and drew him towards him, and affectionately embraced him. Then Kesava and Rama entered into conversation with him, and, having heard from him all that had occurred, were much pleased, and led him to their habitation: there they resumed their discourse, and gave him food to eat, and treated him with proper hospitality. Akrura told them how their father anakadundubhi, the princess Devaki, and even his own father, Ugrasena, had been insulted by the iniquitous demon Kansa: he also related to them the purpose for which he had been dispatched. When he had told them all these things, the destroyer of Kesin said to him, "I was aware of all that you have told me, lord of liberal gifts: Rama and I will go to morrow to Mathura along with you. The elders of the cowherds shall accompany us, bearing ample offerings. Rest here to night, and dismiss all anxiety. Within three nights I will slay Kansa and his adherents."
vp.5.18 Having given orders accordingly to the cowherds, Akrura, with Kesava and Rama, retired to rest, and slept soundly in the dwelling of Nanda. The next morning was bright, and the youths prepared to depart for Mathura with Akrura. The Gopis, seeing them about to set forth, were much afflicted; they wept bitterly, their bracelets were loose upon their arms, and they thus communed together: "If Govinda depart for Mathura, how will he return to Gokula? his ears will there be regaled with the melodious and polished conversation of the women of the city. Accustomed to the language of the graceful females of Mathura, he will never again endure the rustic expressions of the Gopis. Hari, the pride of the station, is carried off, and a fatal blow is inflicted upon us by inexorable destiny, Expressive smiles, soft language, graceful airs,
vp.5.18 elegant gait, and significant glances, belong to the women of the city. Hari is of rustic breeding, and, captivated by their fascinations, what likelihood is there of his returning to the society of any one amongst us? Kesava, who has mounted the car to go to Mathura, has been deceived by the cruel, vile, and desperate Akrura. Does not the unfeeling traitor know the affection that we all here feel for our Hari, the joy of our eyes, that he is taking him away? Unkind that he is, Govinda is departing from us, along with Rama: haste! let us stop him! Why talk of telling our seniors that we cannot bear his loss? What can they do for us, when we are consumed by the fires of separation? The Gopas, with Nanda at their head, are themselves preparing to depart; no one makes any attempt to detain Govinda. Bright is the morning that succeeds to this night for the women of Mathura, for the bees of their eyes will feed upon the lotus face of Achyuta. Happy are they who may go hence without impediment, and behold, enraptured, Krishna on his journey. A great festival will give pleasure to day to the eyes of the inhabitants of Mathura, when they see the person of Govinda. What a blissful vision will be seen by the happy women, of the city, whose brilliant eyes shall regard, unchecked, the countenance of Krishna! Alas! the eyes of the Gopis have been deprived of sight by the relentless Brahma, after he had shewn them this great treasure. In proportion as the affection of Hari for us decays,
vp.5.18 so do our limbs wither, and the bracelets slip from our arms: and now the cruel Akrura urges on the horses: all conspire to treat unhappy females with unkindness. Alas! alas! we see now only the dust of his chariot wheels! and now he is far away, for even that dust is no longer to be seen!" Thus lamented by the women, Kesava and Rama quitted the district of Vraja 1. Travelling in a car drawn by fleet horses, they arrived at noon at the banks of the Yamuna, when Akrura requested them to halt a little, whilst he performed the
vp.5.19 Akrura conveys Krishna and Rama near to Mathura, and leaves them: they enter the town. Insolence of Kansa s washerman: Krishna kills him. Civility of a flower seller: Krishna gives him his benediction.
vp.5.19 THUS the Yadava Akrura, standing in the river, praised Krishna, and worshipped him with imaginary incense and flowers. Disregarding all other objects, he fixed his whole mind upon the deity; and having continued for a long time in spiritual contemplation, he at last desisted from his abstraction, conceiving he had effected the purposes of soul. Coming up from the water of the Yamuna, he went to the car, and there he beheld Rama and Krishna seated as before. As his looks denoted surprise, Krishna said to him, "Surely, Akrura, you have seen some marvel in the stream of the Yamuna, for your eyes are staring as if with astonishment." Akrura replied, "The marvel that I have seen in the stream of the Yamuna I behold before me, even here, in a bodily shape; for he whom I have encountered in the water, Krishna, is also your wondrous self, of whose illustrious person the whole world is the miraculous developement. But enough of this; let us proceed to Mathura: I am afraid Kansa will be angry at our delay; such is the wretched consequence of eating the bread of another." Thus speaking, he urged on the quick horses, and they arrived after sunset at Mathura. When they came in sight of the city, Akrura said to Krishna and Rama, "You must now journey on foot, whilst I proceed alone in the car; and you must not go to the house of Vasudeva, for the elder has been banished by Kansa on your account."
vp.5.19 Akrura having thus spoken, left them, and entered the city; whilst Rama and Krishna continued to walk along the royal road. Regarded with pleasure by men and women, they went along sportively, looking like two young elephants. As they roamed about, they saw a washerman colouring clothes, and with smiling countenances they went and threw down some of his fine linen. The washerman was the servant of Kansa, made insolent by his master s favour; and he provoked the two lads
vp.5.19 Your descendants shall not be subject to natural infirmities, as long as the sun shall endure." Having thus spoken, Krishna and Rama, worshipped by the flower seller, went forth from his dwelling 1.
vp.5.20 Dressed in blue and yellow garments, and anointed with fragrant unguents, Kesava and Rama proceeded to the hall of arms, which was hung round with garlands. Inquiring of the warders which bow he was to try, and being directed to it, he took it, and bent it; but drawing it with violence, he snapped it in two 3, and all Mathura resounded with the noise which its fracture occasioned. Abused by the warders for breaking the bow, Krishna and Rama retorted, and defied them, and left the hall.
vp.5.20 felled! This is the boy who trampled and danced on the serpent Kaliya; who upheld the mountain Govarddhana for seven nights; who killed, as if in play, the iniquitous Arishta, Dhenuka, and Kesin! This whom we see is Achyuta! This is he who has been foretold by the wise, skilled in the sense of the Puranas, as Gopala, who shall exalt the depressed Yadava race! This is a portion of the all existing, all generating Vishnu, descended upon earth, who will assuredly lighten her load!" Thus did the citizens describe Rama and Krishna, as soon as they appeared; whilst the breast of Devaki glowed with maternal affection; and Vasudeva, forgetting his infirmities, felt himself young again, on beholding the countenances of his sons as a season of rejoicing. The women of the palace, and the wives of the citizens, wide opened their eyes, and gazed intently upon Krishna. "Look, friends," said they to their companions; "look at the face of Krishna; his eyes are reddened by his conflict with the elephant, and the drops of perspiration stand upon his cheeks, outvieing a full blown lotus in autumn, studded with glittering dew. Avail yourself now of the faculty of vision. Observe his breast, the seat of splendour, marked with the mystic sign; and his arms, menacing destruction to his foes. Do you not notice Balabhadra, dressed in a blue garment; his countenance as fair as the jasmine, as the moon, as the fibres of the lotus stem? See how he gently smiles at the gestures of Mushtika and Chanura,
vp.5.21 named Panchajana, who lives in the form of a conch shell, seized the boy: he is still under my waters. On hearing this, Krishna plunged into the sea; and having slain the vile Panchajana, he took the conch shell, which was formed of his bones (and bore it as his horn), the sound of which fills the demon hosts with dismay, animates the vigour of the gods, and annihilates unrighteousness. The heroes also recovered the boy from the pains of death, and restored him in his former person to his father. Rama and Janarddana then returned to Mathura, which was well presided over by Ugrasena, and abounded in a happy population both of men and women 1.
vp.5.22 Parasara. The mighty Kansa had married the two daughters of Jarasandha, one named Asti, the other Prapti. Jarasandha was king of Magadha, and a very powerful prince 1; who, when he heard that Krishna had killed his son in law, was much incensed, and, collecting a large force, marched against Mathura, determined to put the Yadavas and Krishna to the sword. Accordingly he invested the city with three and twenty numerous divisions of his forces 2. Rama and Janarddana sallied from the town with a slender, but resolute force, and fought bravely with the armies of Magadha. The two youthful leaders prudently resolved to have recourse to their ancient weapons, and accordingly the bow of Hari, with two quivers filled with exhaustless arrows, and the mace called Kaumodaki, and the ploughshare of Balabhadra, as well as the club Saunanda, descended at a wish from heaven. Armed with these weapons, they speedily discomfited the king of Magadha and his hosts, and reentered the city in triumph.
vp.5.22 Although the wicked king of Magadha, Jarasandha, was defeated, yet Krishna knew that whilst he escaped alive he was not subdued; and in fact he soon returned with a mighty force, and was again forced by Rama and Krishna to fly. Eighteen times 3 did the haughty prince of Magadha renew his attack upon the Yadavas, headed by Krishna; and was as often defeated and put to the rout by them, with very inferior numbers. That the Yadavas were not overpowered by their foes, was owing to the present might of the portion of the discus armed Vishnu.
vp.5.24 him without us, and for us without him. Father, mother, brother, husband, kin, what have we not abandoned for his sake? but he is a monument of ingratitude. Yet tell us, does not Krishna talk of coming here? Falsehood is never, O Krishna, to be uttered by thee. Verily this is Damodara, this is Govinda, who has given up his heart to the damsels of the city, who has no longer any regard for us, but looks upon us with disdain." So saying, the Gopis, whose minds were fixed on Krishna, addressed Rama in his place, calling him Damodara and Govinda, and laughed and were merry; and Rama consoled them by communicating to them agreeable, modest, affectionate, and gentle messages from Krishna. With the cowherds he talked mirthfully, as he had been wont to do, and rambled along with them over the lands of Vraja 1.
vp.5.25 [paragraph continues] Rama in a rage took up his ploughshare, which he plunged into her bank, and dragged her to him, calling out, "Will you not come, you jade? will you not come? Now go where you please (if you can)." Thus saying, he compelled the dark river to quit its ordinary course, and follow him whithersoever he wandered through the wood. Assuming a mortal figure, the Yamuna, with distracted looks, approached Balabhadra, and entreated him to pardon her, and let her go: but he replied, "I will drag you with my ploughshare in a thousand directions, since you contemn my prowess and strength." At last, however, appeased by her reiterated prayers, he let her go, after she had watered all the country 3. When he had bathed, the goddess of beauty, Lakshmi, came and gave him a beautiful lotus to place in one ear, and an earring for the other; a fresh necklace of lotus flowers, sent by Varuna; and garments of a dark blue colour, as costly as the wealth of the ocean: and thus decorated with a lotus in one ear, a ring in the other, dressed in blue garments, and wearing a garland, Balarama appeared united with loveliness. Thus decorated, Rama sported two months in Vraja, and then returned to Dwaraka, where the married Revati, the daughter of king Raivata, by whom he had two sons, Nishatha and Ulmuka 4.
vp.5.26 Bishmaka was king of Vidarbha, residing at Kundina 1. He had a son named Rukmin, and a beautiful daughter termed Rukmini. Krishna fell in love with the latter, and solicited her in marriage; but her brother who hated Krishna, would not assent to the espousals. At the suggestion of Jarasandha, and with the concurrence of his son, the powerful sovereign Bhishmaka affianced Rukmini to sisupala. In order to celebrate the nuptials, Jarasandha and other princes, the friends of sisupala, assembled in the capital of Vidarbha; and Krishna, attended by Balabhadra and many other Yadavas, also went to Kundina to witness the wedding. When there, Hari contrived, on the eve of the nuptials, to carry off the princess 2, leaving Rama and his kinsmen to sustain the weight of his enemies. Paundraka, the illustrious Dantavakra, Viduratha, sisupala, Jarasandha, salya, and other kings, indignant at the insult, exerted themselves to kill Krishna, but were repelled by Balarama and the Yadavas. Rukmin, vowing that he would never enter Kundina again until he had slain Kesava in fight, pursued and overtook him. In the combat that ensued, Krishna destroyed with his discus, as if in sport, the host of Rukmin, with all its horse, and elephants, and foot, and chariots, and overthrew him, and hurled him on the ground, and would have put him to death, but was withheld by the entreaties of Rukmini. "He is my only brother," she exclaimed, "and must not be slain by
vp.5.28 The heroic Pradyumna was chosen for her lord, at her public choice of a husband, by the daughter of Rukmin; and he had by her the powerful and gallant prince Aniruddha, who was fierce in fight, an ocean of prowess, and the tamer of his foes. Kesava demanded in marriage for him the granddaughter of Rukmin; and although the latter was inimical to Krishna, he betrothed the maiden (who was his son s daughter) to the son of his own daughter (her cousin Aniruddha). Upon the occasion of the nuptials Rama and other Yadavas attended Krishna to Bhojakata, the city of Rukmin. After the wedding had been solemnized, several of the kings, headed by him of Kalinga, said to Rukmin, "This wielder of the ploughshare is ignorant of the dice, which may be converted into his misfortune: why may we not contend with him, and beat him, in play?" The potent Rukmin replied to them, and said, "So let it be:" and he engaged Balarama at a game of dice in the palace. Balarama soon lost to Rukmin a thousand Nishkas 3: he then staked and lost another thousand; and then pledged ten thousand, which Rukmin, who was well skilled in gambling, also won. At this the king of Kalinga laughed aloud, and the weak and exulting Rukmin grinned, and said, Baladeva" is losing, for he knows nothing of the game; although, blinded by a vain passion for play, he thinks he understands the dice." Halayudha, galled by the broad laughter of the Kalinga prince, and the contemptuous speech of Rukmin, was exceedingly angry, and,
vp.5.32 Chitralekha then delineated the most eminent gods, demons, spirits, and mortals, and shewed them to Usha. Putting aside the portraits of gods, spirits, snake gods, and demons, the princess selected those of mortals, and amongst them the heroes of the races of Andhaka and Vrishni. When she came to the likenesses of Krishna and Rama, she was confused with shame; from the portrait of Pradyumna she modestly averted her eyes; but the moment she beheld the picture of his son, the object of her passion, her eyes wide expanded, and all her bashfulness was discarded. "This is he! this is he!" said she to Chitralekha; and her friend, who was endowed with magic power, bade her be of good cheer, and set off through the air to Dwaraka.
vp.5.33 with the whole of the Daitya host, assisted by sankara and Kartikeya, fought with sauri. A fierce combat took place between Hari and sankara; all the regions shook, scorched by their flaming weapons, and the celestials felt assured that the end of the universe was at hand. Govinda, with the weapon of yawning, set sankara a gape; and then the demons and the demigods attendant upon siva were destroyed on every side; for Hara, overcome with incessant gaping, sat down in his car, and was unable longer to contend with Krishna, whom no acts affect. The deity of war, Kartikeya, wounded in the arm by Garuda, struck by the weapons of Pradyumna, and disarmed by the shout of Hari, took to flight. Bana, when he saw sankara disabled, the Daityas destroyed, Guha fled, and siva s followers slain, advanced on his vast car, the horses of which were harnessed by Nandisa, to encounter Krishna and his associates Bala and Pradyumna. The valiant Balabhadra, attacking the host of Bana, wounded them in many ways with his arrows, and put them to a shameful rout; and their sovereign beheld them dragged about by Rama with his ploughshare, or beaten by him with his club, or pierced by Krishna with his arrows: he therefore attacked Krishna, and a fight took place between them: they cast at each other fiery shafts, that pierced through their armour; but Krishna intercepted with his arrows those of Bana, and cut them to pieces. Bana nevertheless wounded Kesava, and the wielder of the discus wounded Bana;
vp.5.33 which I am, thou art; and that also is this world, with its gods, demons, and mankind. Men contemplate distinctions, because they are stupified by ignorance." So saying, Krishna went to the place where the son of Pradyumna was confined. The snakes that bound him were destroyed, being blasted by the breath of Garuda: and Krishna, placing him, along with his wife, upon the celestial bird, returned with Pradyumna and Rama to Dwaraka 4.
vp.5.35 Parasara. Attend, Maitreya, to the achievements performed by Rama, who is the eternal, illimitable sesha, the upholder of the earth. At the choice of a husband by the daughter of Duryodhana, the princess was carried off by the hero samba, the son of Jambavati. Being pursued by Duryodhana, Karna, Bhishma, Drona, and other celebrated chiefs, who were incensed at his audacity, he was defeated, and taken prisoner. When the Yadavas heard of the occurrence, their wrath was kindled against Duryodhana and his associates, and they prepared to take up arms against them; but Baladeva, in accents interrupted by the effects of ebriety, forbade them, and said, "I will go alone to the sons of Kuru; they will liberate samba at my request." Accordingly he went to the elephant styled city Hastinapura(), but took up his abode in a grove without the town, which he did not enter. When Duryodhana and the rest heard that he had arrived there, they sent him a cow, a present of fruits and flowers, and water. Bala received the offering in the customary form, and said to the Kauravas, Ugrasena" commands you to set samba at liberty." When Duryodhana, Karna, Bhishma, Drona, and the others, heard this, they were very angry; and Bahlika and other friends of the Kauravas, who looked upon the Yadu race as not entitled to regal dignity, said to the wielder of the club, "What is this, Balabhadra, that thou hast uttered? What Yadava shall give orders to the chiefs of the family of Kuru? If Ugrasena issues
vp.5.35 So saying, the wielder of the club, Baladeva, his eyes red with rage, plunged the blade of his ploughshare downwards, beneath the ramparts of the city, and drew them towards him. When the Kauravas beheld Hastinapura tottering, they were much alarmed, and called loudly on Rama, saying, Rama", Rama! hold, hold! suppress your wrath! have mercy upon us! Here is samba, and his wife also, delivered up to thee. Forgive our sins, committed in ignorance of thy wondrous power." Accordingly, issuing hurriedly from the city, the Kauravas delivered samba and his bride to the mighty Balarama, who, bowing to Bhishma, Drona, and Kripa, who addressed him in conciliatory language, said, "I am satisfied;" and so desisted. The city bears the marks of the shock it received, even to the present day such was the might of Rama proving both his strength and prowess. The Kauravas then offering homage to samba and to Bala, dismissed the former with his wife and a bridal portion 1.
vp.5.36 and the monkey laid hold of a large rock, which he burled at the hero. Bala casting his club at it, as it neared him, broke it into a thousand fragments, which, together with the club, fell upon the ground. Beholding the club prostrate, the monkey sprang over it, and struck the Yadava violently on the breast with his paws. Bala replied with a blow of his fist upon the forehead of Dwivida, which felled him, vomiting blood, and lifeless, to the earth. The crest of the mountain on which he fell was splintered into a hundred pieces by the weight of his body, as if the thunderer had shivered it with his thunderbolt. The gods threw down a shower of flowers upon Rama, and approached him, and praised him for the glorious feat he had performed. "Well has the world been freed," said they, "by thy prowess, O hero, of this vile ape, who was the ally of the enemy of the gods." Then they and their attendant spirits returned well pleased to heaven. Many such inimitable deeds were wrought by the illustrious Baladeva, the impersonation of sesha, the supporter of the earth 1.
vp.5.37 Destruction of the Yadavas. samba and others deceive and ridicule the Rishis. The former bears an iron pestle: it is broken, and thrown into the sea. The Yadavas go to Prabhasa by desire of Krishna: they quarrel and fight, and all perish. The great serpent sesha issues from the mouth of Rama. Krishna is shot by a hunter, and again becomes one with universal spirit.
vp.5.37 Then the Yadavas ascended their rapid cars, and drove to Prabhasa 9, along with Krishna, Rama, and the rest of their chiefs 10. They bathed there, and, excited by Vasudeva, the Kukkuras and Andhakas indulged in liquor. As they drank, the destructive flame of dissension was kindled amongst them by mutual collision, and fed with the fuel of abuse. Infuriated by the divine influence, they fell upon one another with missile weapons, and when those were expended, they had recourse to the rushes growing nigh. The rushes in their hands became like thunderbolts,
vp.5.37 and they struck one another with them fatal blows. Pradyumna, samba, Kritavarman, Satyaki, Aniruddha, Prithu, Viprithu, Charuvarman, Charuka, Akrura, and many others, struck one another with the rushes, which had assumed the hardness of thunderbolts 11. Kesava interposed to prevent them, but they thought that he was taking part with each severally, and continued the conflict. Krishna then enraged took up a handful of rushes to destroy them, and the rushes became a club of iron, and with this he slew many of the murderous Yadavas; whilst others, fighting fiercely, put an end to one another. The chariot of the holder of the discus, named Jaitra, was quickly carried off by the swift steeds, and swept away by the sea, in the sight of Daruka the charioteer. The discus, the club, the bow, the quiver, the shell, and the sword of Kesava, having circumambulated their lord, flew along the path of the sun. In a short time there was not a single Yadava left alive, except the mighty Krishna and Daruka 12. Going towards Rama, who
vp.5.38 Arjuna having found the bodies of Krishna and of Rama, performed for them, and the rest of the slain, the obsequial rites. The eight queens of Krishna, who have been named, with Rukmini at their head, embraced the body of Hari, and entered the funeral fire 1. Revati also, embracing the corpse of Rama, entered the blazing pile, which was cool to her, happy in contact with her lord. Hearing these events, Ugrasena and Anakadundubhi, with Devaki and Rohini, committed themselves to the flames 2. The last ceremonies were performed for all these by Arjuna, who then made all the people leave the city, and took Vajra with him. The son of Kunti conducted the thousands of the wives of Krishna, with Vajra, and all the people, from Dwaraka, with tenderness and care, and travelled slowly away. The Sudharman palace and the Parijata tree, which had been brought to earth by Krishna, both proceeded to heaven; and on the same day that Hari departed from the earth the powerful dark bodied Kali age descended 3. The ocean rose, and submerged the whole of Dwaraka, except alone the dwelling of the deity of the race of Yadu. The sea has not yet been able to wash that temple away, and there Kesava constantly abides, even in the present day. Whoever visits that holy shrine, the place where Krishna pursued his sports, is liberated from all his sins 4.

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