Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 22 Jul 2011 17:07 and updated at 22 Jul 2011 17:07


vp.1.9 Being thus instructed by the god of gods, the divinities entered into alliance with the demons, and they jointly undertook the acquirement of the beverage of immortality. They collected various kinds of medicinal herbs, and cast them into the sea of milk, the waters of which were radiant as the thin and shining clouds of autumn. They then took the mountain Mandara for the staff; the serpent Vasuki for the cord; and commenced to churn the ocean for the Amrita. The assembled gods were stationed by Krishna at the tail of the serpent; the Daityas and Danavas at its head and neck. Scorched by the flames emitted from his inflated hood, the demons were shorn of their glory; whilst the clouds driven towards his tail by the breath of his mouth, refreshed the gods with revivifying showers. In the midst of the milky sea, Hari himself, in the form of a tortoise, served as a pivot for the mountain, as it was whirled around. The holder of the mace and discus was present in other forms amongst the gods and demons, and assisted to drag the monarch of the serpent race: and in another vast body he sat upon the summit of the mountain. With one portion of his energy, unseen by gods or demons, he sustained the serpent king; and with another, infused vigour into the gods.
vp.1.9 Parasara proceeded. Thus, Maitreya, in former times the goddess sri conferred these boons upon the king of the gods, being pleased by his adorations; but her first birth was as the daughter of Bhrigu by Khyati: it was at a subsequent period that she was produced from the sea, at the churning of the ocean by the demons and the gods, to obtain ambrosia 11. For in like manner as the lord of the world, the god of gods, Janarddana, descends amongst mankind (in various shapes), so does his coadjutrix sri. Thus when Hari was born as a dwarf, the son of Aditi, Lakshmi appeared from a lotus (as Padma, or Kamala); when he was born as Rama, of the race of Bhrigu (or Parasurama), she was Dharani; when he was Raghava Ramachandra(), she was Sita; and when he was Krishna, she became Rukmini. In the other descents of Vishnu, she is his associate. If he takes a celestial form, she appears as divine; if a mortal, she becomes a mortal too, transforming her own person agreeably to whatever character it pleases Vishnu to put on. Whosoever hears this
vp.1.14 Prithu had two valiant sons, Antarddhi and Pali 1. The son of Antarddhana, by his wife Sikhandini, was Havirdhana, to whom Dhishana, a princess of the race of Agni, bore six sons, Prachinaverhis, sukra, Gaya, Krishna, Vraja, and Ajina 2. The first of these was a mighty prince and patriarch, by whom mankind was multiplied after the death of Havirdhana. He was called Prachinaverhis from his placing upon the earth the sacred grass, pointing to the east 3. At the termination of a
vp.1.14 separating all creatures. Glory to Krishna, who is Brahma in the form of sensible objects, who is ever the direction of the faculties of sense. We offer salutation to that supreme Hari who is one with the senses, both subtle and substantial, the recipient of all impressions, the root of all knowledge: to the universal soul, who, as internal intellect, delivers the impressions received by the senses to soul: to him who has the properties of Prakriti; in whom, without end, rest all things; from whom all things proceed; and who is that into which all things resolve. We worship that Purushottama, the god who is pure spirit, and who, without qualities, is ignorantly considered as endowed with qualities. We adore that supreme Brahma, the ultimate condition of Vishnu, unproductive, unborn, pure, void of qualities, and free from accidents; who is neither high nor low, neither bulky nor minute, has neither shape, nor colour, nor shadow, nor substance, nor affection, nor body; who is neither etherial nor susceptible of contact, smell, or taste; who has neither eyes, nor ears, nor motion, nor speech, nor breath, nor mind, nor name, nor race, nor enjoyment, nor splendour; who is without cause, without fear, without error, without fault, undecaying, immortal, free from passion, without sound, imperceptible, inactive, independent of place or time, detached from all investing properties; but (illusively) exercising irresistible might, and identified with all beings, dependent upon none.
vp.1.15 [paragraph continues] Sinka, the wife of Viprachitti. Hiranyakasipu was the father of four mighty sons, Anuhlada, Hlada, the wise Prahlada, and the heroic Sanhlada, the augmentor of the Daitya race 28. Amongst these, the illustrious Prahlada, looking on all things with indifference, devoted his whole faith to Janarddana. The flames that were lighted by the king of the Daityas consumed not him, in whose heart Vasudeva was cherished; and all the earth trembled when, bound with bonds, he moved amidst the waters of the ocean. His firm body, fortified by a mind engrossed by Achyuta, was unwounded by the weapons hurled on him by order of the Daitya monarch; and the serpents sent to destroy him breathed their venomous flames upon him in vain. Overwhelmed with rocks, he yet remained unhurt; for he never forgot Vishnu, and the recollection of the deity was his armour of proof. Hurled from on high by the king of the Daityas, residing in Swerga, earth received him unharmed. The wind sent into his body to wither him up was itself annihilated by him, in whom Madhusudana was present. The fierce elephants of the spheres broke their tusks, and vailed their pride, against the firm breast which the lord of the Daityas had ordered them to assault. The ministrant priests of the monarch were baffled in all their rites for the destruction of one so steadily attached to Govinda: and the thousand delusions of the fraudulent Samvara, counteracted by the discus of Krishna, were practised without
vp.1.17 and Andhaka, charged with fatal poison, bit the prince in every part of his body; but he, with thoughts immovably fixed on Krishna, felt no pain from their wounds, being immersed in rapturous recollections of that divinity. Then the snakes cried to the king, and said, "Our fangs are broken; our jewelled crests are burst; there is fever in our, hoods, and fear in our hearts; but the skin of the youth is still unscathed: have recourse, monarch of the Daityas, to some other expedient." "Ho, elephants of the skies!" exclaimed the demon; "unite your tusks, and destroy this deserter from his father, and conspirer with my foes. It is thus that often our progeny are our destruction, as fire consumes the wood from which it springs." The young prince was then assailed by the elephants of the skies, as vast as mountain peaks; cast down upon the earth, and trampled on, and gored by their tusks: but he continued to call to mind Govinda, and the tusks of the elephants were blunted against his breast. "Behold," he said to his father, "the tusks of the elephants, as hard as adamant, are blunted; but this is not by any strength of mine: calling upon Janarddana is my defence against such fearful affliction."
vp.1.18 Thus spoken to by the youth, the priests of the Daitya sovereign were incensed, and instantly had recourse to magic incantations, by which a female form, enwreathed with fiery flame, was engendered: she was of fearful aspect, and the earth was parched beneath her tread, as she approached Prahlada, and smote him with a fiery trident on the breast. In vain! for the weapon fell, broken into a hundred pieces, upon the ground. Against the breast in which the imperishable Hari resides the thunderbolt would be shivered, much more should such a weapon be split in pieces. The magic being, then directed against the virtuous prince by the wicked priest, turned upon them, and, having quickly destroyed them, disappeared. But Prahlada, beholding them perish, hastily appealed to Krishna, the eternal, for succour, and said, "Oh Janarddana! who art every where, the creator and substance of the world, preserve these Brahmans from this magical and insupportable fire. As thou art Vishnu, present in all creatures, and the protector of the world, so let these priests be restored to life. If, whilst devoted to the omnipresent Vishnu, I think no sinful resentment against my foes, let these priests be restored to life. If those who have come to slay me, those by whom poison was given me, the fire that would have burned, the elephants that would have crushed, and snakes that would have stung me, have been regarded by me as friends; if I have been unshaken in soul, and am without fault in thy sight;
vp.1.19 and piled them over him for many thousand miles: but he, still with mind undisturbed, thus offered daily praise to Vishnu, lying at the bottom of the sea, under the mountain heap. Glory" to thee, god of the lotus eye: glory to thee, most excellent of spiritual things: glory to thee, soul of all worlds: glory to thee, wielder of the sharp discus: glory to the best of Brahmans; to the friend of Brahmans and of kine; to Krishna, the preserver of the world: to Govinda be glory. To him who, as Brahma, creates the universe; who in its existence is its preserver; be praise. To thee, who at the end of the Kalpa takest the form of Rudra; to thee, who art triform; be adoration. Thou, Achyuta, art the gods, Yakshas, demons, saints, serpents, choristers and dancers of heaven, goblins, evil spirits, men, animals, birds, insects, reptiles, plants, and stones, earth, water, fire, sky, wind, sound, touch, taste, colour, flavour, mind, intellect, soul, time, and the qualities of nature: thou art all these, and the chief object of them all. Thou art knowledge and ignorance, truth and falsehood, poison and ambrosia. Thou art the performance and discontinuance of acts 4: thou art the acts which the Vedas enjoin: thou art the enjoyer of the fruit of all acts, and the means by which they are accomplished. Thou, Vishnu, who art the soul of all, art the fruit of all acts of piety. Thy universal diffusion, indicating might and goodness, is in me, in others, in all creatures, in all worlds. Holy
vp.2.3 [paragraph continues] Amtrasila 57, Brahmabodhya, Vrihadvati, Yavaksha 58, Rohi, Jambunadi, Sunasa 59, Tamasa 60, Dasi, Vasa, Varana, Asi 61, Nala, Dhritamati, Purnasa 62, Tamasi 63, Vrishabha, Brahmamedhya, Vrihadvati. These and many other large streams, as the Krishna 64, whose waters are always salubrious, and the slow flowing Mandavahini 65, the Brahmani 66, Mahagauri, Durga 67, Chitropala 68, Chitraratha, Manjula 69, Mandakini 70, Vaitarani 71, the great river Kosa 72, the Muktimati 73, Maninga 74, Pushpaveni, Utpalavati, Lohitya 75, Karatoya 76, Vrishakahwa 77, Kumari, Rishikulya 78, Marisha, Saraswati, Mandakini, Punya 79, Sarvasanga; all these, the
vp.2.6 The names of the different Narakas are as follows: Raurava, sukara, Rodha, Tala, Visasana, Mahajwala, Taptakumbha, Lavana, Vimohana, Rudhirandha, Vaitarani, Krimisa, Krimibhojana, Asipatravana, Krishna, Lalabhaksha, Daruna, Puyavaha, Papa, Vahnijwala, Adhosiras, Sandansa, Kalasutra, Tamas, Avichi, swabhojana, Apratishtha, and another Avichi 2. These and many other fearful hells are the awful provinces of the kingdom of Yama, terrible with instruments of torture and with fire; into which are hurled all those who are addicted when alive to sinful practices 3.
vp.2.6 an informer, one who lives by his wife s prostitution 7, one who attends to secular affairs on the days of the Parvas (or full and new moon, &c.) 8, an incendiary, a treacherous friend, a soothsayer, one who performs religious ceremonies for rustics, and those who sell the acid Asclepias, used in sacrifices, go to the Rudhirandha hell (whose wells are of blood). He who destroys a bee hive, or pillages a hamlet, is condemned to the Vaitarani hell. He who causes impotence, trespasses on others lands, is impure, or who lives by fraud, is punished in the hell called (black, or) Krishna. He who wantonly cuts down trees goes to the Asipatravana hell (the leaves of whose trees are swords): and a tender on sheep, and hunter of deer, to the hell termed Vahnijwala (or fiery flame); as do those who apply fire to unbaked vessels (potters). The violator of a vow, and one who breaks the rules of his order, falls into the Sandansa (or hell of pincers): and the religious student who sleeps in the day, and is, though unconsciously, defiled; and they who, though mature, are instructed in sacred literature by their children, receive punishment in the hell called swabhojana (where they feed upon dogs). These hells, and hundreds and thousands of others, are the places in which sinners pay the penalty of their crimes. As numerous as are the offences that men commit, so many are the hells in which they are punished: and all who deviate from the duties imposed upon them by their caste and
vp.2.6 For, Maitreya, suitable acts of expiation have been enjoined by the great sages for every kind of crime 12. Arduous penances for great sins, trifling ones for minor offences, have been propounded by Swayambhuva and others: but reliance upon Krishna is far better than any such expiatory acts, as religious austerity, or the like. Let any one who repents of the sin of which he may have been culpable have recourse to this best of all expiations, remembrance of Hari 13: by addressing his thoughts to Narayana at dawn, at night, at sunset, and midday, a man shall be quickly cleansed from all guilt: the whole heap of worldly sorrows is dispersed by meditating on Hari; and his worshipper, looking upon heavenly fruition as an impediment to felicity, obtains final emancipation. He
vp.2.13 Parasara. The illustrious monarch of the earth resided, Maitreya, for a considerable period at salagrama, his thoughts being wholly dedicated to god, and his conduct distinguished by kindness and every virtue, until he had effected, in the highest degree, the entire control over his mind. The Raja was ever repeating the names, Yajnesa, Achyuta, Govinda, Madhava, Ananta, Kesava, Krishna, Vishnu, Hrishikesa; nothing else did be utter, even in his dreams; nor upon anything but those names, and their import, did he ever meditate. He accepted fuel, flowers, and holy grass, for the worship of the deity, but
vp.3.3 the eleventh, Trivrishan; in the twelfth, Bharadwaja; in the thirteenth, Antariksha; in the fourteenth, Vapra; in the fifteenth, Trayyaruna 2; in the sixteenth, Dhananjaya; in the seventeenth, Kritanjaya; in the eighteenth, Rina; in the nineteenth, Bharadwaja; in the twentieth, Gotama; in the twenty first, Uttama, also called Haryatma; in the twenty second, Vena, who is likewise named Rajasravas; in the twenty third, Somasushmapana, also Trinavindu; in the twenty fourth, Riksha, the descendant of Bhrigu, who is known also by the name Valmiki; in the twenty fifth, my father sakti was the Vyasa; I was the Vyasa of the twenty sixth Dwapara, and was succeeded by Jaratkaru; the Vyasa of the twenty eighth, who followed him, was Krishna Dwaipayana. These are the twenty eight elder Vyasas, by whom, in the preceding Dwapara ages, the Veda has been divided into four. In the next Dwapara, Drauni (the son of Drona) will be the Vyasa, when my son, the Muni Krishna Dwaipayana, who is the actual Vyasa, shall cease to be (in that character) 3.
vp.3.4 Division of the Veda, in the last Dwapara age, by the Vyasa Krishna Dwaipayana. Paila made reader of the Rich; Vaisampayana of the Yajush; Jaimini of the Shun; and Sumantu of the Atharvan. Suta appointed to teach the historical poems. Origin of the four parts of the Veda. Sanhitas of the Rig veda.
vp.3.4 Parasara. The original Veda, in four parts, consisted of one hundred thousand stanzas; and from it sacrifice of ten kinds 1, the accomplisher of all desires, proceeded. In the twenty eighth Dwapara age my son Vyasa separated the four portions of the Veda into four Vedas. In the same manner as the Vedas were arranged by him, as Vedavyasa, so were they divided in former periods by all the preceding Vyasas, and by myself: and the branches into which they were subdivided by him were the same into which they had been distributed in every aggregate of the four ages. Know, Maitreya, the Vyasa called Krishna Dwaipayana to be the deity Narayana; for who else on this earth could have composed the Mahabharata 2? Into what portions the Vedas were arranged by my magnanimous son, in the Dwapara age, you shall hear.
vp.4.13 Sons of Satwata. Bhoja princes of Mrittikavati. Surya the friend of Satrajit: appears to him in a bodily form: gives him the Syamantaka gem: its brilliance and marvellous properties. Satrajit gives it to Prasena, who is killed by a lion: the lion killed by the bear Jambavat. Krishna suspected of killing Prasena, goes to look for him in the forests: traces the bear to his cave: fights with him for the jewel: the contest prolonged: supposed by his companions to be slain: he overthrows Jambavat, and marries his daughter Jambavati: returns with her and the jewel to Dwaraka: restores the jewel to Satrajit, and marries his daughter Satyabhama. Satrajit murdered by satadhanwan: avenged by Krishna. Quarrel between Krishna and Balarama. Akrura possessed of the jewel: leaves Dwaraka. Public calamities. Meeting of the Yadavas. Story of Akrura s birth: he is invited to return: accused by Krishna of having the Syamantaka jewel: produces it in full assembly: it remains in his charge: Krishna acquitted of having purloined it.
vp.4.13 On one occasion Satrajit, whilst walking along the sea shore, addressed his mind to Surya, and hymned his praises; on which the divinity appeared and stood before him. Beholding him in an indistinct shape, Satrajit said to the sun, "I have beheld thee, lord, in the heavens as a globe of fire: now do thou shew favour unto me, that I may see thee in thy proper form." On this the sun taking the jewel called Syamantaka from off his neck, placed it apart, and Satrajit beheld him of a dwarfish stature, with a body like burnished copper, and with slightly reddish eyes. Having offered his adorations, the sun desired him to demand a boon, and he requested that the jewel might become his. The sun presented it to him, and then resumed his place in the sky. Having obtained the spotless gem of gems, Satrajit wore it on his neck, and becoming as brilliant thereby as the sun himself, irradiating all the region with his splendour, he returned to Dwaraka. The inhabitants of that city, beholding him approach, repaired to the eternal male, Purushottama, who, to sustain the burden of the earth, had assumed a mortal form (as Krishna), and said to him, Lord", assuredly the divine sun is coming to visit you." But Krishna smiled, and said, "It is not the divine sun, but Satrajit, to whom aditya has presented the Syamantaka gem, and he now wears it: go and behold him without apprehension." Accordingly they departed. Satrajit having gone to his house, there deposited the jewel, which yielded daily
vp.4.13 Achyuta was of opinion that this wonderful gem should be in the possession of Ugrasena; but although he had the power of taking it from Satrajit, he did not deprive him of it, that he might not occasion ally disagreement amongst the family. Satrajit, on the other hand, fearing that Krishna would ask him for the jewel, transferred it to his brother Prasena. Now it was the peculiar property of this jewel, that although it was an inexhaustible source of good to a virtuous person, yet when worn by a man of bad character it was the cause of his death. Prasena having taken the gem, and hung it round his neck, mounted his horse, and went to the woods to hunt. In the chase he was killed by a lion. The lion, taking the jewel in his mouth, was about to depart, when he was observed and killed by Jambavat, the king of the bears, who carrying off the gem retired into his cave, and gave it to his son Sukumara to play with. When some time had elapsed, and Prasena did not appear, the Yadavas began to whisper one to another, and to say, "This is Krishna s doing: desirous of the jewel, and not obtaining it, he has perpetrated the murder of Prasena in order to get it into his possession."
vp.4.13 When these calumnious rumours came to the knowledge of Krishna, he collected a number of the Yadavas, and accompanied by them pursued the course of Prasena by the impressions of his horse s hoofs. Ascertaining by this means that he and his horse had been killed by a lion, he was acquitted by all the people of any share in his death. Desirous of recovering the gem, he thence followed the steps of the lion, and at no great distance came to the place where the lion had been killed by the bear. Following the footmarks of the latter, he arrived at the foot of a mountain, where he desired the Yadavas to await him, whilst he continued the track. Still guided by the marks of the feet, he discovered a cavern, and had scarcely entered it when he heard the nurse of Sukumara saying to him, "The lion killed Prasena; the lion has been killed by Jambavat: weep not, Sukumara, the Syamantaka is your own." Thus assured of his object, Krishna advanced into the cavern, and saw the brilliant jewel in the hands of the nurse, who was giving it as a plaything to Sukumara. The nurse soon descried his
vp.4.13 approach, and marking his eyes fixed upon the gem with eager desire, called loudly for help. Hearing her cries, Jambavat, full of anger, came to the cave, and a conflict ensued between him and Achyuta, which lasted twenty one days. The Yadavas who had accompanied the latter waited seven or eight days in expectation of his return, but as the foe of Madhu still came not forth, they concluded that he must have met his death in the cavern. "It could not have required so many days," they thought, "to overcome an enemy;" and accordingly they departed, and returned to Dwaraka, and announced that Krishna had been killed.
vp.4.13 When the relations of Achyuta heard this intelligence, they performed all the obsequial rites suited to the occasion. The food and water thus offered to Krishna in the celebration of his sraddha served to support his life, and invigorate his strength in the combat in which he was engaged; whilst his adversary, wearied by daily conflict with a powerful foe, bruised and battered in every limb by heavy blows, and enfeebled by want of food, became unable longer to resist him. Overcome by his mighty antagonist, Jambavat cast himself before him and said, "Thou, mighty being, art surely invincible by all the demons, and by the spirits of heaven, earth, or hell; much less art thou to be vanquished by mean and powerless creatures in a human shape; and still less by such as we are, who are born of brute origin. Undoubtedly thou art a portion of my sovereign lord Narayana, the defender of the universe." Thus addressed by Jambavat, Krishna explained to him fully that he had descended to take upon himself the burden of the earth, and kindly alleviated the bodily pain which the bear suffered from the fight, by touching him with his hand. Jambavat again prostrated himself before Krishna, and presented to him his daughter Jambavati, as an offering suitable to a guest. He also delivered to his visitor the Syamantaka jewel. Although a gift from such an individual was not fit for his acceptance, yet Krishna took the gem for the purpose of clearing his reputation. He then returned along with
vp.4.13 When the people of Dwaraka beheld Krishna alive and returned, they were filled with delight, so that those who were bowed down with
vp.4.13 years recovered youthful vigour; and all the Yadavas, men and women, assembled round anakadundubhi, the father of the hero, and congratulated him. Krishna related to the whole assembly of the Yadavas all that had happened, exactly as it had befallen, and restoring the Syamantaka jewel to Satrajit was exonerated from the crime of which he had been falsely accused. He then led Jambavati into the inner apartments.
vp.4.13 When Satrajit reflected that he had been the cause of the aspersions upon Krishna s character, he felt alarmed, and to conciliate the prince he gave him to wife his daughter Satyabhama. The maiden had been previously sought in marriage by several of the most distinguished Yadavas, as Akrura, Kritavarman and satadhanwan, who were highly incensed at her being wedded to another, and leagued in enmity against Satrajit. The chief amongst them, with Akrura and Kritavarman, said to satadhanwan, "This caitiff Satrajit has offered a gross insult to you, as well as to us who solicited his daughter, by giving her to Krishna: let him not live: why do you not kill him, and take the jewel? Should Achyuta therefore enter into feud with you, we will take your part." Upon this promise satadhanwan undertook to slay Satrajit.
vp.4.13 When news arrived that the sons of Pandu had been burned in the house of wax 10, Krishna, who knew the real truth, set off for Baranavata to allay the animosity of Duryodhana, and to perform the duties his relationship required. satadhanwan taking advantage of his absence, killed Satrajit in his sleep, and took possession of the gem. Upon this coming to the knowledge of Satyabhama, she immediately mounted her chariot, and, filled with fury at her father s murder, repaired to Baranavata, and told her husband how Satrajit had been killed by satadhanwan in resentment of her having been married to another, and how he had carried off the jewel; and she implored him to take prompt measures to avenge such heinous wrong. Krishna, who is ever internally placid, being informed of these transactions, said to Satyabhama, as his eyes flashed with indignation, "These are indeed
vp.4.13 audacious injuries, but I will not submit to them from so vile a wretch. They must assail the tree, who would kill the birds that there have built their nests. Dismiss excessive sorrow; it needs not your lamentations to excite any wrath." Returning forthwith to Dwaraka, Krishna took Baladeva apart, and said to him, "A lion slew Prasena, hunting in the forests; and now Satrajit has been murdered by satadhanwan. As both these are removed, the jewel which belonged to them is our common right. Up then, ascend your car, and put satadhanwan to death."
vp.4.13 Being thus excited by his brother, Balarama engaged resolutely in the enterprise; but satadhanwan, being aware of their hostile designs, repaired to Kritavarman, and required his assistance. Kritavarman, however, declined to assist him, pleading his inability to engage in a conflict with both Baladeva and Krishna. satadhanwan thus disappointed, applied to Akrura; but he said, "You must have recourse to some other protector. How should I be able to defend you? There is no one even amongst the immortals, whose praises are celebrated throughout the universe, who is capable of contending with the wielder of the discus, at the stamp of whose foot the three worlds tremble; whose hand makes the wives of the Asuras widows, whose weapons no host, however mighty, can resist: no one is capable of encountering the wielder of the ploughshare, who annihilates the prowess of his enemies by the glances of his eyes, that roll with the joys of wine; and whose vast ploughshare manifests his might, by seizing and exterminating the most formidable foes." "Since this is the case," replied satadhanwan, "and you are unable to assist me, at least accept and take care of this jewel." "I will do so," answered Akrura, "if you promise that even in the last extremity you will not divulge its being in my possession." To this satadhanwan agreed, and Akrura took the jewel; and the former mounting a very swift mare, one that could travel a hundred leagues a day, fled from Dwaraka.
vp.4.13 When Krishna heard of satadhanwan s flight, he harnessed his four horses, saivya, Sugriva, Meghapushpa, and Balahaka, to his car, and, accompanied by Balarama, set off in pursuit. The mare held her speed,
vp.4.13 and accomplished her hundred leagues; but when she reached the country of Mithila, her strength was exhausted, and she dropped down and died. satadhanwan 11 dismounting, continued his flight on foot. When his pursuers came to the place where the mare had perished, Krishna said to Balarama, "Do you remain in the car, whilst I follow the villain on foot, and put him to death; the ground here is bad; and the horses will not be able to drag the chariot across it." Balarama accordingly stayed with the car, and Krishna followed satadhanwan on foot: when he had chased him for two kos, he discharged his discus, and, although satadhanwan was at a considerable distance, the weapon struck off his head. Krishna then coining up, searched his body and his dress for the Syamantaka jewel, but found it not. He then returned to Balabhadra, and told him that they had effected the death of satadhanwan to no purpose, for the precious gem, the quintessence of all worlds, was not upon his person. When Balabhadra heard this, he flew into a violent rage, and said to Vasudeva, Shame" light upon you, to be thus greedy of wealth! I acknowledge no brotherhood with you. Here lies my path. Go whither you please; I have done with Dwaraka, with you, with all our house. It is of no use to seek to impose upon me with thy perjuries." Thus reviling his brother, who fruitlessly endeavoured to appease him, Balabhadra went to the city of Videha, where Janaka 12 received him hospitably, and there he remained.
vp.4.13 eva returned to Dwaraka. It was during his stay in the dwelling of Janaka that Duryodhana, the son of Dhritarashtra, learned from Balabhadra the art of fighting with the mace. At the expiration of three years, Ugrasena and other chiefs of the Yadavas, being satisfied that Krishna had not the jewel, went to Videha, and removed Balabhadra s suspicions, and brought him home.
vp.4.13 Agreeably to the advice of Audhaka the elder, the Yadavas sent a mission, headed by Kesava, Ugrasena, and Balabhadra, to assure Akrura that no notice would be taken of any irregularity committed by him; and having satisfied him that he was in no danger, they brought him back to Dwaraka. Immediately on his arrival, in consequence of the properties of the jewel, the plague, dearth, famine, and every other calamity and portent, ceased. Krishna, observing this, reflected 15 that the descent of Akrura from Gandini and swaphalka was a cause wholly disproportionate to such an effect, and that some more powerful influence must be exerted to arrest pestilence and famine. "Of a surety," said he to himself, "the great Syamantaka jewel is in his keeping, for such I have heard are amongst its properties. This Akrura too has been lately celebrating sacrifice after sacrifice; his own means are insufficient for such expenses; it is beyond a doubt that he has the jewel." Having come to this conclusion, he called a meeting of all the Yadavas at his house, under the pretext of some festive celebration. When they were all seated, and the. purport of their assembling had been explained, and the business accomplished, Krishna entered into conversation with Akrura, and, after laughing and joking, said to him, Kinsman", you are a very prince in your liberality; but we know very well that the precious jewel which was stolen by Sudhanwan was delivered by him to you, and is now in your possession, to
vp.4.13 When the Yadavas beheld the jewel, they were filled with astonishment, and loudly expressed their delight. Balabhadra immediately claimed the jewel as his property jointly with Achyuta, as formerly agreed upon; whilst Satyabhama, demanded it as her right, as it had originally belonged to her father. Between these two Krishna considered himself as an ox between the two wheels of a cart, and thus spake to Akrura in the presence of all the Yadavas: "This jewel has been exhibited to the assembly in order to clear my reputation; it is the joint right of Balabhadra and myself, and is the patrimonial inheritance of Satyabhama. But this jewel, to be of advantage to the whole kingdom, should be taken charge of by a person who leads a life of perpetual continence: if worn by an impure individual, it will be the cause of his death. Now as I have sixteen thousand wives, I am not qualified to have the care of it. It is not likely that Satyabhama will agree to the
vp.4.13 He who calls to mind the vindication of the character of Krishna from false aspersions, shall never become the subject of unfounded accusation in the least degree, and living in the full exercise of his senses shall be cleansed from every sin 16.
vp.4.15 Explanation of the reason why sisupala in his previous births as Hiranyakasipu and Ravana was not identified with Vishnu on being slain by him, and was so identified when killed as sisupala. The wives of Vasudeva: his children: Balarama and Krishna his sons by Devaki: born apparently of Rohini and Yasoda. The wives and children of Krishna. Multitude of the descendants of Yadu.
vp.4.15 mind; and in speaking constantly with disrespect of Achyuta, he was ever repeating his different appellations. Whether walking, eating, sitting, or sleeping, his animosity was never at rest, and Krishna was ever present to his thoughts in his ordinary semblance, having eyes as beautiful as the leaf of the lotus, clad in bright yellow raiment, decorated with a garland, with bracelets on his arms and wrists, and a diadem on his head; having four robust arms, bearing the conch, the discus, the mace, and the lotus. Thus uttering his names, even though in malediction, and dwelling upon his image, though in enmity, he beheld Krishna, when inflicting his death, radiant with resplendent weapons, bright with ineffable splendour in his own essence as the supreme being, and all his passion and hatred ceased, and he was purified front every defect. Being killed by the discus of Vishnu at the instant he thus meditated, all his sins were consumed by his divine adversary, and he was blended with him by whose might he had been slain. I have thus replied to your inquiries. He by whom the divine Vishnu is named or called to recollection, even in enmity, obtains a reward that is difficult of attainment to the demons and the gods: how much greater shall be his recompense who glorifies the deity in fervour and in faith!
vp.4.20 The son of santanu was the illustrious and learned Bhishma, who was born to him by the holy river goddess, Ganga; and he had by his wife Satyavati two sons, Chitrangada and Vichitraviryya. Chitrangada, whilst yet a youth, was killed in a conflict with a Gandharba, also called Chitrangada. Vichitraviryya married Amba and Ambalika, the daughters of the king of Kasi; and indulging too freely in connubial rites, fell into a consumption, of which he died. By command of Satyavati, my son Krishna dwaipayana, ever obedient to his mother s wishes 4, begot upon the widows of his brother the princes Dhritarashtra and Pandu, and upon a female servant, Vidura. Dhritarashtra had Duryodhana, Duhsasana, and other sons, to the cumber of a hundred. Pandu having incurred the curse of a deer, whose mate he had killed in the chase, was deterred from procreating children; and his wife Kunti, bare to him in consequence three sons, who were begotten by the deities Dharma, Vayu, and Indra; namely, Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuna: and his wife Madri had two sons, Nakula and Sahadeva, by the celestial sons of Aswini. These had each a son by Draupadi. The son of Yudhishthira was Prativindhya; of Bhima, srutasoma; of Arjuna, srutakirtti; of Nakula, satanika; and of Sahadeva, srutakarman. The Pandavas had also other sons 5. By his wife Yaudheyi, Yudhishthira had Devaka.
vp.4.20 [paragraph continues] The son of Bhima by Hidimba was Ghatotkacha, and he had also Sarvatraga by his wife Kasi. The son of Sahadeva by Vijaya was Suhotra; and Niramitra was the son of Nakula by Karenumati. Arjuna had Iravat by the serpent nymph Ulupi; Babhruvahana, who was adopted as the son of his maternal grandfather, by the daughter of the king of Manipura; and, by his wife Subhadra Abhimanyu, who even in extreme youth was renowned for his valour and his strength, and crushed the chariots of his foes in fight. The son of Abhimanyu by his wife Uttara was Parikshit, who, after the Kurus were all destroyed, was killed in his mother s womb by the magic Brahma weapon, hurled by Aswatthaman: he was however restored to life by the clemency of that being whose feet receive the homage of all the demons and the gods, and who for his own pleasure had assumed a human shape Krishna(). This prince, Parikshit, now reigns over the whole world with undivided sway 6.
vp.4.24 Susarman the Kanwa will be killed by a powerful servant named sipraka, of the andhra tribe, who will become king, and found the andhrabhritya dynasty 39: he will be succeeded by his brother Krishna 40; his son will be sri satakarni 41; his son will be Purnotsanga 42; his son will be satakarni (2nd) 43; his son will be Lambodara 44; his son will be Ivilaka 45; his son will be Meghaswati 46; his son will be Patumat 47; his
vp.4.24 [paragraph continues] Parikshit they were in Magha, and the Kali age then commenced, which consists of 1200 (divine) years. When the portion of Vishnu (that had been born from Vasudeva) returned to heaven, then the Kali age commenced. As long as the earth was touched by his sacred feet, the Kali age could not affect it. As soon as the incarnation of the eternal Vishnu had departed, the son of Dharma, Yudhishthira, with his brethren, abdicated the sovereignty. Observing unpropitious portents, consequent upon Krishna s disappearance, he placed Parikshit upon the throne. When the seven Rishis are in Purvashadha, then Nanda will begin to reign 83, and thenceforward the influence of the Kali will augment.
vp.4.24 The day that Krishna shall have departed from the earth will be the first of the Kali age, the duration of which you shall hear; it will continue for 360,000 years of mortals. After twelve hundred divine years shall have elapsed, the Krita age shall be renewed.
vp.5.3 Birth of Krishna: conveyed by Vasudeva to Mathura, and exchanged with the new born daughter of Yasoda. Kansa attempts to destroy the latter, who becomes Yoganidra.
vp.5.5 Nanda returns with the infants Krishna and Balarama to Gokula. Putana killed by the former. Prayers of Nanda and Yasoda.
vp.5.5 Some time after they were settled at Gokula, the female fiend Putana, the child killer, came thither by night, and finding the little Krishna asleep, took him up, and gave him her breast to suck 2. Now whatever child is suckled in the night by Putana instantly dies; but Krishna, laying hold of the breast with both hands, sucked it with such violence, that he drained it of the life; and the hideous Putana, roaring aloud, and giving way in every joint, fell on the ground expiring. The inhabitants of Vraja awoke in alarm at the cries of the fiend, ran to the spot, and beheld Putana lying on the earth, and Krishna in her arms. Yasoda snatching up Krishna, waved over him a cow tail brush to guard him from harm, whilst Nanda placed dried cow dung powdered upon his
vp.5.6 Krishna overturns a waggon; casts down two trees. The Gopas depart to Vrindavana. Sports of the boys. Description of the season of the rains.
vp.5.6 The initiatory rites requisite for the two boys were performed by Garga, who was sent to Gokula by Vasudeva for that purpose: he celebrated them without the knowledge of the cowherds 1; and the wise sage, eminent amongst the wise, named the elder of them Rama, and the other Krishna. In a short time they began to crawl about the ground, supporting themselves on their hands and knees, and creeping every where, often amidst ashes and filth. Neither Rohini nor Yasoda was able to prevent them from getting into the cowpens, or amongst the calves, where they amused themselves by pulling their tails. As they disregarded the prohibitions of Yasoda, and rambled about together constantly, she became angry, and taking up a stick, followed them, and threatened the dark complexioned Krishna with a whipping. Fastening a cord round his waist, she tied him to the wooden mortar 2, and being in
vp.5.6 a great passion, she said to him, "Now, you naughty boy, get away from hence if you can." She then went about her domestic affairs. As soon as she had departed, the lotus eyed Krishna, endeavouring to extricate himself, pulled the mortar after him to the space between two Arjuna trees that grew near together: having dragged the mortar between these trees, it became wedged awry there, and as Krishna pulled it through, it pulled down the trunks of the trees. Hearing the crackling noise, the people of Vraja came to see what was the matter, and there they beheld the two large trees, with shattered stems and broken branches, prostrate on the ground, with the child fixed between them, with a rope round his belly, laughing, and shewing his white little teeth, just budded. It is hence that Krishna is called Damodara, from the binding of the rope (dama) round his belly (udara) 3. The elders of the cowherds, with Nanda at their head, looked upon these circumstances with alarm, considering them as of evil omen. "We cannot remain in this place," said they; "let us go to some other part of the forest; for here many evil signs threaten us with destruction; the death of Putana, the upsetting of the waggon, and the fall of the trees without their being blown down by the wind. Let us depart hence without delay, and go to Vrindavana, where terrestrial prodigies may no more disturb us."
vp.5.6 Having thus resolved, the inhabitants of Vraja communicated their intention to their families, and desired them to move without delay. Accordingly they set off with their waggons and their cattle, driving before them their bulls and cows and calves; the fragments of their household stores they threw away, and in an instant Vraja was overspread with flights of crows. Vrindavana was chosen by Krishna, whom acts do not affect, for the sake of providing for the nourishment of the
vp.5.6 At this time Krishna and Rama, accompanied by the cow boys, traversed the forests, that echoed with the hum of bees and the peacock s cry. Sometimes they sang in chorus, or danced together; sometimes they sought shelter from the cold beneath the trees; sometimes they decorated themselves with flowery garlands, sometimes with peacocks feathers; sometimes they stained themselves of various hues with the minerals of the mountain; sometimes weary they reposed on beds of leaves, and sometimes imitated in mirth the muttering of the thundercloud; sometimes they excited their juvenile associates to sing, and sometimes they mimicked the cry of the peacock with their pipes. In this manner participating in various feelings and emotions, and affectionately attached to each other, they wandered, sporting and happy, through the wood. At eveningtide came Krishna and Balarama, like two cow boys, along with the cows and the cowherds. At eveningtide the two immortals, having come to the cow pens, joined heartily in whatever sports amused the sons of the herdsmen.
vp.5.7 Krishna combats the serpent Kaliya: alarm of his parents and companions: he overcomes the serpent, and is propitiated by him: commands him to depart from the Yamuna river to the ocean.
vp.5.7 ONE day Krishna, unaccompanied by Rama, went to Vrindavana: he was attended by a troop of cowherds, and gaily decorated with wild flowers. On his way he came to the Yamuna, which was flowing in sportive undulations, and sparkling with foam, as if with smiles, as the waves dashed against the borders. Within its bed, however, was the fearful pool of the serpent Kaliya, boiling with the fires of poison 1; from the fumes of which, large trees upon the bank were blighted, and by whose waters, when raised by a gale into the air, birds were scorched. Beholding this dreadful lake, which was like another mouth of death, Madhusudana reflected that the wicked and poisonous Kaliya, who had been vanquished by himself (in the person of Garuda), and had been obliged to fly from the ocean (where he had inhabited the island Ramanaka), must be lurking at its bottom, and defiling the Yamuna, the consort of the sea, so that neither men nor cattle could slake their thirst by her waters. Such being the case, he determined to dislodge the Naga, and enable the dwellers of Vraja to frequent the vicinage without fear; for it was the especial purpose he considered of his descent upon earth to reduce to subjection all such violators of law. "Here," thought he, "is a Kadamba tree, which is sufficiently near; I can climb up it, and thence leap into the serpent s pool." Having thus resolved, he bound his clothes tightly about him, and jumped boldly into the lake of the serpent king. The waters, agitated
vp.5.7 poisonous vapour combined with the water; and the whole horizon was in a blaze. Krishna, having dived into the pool, struck his arms in defiance 3, and the snake king, hearing the sound, quickly came forth: his eyes were coppery red, and his hoods were flaming with deadly venom: he was attended by many other powerful and poisonous snakes, feeders upon air, and by hundreds of serpent nymphs, decorated with rich jewels, whose earrings glittered with trembling radiance as the wearers moved along. Coiling themselves around Krishna, they all bit him with teeth from which fiery poison was emitted. Krishna s companions, beholding him in the lake, encompassed by the snakes, twining around him, ran off to Vraja, lamenting and bewailing aloud his fate. Krishna"," they called out, "has foolishly plunged into the serpent s pool, and is there bitten to death by the snake king! Come and see." The cowherds and their wives and Yasoda, hearing this news, which was like a thunderbolt, ran immediately to the pool, frightened out of their senses, and crying, "Alas! alas! where is he?" The Gopis were retarded by Yasoda, who in her agitation stumbled and slipped at every step; but Nanda and the cowherds and the invincible Rama hastened to the banks of the Yamuna, eager to assist Krishna. There they beheld him apparently in the power of the serpent king, encompassed by twining snakes, and making no effort to escape. Nanda, as soon as he set his eyes upon his son, became senseless; and Yasoda
vp.5.7 when she beheld him, lost all consciousness. The Gopis, overcome with sorrow, wept, and called affectionately, and with convulsive sobs, upon Kesava. "Let us all," said they, "plunge with Yasoda into the fearful pool of the serpent king. We cannot return to Vraja; for what is day, without the sun? what night, without the moon? what is a herd of heifers, without its lord? what is Vraja, without Krishna? Deprived of him, we will go no more to Gokula. The forest will lose its delights; it will be like a lake without water. When this dark lotus leaf complexioned Hari is not present, there is no joy in the maternal dwelling. How strange is this! And as for you, ye cowherds, how, poor beings, will you live amidst the pastures, when you no longer
vp.5.7 When the mighty son of Rohini, Balarama, heard these exclamations of the Gopis, and with disdainful glance beheld the cowherds overcome with terror, Nanda gazing fixedly upon the countenance of his son, and Yasoda unconscious, he spake to Krishna in his own character: "What is this, O god of gods! the quality of mortal is sufficiently assumed; dost thou not know thyself eternal? Thou art the centre of creation, as the nave is of the spokes of a wheel. A portion of thee have I also been born, as thy senior. The gods, to partake of thy pastimes as man, have all descended under a like disguise; and the goddesses have come down to Gokula to join in thy sports. Thou, eternal, hast last of all appeared below. Wherefore, Krishna, dost thou disregard these divinities, who, as cowherds, are thy friends and kin? these sorrowing females, who also are thy relations? Thou hast put on the character of man; thou hast exhibited the tricks of childhood: now let this fierce snake, though armed with venomed fangs, be subdued (by thy celestial vigour)."
vp.5.7 Thus reminded of his real character by Rama, Krishna smiled gently, and speedily extricated himself from the coils of the snakes. Laying hold of the middle hood of their chief with both his hands, he bent it down, and set his foot upon the hitherto unbended head, and danced upon it in triumph. Wherever the snake attempted to raise his head, it was again trodden down, and many bruises were inflicted on the hood by the pressure of the toes of Krishna. Trampled upon by the feet of Krishna, as they changed position in the dance, the snake fainted, and vomited forth much blood 3. Beholding the head and neck of their lord thus injured, and the blood flowing from his mouth, the females of the snake king implored the clemency of Madhusudana. "Thou art recognised,
vp.5.7 Being thus addressed by Kaliya, Krishna replied, "You must not tarry here, nor any where in the stream of the Yamuna; depart immediately, with your family and followers, to the sea; where Garuda, the foe of the serpent race, will not harm you, when he sees the impressions of my feet upon your brow." So saying, Hari set the snake king at liberty, who, bowing reverentially to his victor, departed to the ocean; abandoning, in the sight of all, the lake he had haunted, accompanied by all his females, children, and dependants. When the snake was gone, the Gopas hailed Govinda, as one risen from the dead, and embraced him, and bathed his forehead with tears of joy: others, contemplating the water of the river, now freed from peril, were filled with wonder, and sang the praise of Krishna, who is unaffected by works. Thus eminent by his glorious exploits, and eulogized by the Gopas and Gopas, Krishna returned to Vraja.
vp.5.8 AGAIN, tending upon the herds, Kesava and Rama wandered through the woods, and on one occasion came to a pleasing grove of palms, where dwelt the fierce demon Dhenuka, feeding upon the flesh of deer. Beholding the trees covered with fruit, and desirous of gathering it, the cowherds called out to the brothers, and said, "See, Rama; see, Krishna; in this grove, belonging to the great Dhenuka, the trees are loaded with ripe fruit, the smell of which perfumes the air: we should like to eat some. Will you throw some down?" As soon as the boys had spoken, Sankarshana and Krishna shook the trees, and brought down the fruit on the ground. Hearing the noise of the falling fruit, the fierce and malignant demon Dhenuka, in the form of an ass, hastened to the spot in a great passion, and began to kick Rama on the breast with his hinder heels. Rama, however, seized him by both hind legs, and whirling him round until he expired, tossed his carcass to the top of a palm tree, from the branches of which it struck down abundance of fruit, like rain drops poured upon earth by the wind. The animals that were of kin to Dhenuka came running to his aid; but Krishna and Rama treated them in the same manner, until the trees were laden with dead asses, and the ground was strewed with ripe fruit. Henceforward the cattle grazed unobstructed in the palm grove, and cropped the new pasturage, where they had never before ventured 1.
vp.5.9 Sports of the boys in the forest. Pralamba the Asura comes amongst them: is destroyed by Rama, at the command of Krishna.
vp.5.9 Having observed the two lads thus playing about, the Asura Pralamba, seeking to devour them, came amongst the cowherd boys in the shape of one of themselves, and mixed, without being suspected, in their pastimes; for he thought, that, thus disguised, it would not be difficult to find an opportunity to kill, first Krishna, and afterwards the son of Rohini. The boys commenced playing at the game of leaping like deer, two and two together 1. Govinda was matched with Sridaman, and
vp.5.9 [paragraph continues] Balarama with Pralamba: the other boys were coupled with one another, and went leaping away. Govinda beat his companion, and Balarama his; and the boys who were on Krishna s side were also victorious. Carrying one another, they reached the Bhandira fig; and from thence those who were victors were conveyed back to the starting ground by those who were vanquished. It being Pralamba s duty to carry Sankarshana, the latter mounted upon his shoulders, like the moon riding above a dark cloud; and the demon ran off with him, but did not stop: finding himself, however, unable to bear the weight of Balarama, he enlarged his bulk, and looked like a black cloud in the rainy season, Balarama beholding him like a scorched mountain, his head crowned with a diadem, and his neck hung round with garlands, having eyes as large as cart wheels, a fearful form, and shaking the earth with his tread, called out, as he was carried away, to his brother, Krishna", Krishna, I am carried off by some demon, disguised as a cowherd, and huge as a mountain! What shall I do? Tell me, Madhusudana: the villain runs away with speed!" Krishna opened his mouth, smiling, for he well knew the might of the son of Rohini, and replied, "Why this subtle pretext of merely mortal nature? thou who art the soul of all the most subtile of subtile things. Remember yourself, the radical cause of the whole world; born before all cause, and all that is alone when the world is destroyed. Dost thou not
vp.5.9 Thus reminded by the magnanimous Krishna, the powerful Baladeva laughed, and squeezed Pralamba with his knees, striking him at the same time on the head and face with his fists, so as to beat out both his
vp.5.9 eyes. The demon, vomiting blood from his mouth, and having his brain forced through the skull, fell upon the ground, and expired. The Gopas, beholding Pralamba slain, were astonished, and rejoiced, and cried out, "Well done," and praised Balarama: and thus commended by his playfellows, and accompanied by Krishna, Bala, after the death of the daitya Pralamba, returned to Gokula 3.
vp.5.10 Description of autumn. Krishna dissuades Nanda from worshipping Indra: recommends him and the Gopas to worship cattle and the mountains.
vp.5.10 At this season, when the skies were bright with stars, Krishna, repairing to Vraja, found all the cowherds busily engaged in preparing for a sacrifice to be offered to Indra 2; and going to the elders, he asked them, as if out of curiosity, what festival of Indra it was in which they took so much pleasure. Nanda replied to his question, and said, "satakratu or Indra is the sovereign of the clouds and of the waters: sent by him, the former bestow moisture upon the earth, whence springs the grain, by which we and all embodied beings subsist; with which also, and with water, we please the gods: hence too these cows bear calves, and yield milk, and are happy, and well nourished. So when the clouds are seen distended with rain, the earth is neither barren of corn, nor bare of verdure, nor is man distressed by hunger. Indra, the giver of water, having drank the milk of earth by the solar ray, sheds it again upon the earth for the sustenance of all the world. On this account all sovereign princes offer with pleasure sacrifices to Indra at the end of the rains, and so also do we, and so do other people."
vp.5.10 When Krishna heard this speech from Nanda in regard to the worship of Indra, he determined to put the king of the celestials into a
vp.5.10 When Nanda and the other Gopas heard these words of Krishna, their faces expanded with delight, and they said that he had spoken well. "You have judged rightly, child," exclaimed they; "we will do exactly as you have proposed, and offer adoration to the mountain." Accordingly the inhabitants of Vraja worshipped the mountain, presenting to it curds and milk and flesh; and they fed hundreds and thousands of Brahmans, and many other guests, who came to the ceremony, even as Krishna had enjoined: and when they had made their offerings, they circumambulated the cows and the bulls, that bellowed as loud as roaring clouds. Upon the summit of Govarddhana, Krishna presented himself, saying, "I am the mountain," and partook of much food presented by the Gopas; whilst in his own form as Krishna he ascended the hill along with the cowherds, and worshipped his other self 5. Having promised them many blessings, the mountain person of Krishna vanished; and the ceremony being completed, the cowherds returned to their station.
vp.5.11 Indra, offended by the loss of his offerings, causes heavy rain to deluge Gokula. Krishna holds up the mountain Govarddhana to shelter the cowherds and their cattle.
vp.5.11 Indra, being thus disappointed of his offerings, was exceedingly angry, and thus addressed a cohort of his attendant clouds, called Samvarttaka: "Ho, clouds," he said, "hear my words, and without delay execute what I command. The insensate cowherd Nanda, assisted by his fellows, has withheld the usual offerings to us, relying upon the protection of Krishna. Now, therefore, afflict the cattle, that are their sustenance, and whence their occupation is derived, with rain and wind. Mounted upon my elephant, as vast as a mountain peak, I will give you aid in strengthening the tempest." When Indra ceased, the clouds, obedient to his commands, came down, in a fearful storm of rain and wind, to destroy the cattle. In an instant the earth, the points of the horizon, and the sky, were all blended into one by the heavy and incessant shower. The clouds roared aloud, as if in terror of the lightning s scourge, and poured down uninterrupted torrents. The whole earth was enveloped in impenetrable darkness by the thick and volumed clouds; and above, below, and on every side, the world was water. The cattle, pelted by the storm, shrunk cowering into the smallest size, or gave up their breath: some covered their calves with their flanks, and some beheld their young ones carried away by the flood. The calves, trembling in the wind, looked piteously at their mothers, or implored in low moans, as it were, the succour of Krishna. Hari, beholding all Gokula agitated with alarm, cowherds,
vp.5.11 ses, and cattle all in a state of consternation, thus reflected: "This is the work of Mahendra, in resentment of the prevention of his sacrifice, and it is incumbent on me to defend this station of herdsmen. I will lift up this spacious mountain from its stony base, and hold it up, as a large umbrella, over the cow pens." Having thus determined, Krishna immediately plucked up the mountain Govarddhana, and held it aloft with one hand in sport, saying to the herdsmen, "Lo the mountain
vp.5.11 is on high; enter beneath it quickly, and it will shelter you from the storm: here you will be secure and at your ease in places defended from the wind: enter without delay, and fear not that the mountain will fall." Upon this, all the people, with their herds, and their waggons and goods, and the Gopis, distressed by the rain, repaired to the shelter of the mountain, which Krishna held steadily over their heads; and Krishna, as he supported the mountain, was contemplated by the dwellers of Vraja with joy and wonder; and, as their eyes opened wide with astonishment and pleasure, the Gopas and Gopis sang his praise. For seven days and nights did the vast clouds sent by Indra rain upon the Gokula of Nanda to destroy its inhabitants, but they were protected by the elevation of the mountain; and the slayer of Bala, Indra, being foiled in his purpose, commanded the clouds to cease. The threats of Indra having been fruitless, and the heavens clear, all Gokula came forth from its shelter, and returned to its own abode. Then Krishna, in the sight of the surprised inhabitants of the forests, restored the great mountain Govarddhana to its original site 1.
vp.5.12 Indra comes to Gokula: praises Krishna, and makes him prince over the cattle. Krishna promises to befriend Arjuna.
vp.5.12 AFTER Gokula had been saved by the elevation of the mountain, Indra became desirous of beholding Krishna. The conqueror of his foes accordingly mounted his vast elephant Airavata, and came to Govarddhana, where the king of the gods beheld the mighty Damodara tending cattle, and assuming the person of a cow boy, and, although the preserver of the whole world, surrounded by the sons of the herdsmen: above his head he saw Garuda, the king of birds, invisible to mortals, spreading out his wings to shade the head of Hari. Alighting from his elephant, and addressing him apart, sakra, his eyes expanding with pleasure, thus spake to Madhusudana: "Hear, Krishna, the reason why I have come hither; why I have approached thee; for thou couldest not otherwise conceive it. Thou, who art the supporter of all, hast descended upon earth, to relieve her of her burden. In resentment of my obstructed rites I sent the clouds to deluge Gokula, and they have done this evil deed. Thou, by raising up the mountain, hast preserved the cattle; and of a verity I am much pleased, O hero, with thy wondrous deed. The object of the gods is now, methinks, accomplished, since with thy single hand thou hast raised aloft this chief of mountains. I have now come by desire of the cattle 1, grateful for their preservation, in order to install you as Upendra; and, as the Indra of the cows, thou shalt be called Govinda 2." Having thus said, Mahendra took a ewer from his elephant
vp.5.12 When Indra had, by direction of the kine, inaugurated Krishna, the husband of sachi said to him affectionately, "I have thus performed what the cows enjoined me. Now, illustrious being, hear what farther I propose, with a view to facilitate your task. A portion of me has been born as Arjuna, the son of Pritha: let him ever be defended by thee, and he will assist thee in bearing thy burden. He is to be cherished by thee, Madhusudana, like another self." To this Krishna replied, "I know thy son, who has been born in the race of Bharata, and I will
vp.5.12 Upon Krishna s ceasing to speak, he and Indra mutually embraced; and the latter, mounting his elephant Airavata, returned to heaven. Krishna, with the cattle and the herdsmen, went his way to Vraja, where the wives of the Gopas watched for his approach.
vp.5.13 Krishna praised by the cowherds: his sports with the Gopis: their imitation and love of hire. The Rasa dance.
vp.5.13 AFTER sakra had departed, the cowherds said to Krishna, whom they had seen holding up Govarddhana, "We have been preserved, together with our cattle, from a great peril, by your supporting the mountain above us; but this is very astonishing child s play, unsuitable to the condition of a herdsman, and all thy actions are those of a god. Tell us what is the meaning of all this. Kaliya has been conquered in the lake; Pralamba has been killed; Govarddhana has been lifted up: our minds are filled with amazement. Assuredly we repose at the feet of Hari, O thou of unbounded might! for, having witnessed thy power, we cannot believe thee to be a man. Thy affection, Kesava, for our women and children, and for Vraja; the deeds that thou hast wrought, which all the gods would have attempted in vain; thy boyhood, and thy prowess; thy humiliating birth amongst us; are contradictions that fill us with doubt, whenever we think of them. Yet reverence be to thee, whether thou be a god, or a demon, or a Yaksha, or a Gandharba, or whatever we may deem thee; for thou art our friend." When they had ended, Krishna remained silent for some time, as if hurt and offended, and then replied to them, Herdsmen", if you are not ashamed of my relationship; if I have merited your praise; what occasion is there for you to engage in any discussion concerning me? If you have any regard for me; if I have deserved your praise; then be satisfied to know that I am your kinsman. I am neither god, nor Yaksha, nor
vp.5.13 ndharba, nor Danava; I have been born your relative, and you must not think differently of me." Upon receiving this answer, the Gopas held their peace, and went into the woods, leaving Krishna apparently displeased.
vp.5.13 But Krishna, observing the clear sky bright with the autumnal moon, and the air perfumed with the fragrance of the wild water lily, in whose buds the clustering bees were murmuring their songs, felt inclined to join with the Gopis in sport. Accordingly he and Rama commenced
vp.5.13 singing sweet low strains in various measures, such as the women loved; and they, as soon as they heard the melody, quitted their homes, and hastened to meet the foe of Madhu. One damsel gently sang an accompaniment to his song; another attentively listened to his melody: one calling out upon his name, then shrunk abashed; whilst another, more bold, and instigated by affection, pressed close to his side: one, as she sallied forth, beheld some of the seniors of the family, and dared not venture, contenting herself with meditating on Krishna with closed eyes, and entire devotion, by which immediately all acts of merit were effaced by rapture, and all sin was expiated by regret at not beholding him: and others, again, reflecting upon the cause of the world, in the form of the supreme Brahma, obtained by their sighing final emancipation. Thus surrounded by the Gopis, Krishna thought the lovely moonlight night of autumn propitious to the Rasa dance 1. Many of the Gopis imitated the different actions of Krishna, and in his absence wandered through Vrindavana, representing his person. "I am Krishna," cries one; "behold the elegance of my movements." "I am Krishna," exclaims another; "listen to my song." "Vile Kaliya, stay! for I am Krishna," is repeated by a third, slapping her arms in defiance. A fourth calls out, Herdsmen", fear nothing; be steady; the danger of the storm is over, for, lo, I lift up Govarddhana for your shelter." And a fifth proclaims, "Now let the herds graze
vp.5.13 ere they will, for I have destroyed Dhenuka." Thus in various actions of Krishna the Gopis imitated him, whilst away, and beguiled their sorrow by mimicking his sports. Looking down upon the ground, one damsel calls to her friend, as the light down upon her body stands erect with joy, and the lotuses of her eyes expand, "See here are the marks of Krishna s feet, as he has gone alone sportively, and left the impressions of the banner, fife thunderbolt, and the goad 2. What lovely maiden has been his companion, inebriate with
vp.5.13 passion, as her irregular footmarks testify? Here Damodara has gathered flowers from on high, for we see alone the impressions of the tips of his feet. Here a nymph has sat down with him, ornamented with flowers, fortunate in having propitiated Vishnu in a prior existence. Having left her in an arrogant mood, because he had offered her flowers, the son of Nanda has gone by this road; for see, unable to follow him with equal steps, his associate has here tripped along upon her toes, and, holding his hand, the damsel has passed, as is evident from the uneven and intermingled footsteps. But the rogue has merely taken her hand, and left her neglected, for here the paces indicate the path of a person in despair. Undoubtedly he promised that he would quickly come again, for here are his own footsteps returning with speed. Here he has entered the thick forest, impervious to the rays of the moon, and his steps can be traced no farther." Hopeless then of beholding Krishna, the Gopis returned, and repaired to the banks of the Yamuna, where they sang his songs; and presently they beheld the preserver of the three worlds, with a smiling aspect, hastening towards them: on which, one exclaimed, Krishna"! Krishna!" unable to articulate any thing else: another affected to contract her forehead with frowns, as drinking with the bees of her eyes the lotus of the face of Hari: another, closing her eyelids, contemplated internally his form, as if engaged in an act of devotion. Then Madhava,
vp.5.13 ing amongst them, conciliated some with soft speeches, some with gentle looks, and some he took by the hand; and the illustrious deity sported with them in the stations of the dance. As each of the Gopis, however, attempted to keep in one place, close to the side of Krishna, the circle of the dance could not be constructed, and he therefore took each by the hand, and when their eyelids were shut by the effects of such touch, the circle was formed 3. Then proceeded the dance
vp.5.13 to the music of their clashing bracelets, and songs that celebrated in suitable strain the charms of the autumnal season. Krishna sang the
vp.5.13 moon of autumn, a mine of gentle radiance; but the nymphs repeated the praises of Krishna alone. At times, one of them, wearied by the revolving dance, threw her arms, ornamented with tinkling bracelets, round the neck of the destroyer of Madhu: another, skilled in the art of singing his praises, embraced him. The drops of perspiration from the arms of Hari were like fertilizing rain, which produced a crop of down upon the temples of the Gopis. Krishna sang the strain that was appropriate to the dance. The Gopis repeatedly exclaimed, "Bravo, Krishna!" to his song. When leading, they followed him; when returning, they encountered him; and, whether he went forwards or backwards, they ever attended on his steps. Whilst frolicking thus with the Gopis, they considered every instant without him a myriad of years; and, prohibited in vain by husbands, fathers, brothers, they went forth at night to sport with Krishna, the object of their affection. Thus the illimitable being, the benevolent remover of all imperfections, assumed the character of a youth amongst the females of the herdsmen of Vraja; pervading their natures, and that of their lords, by his own essence, all diffusive like the wind: for even as in all creatures the elements of ether, fire, earth, water, and air, are comprehended, so also is he every where present, and in all.
vp.5.14 Krishna kills the demon Arishta, in the form of a bull.
vp.5.14 ONE evening, whilst Krishna and the Gopis were amusing themselves in the dance, the demon Arishta, disguised as a savage bull, came to the spot, after having spread alarm through the station. His colour was that of a cloud charged with rain; he had vast horns, and his eyes were like two fiery suns: as he moved, he ploughed up the ground with his hoofs: his tongue was repeatedly licking his lips; his tail was erect; the sinews of his shoulders were firm, and between them rose a hump of enormous dimensions; his haunches were soiled with ordure, and he was a terror to the herds; his dewlap hung low, and his face was marked with scars from butting against the trees. Terrifying all the kine, the demon who perpetually haunts the forests in the shape of a bull, destroying hermits and ascetics, advanced. Beholding an animal of such a formidable aspect, the herdsmen and their women were exceedingly frightened, and called aloud on Krishna, who came to their succour, shouting and slapping his arm in defiance. When the Daitya heard the noise, he turned upon his challenger, and fixing his eyes and pointing his horns at the belly of Kesava, he ran furiously upon the youth. Krishna stirred not from his post, but, smiling in sport and derision, awaited the near approach of the bull, when he seized him as an alligator would have done, and held him firmly by the horns, whilst he pressed his sides with his knees. Having thus humbled his pride, and held him captive by his horns, he wrung his
vp.5.14 roat, as if it had been a piece of wet cloth; and then tearing off one of the horns, he beat the fierce demon with it until he died, vomiting blood from his mouth. Seeing him slain, the herdsmen glorified Krishna, as the companies of the celestials of old praised Indra, when he triumphed over the Asura Jambha 1.
vp.5.15 Kansa informed by Narada of the existence of Krishna and Balarama: he sends Kesin to destroy them, and Akrura to bring them to Mathura.
vp.5.15 AFTER these things had come to pass, Arishta the bull demon and Dhenuka and Pralamba had been slain, Govarddhana had been lifted up, the serpent Kaliya had been subdued, the two trees had been broken, the female fiend Putana had been killed, and the waggon had been overturned, Narada went to Kansa, and related to him the whole, beginning with the transference of the child from Devaki to Yasoda, Hearing this from Narada, Kansa was highly incensed with Vasudeva, and bitterly reproached him, and all the Yadavas, in an assembly of the tribe. Then reflecting what was to be done, he determined to destroy both Krishna and Rama whilst they were yet young, and before they had attained to manly vigour: for which purpose he resolved to invite them from Vraja, under pretext of the solemn rite of the lustration of arms, when he would engage them in a trial of strength with his chief boxers, Chanura and Mushtika, by whom they would assuredly be killed. "I will send," he said, "the noble Yadu, Akrura the son of Swaphalka, to Gokula, to bring them hither: I will order the fierce Kesin, who haunts the woods of Vrindavana, to attack them, and he is of unequalled might, and will surely kill them; or, if they arrive here, my elephant Kuvalayapida shall trample to death these two cow boy sons of Vasudeva." Having thus laid his plans to destroy Rama and Janarddana, the impious Kansa sent for the heroic Akrura, and said to him, Lord" of liberal gifts 1, attend to my words, and, out of friendship
vp.5.15 Being thus instructed, the illustrious Akrura readily undertook to visit Krishna, and, ascending his stately chariot, he went forth from the city of Mathura.
vp.5.16 Kesin, in the form of a horse, slain by Krishna: he is praised by Narada.
vp.5.16 Kesin, confiding in his prowess, having received the commands of Kansa, set off to the woods of Vrindavana, with the intention of destroying Krishna. He came in the shape of a steed, spurning the earth with his hoofs, scattering the clouds with his mane, and springing in his paces beyond the orbits of the sun and moon. The cowherds and their females, hearing his neighings, were struck with terror, and fled to Govinda for protection, calling upon him to save them. In a voice deep as the roaring of the thundercloud, Krishna replied to them, "Away with these fears of Kesin; is the valour of a hero annihilated by your alarms? What is there to apprehend from one of such little might, whose neighings are his only terrors; a galloping and vicious steed, who is ridden by the strength of the Daityas? Come on, wretch I am Krishna and I will knock all thy teeth down thy throat, as the wielder of the trident did to Pushan 1." Thus defying him to combat, Govinda went to encounter Kesin. The demon ran upon him, with his mouth opened wide; but Krishna enlarging the bulk of his arm, thrust it into his mouth, and wrenched out the teeth, which fell from his jaws like fragments of white clouds. Still the arm of Krishna, in the throat of the demon, continued to enlarge, like a malady increasing from its commencement till it ends in dissolution. From his torn lips the demon vomited foam and blood; his eyes rolled in agony; his joints gave way; he beat the earth with his feet; his body was
vp.5.16 red with perspiration; he became incapable of any effort. The formidable demon, having his mouth rent open by the arm of Krishna, fell down, torn asunder like a tree struck by lightning: he lay separated into two portions, each having two legs, half a back, half a tail, one ear, one eye, and one nostril. Krishna stood, unharmed and smiling, after the destruction of the demon, surrounded by the cowherds, who, together with their women, were filled with astonishment at
vp.5.16 the death of Kesin, and glorified the amiable god with the lotus eyes. Narada the Brahman, invisible, seated in a cloud, beheld the fall of Kesin, and delightedly exclaimed, "Well done, lord of the universe, who in thy sports hast destroyed Kesin, the oppressor of the denizens of heaven! Curious to behold this great combat between a man and a horse such a one as was never before heard of I have come from heaven. Wonderful are the works that thou hast done, in thy descent upon the earth! they have excited my astonishment; but this, above all, has given me pleasure. Indra and the gods lived in dread of this horse, who tossed his mane, and neighed, and looked down upon the clouds. For this, that thou hast slain the impious Kesin, thou shalt be known in the world by the name of Kesava 2. Farewell: I will now depart. I shall meet thee again, conqueror of Kesin, in two days more, in conflict with Kansa. When the son of Ugrasena, with his followers, shall have been slain, then, upholder of the earth, will earth s burdens have been lightened by thee. Many are the battles of the kings that I have to see, in which thou shalt be renowned. I will now depart, Govinda. A great deed, and acceptable to the gods, has been done by thee. I have been much delighted with thee, and now take my leave." When Narada had gone, Krishna, not in any way surprised, returned with the Gopas to Gokula; the sole object of the eyes of the women of Vraja 3.
vp.5.17 Akrura s meditations on Krishna: his arrival at Gokula: his delight at seeing Krishna and his brother.
vp.5.17 AKRURA, having set off in his quick travelling car, proceeded to visit Krishna at the pastures of Nanda; and, as he went along, he congratulated himself on his superior good fortune, in having an opportunity of beholding a descended portion of the deity. "Now," thought he, "has my life borne fruit; my night is followed by the dawn of day; since I shall see the countenance of Vishnu, whose eyes are like the expanded leaf of the lotus. I shall behold that lotus eyed aspect of Vishnu, which, when seen only in imagination, takes away the sins of men. I shall to day behold that glory of glories, the mouth of Vishnu, whence proceeded the Vedas, and all their dependant sciences. I shall see the sovereign of the world, by whom the world is sustained; who is worshipped as the best of males, as the male of sacrifice in sacrificial rites. I shall see Kesava, who is without beginning or end; by worshipping whom with a hundred sacrifices, Indra obtained the sovereignty over the gods. That Hari, whose nature is unknown to Brahma, Indra, Rudra, the Aswins, the Vasus, adityas, and Maruts, will this day touch my body. The soul of all, the knower of all, he who is all, and is present in all, he who is permanent, undecaying, all pervading, will converse with me. He, the unborn, who has preserved the world in the various forms of a fish, a tortoise, a boar, a horse 1, a lion, will this day speak to me. Now the lord of the earth, who assumes shapes at will, has taken upon him the condition of
vp.5.17 His mind thus animated by devout faith, and meditating in this manner, Akrura proceeded on his road, and arrived at Gokula a little before sunset, at the time of the milking of the cows; and there he saw Krishna amongst the cattle, dark as the leaf of the full blown lotus; his eyes of the same colour, and his breast decorated with the Srivatsa mark; long armed, and broad chested; having a high nose, and a lovely countenance, brightened with mirthful smiles; treading firmly on the ground, with feet whose nails were tinted red; clad in yellow garments, and adorned with a garland of forest flowers; having a fresh gathered creeper in his hand, and a chaplet of white lotus flowers on his head. Akrura also beheld there Balabhadra, white as a jasmine, a swan, or the moon, and dressed in blue raiment; having large and powerful arms, and a countenance as radiant as a lotus in bloom; like another Kailasa mountain, crested with a wreath of clouds.
vp.5.17 When Akrura saw these two youths, his countenance expanded with delight, and the down of his body stood erect with pleasure: for this he thought to be supreme happiness and glory; this, the double manifestation of the divine Vasudeva; this was the twofold gratification of his sight, to behold the creator of the universe: now he hoped that his bodily form would yield fruit, as it would bring him in contact with the person of Krishna; and that the wearer of infinite forms would place his hand on his back; the touch of whose finger alone is sufficient to dispel sin, and to secure imperishable felicity: that hand which launches the fierce
vp.5.18 Grief of the Gopis on the departure of Krishna and Balarama with Akrura: their leaving Gokula. Akrura bathes in the Yamuna; beholds the divine forms of the two youths, and praises Vishnu.
vp.5.18 THUS meditating, the Yadava approached Govinda, and addressed him, and said, "I am Akrura," and bowed his head down to the feet of Hari; but Krishna laid upon him his hand, which was marked with the flag, the thunderbolt, and the lotus, and drew him towards him, and affectionately embraced him. Then Kesava and Rama entered into conversation with him, and, having heard from him all that had occurred, were much pleased, and led him to their habitation: there they resumed their discourse, and gave him food to eat, and treated him with proper hospitality. Akrura told them how their father anakadundubhi, the princess Devaki, and even his own father, Ugrasena, had been insulted by the iniquitous demon Kansa: he also related to them the purpose for which he had been dispatched. When he had told them all these things, the destroyer of Kesin said to him, "I was aware of all that you have told me, lord of liberal gifts: Rama and I will go to morrow to Mathura along with you. The elders of the cowherds shall accompany us, bearing ample offerings. Rest here to night, and dismiss all anxiety. Within three nights I will slay Kansa and his adherents."
vp.5.18 elegant gait, and significant glances, belong to the women of the city. Hari is of rustic breeding, and, captivated by their fascinations, what likelihood is there of his returning to the society of any one amongst us? Kesava, who has mounted the car to go to Mathura, has been deceived by the cruel, vile, and desperate Akrura. Does not the unfeeling traitor know the affection that we all here feel for our Hari, the joy of our eyes, that he is taking him away? Unkind that he is, Govinda is departing from us, along with Rama: haste! let us stop him! Why talk of telling our seniors that we cannot bear his loss? What can they do for us, when we are consumed by the fires of separation? The Gopas, with Nanda at their head, are themselves preparing to depart; no one makes any attempt to detain Govinda. Bright is the morning that succeeds to this night for the women of Mathura, for the bees of their eyes will feed upon the lotus face of Achyuta. Happy are they who may go hence without impediment, and behold, enraptured, Krishna on his journey. A great festival will give pleasure to day to the eyes of the inhabitants of Mathura, when they see the person of Govinda. What a blissful vision will be seen by the happy women, of the city, whose brilliant eyes shall regard, unchecked, the countenance of Krishna! Alas! the eyes of the Gopis have been deprived of sight by the relentless Brahma, after he had shewn them this great treasure. In proportion as the affection of Hari for us decays,
vp.5.18 usual daily ceremonial in the river 2. Accordingly the intelligent Akrura bathed, and rinsed his mouth, and then entering the stream, he stood meditating upon the supreme being; but he beheld mentally 3 Balabhadra, having a thousand hooded beads, a garland of Jasmine flowers, and large red eyes, attended by Vasuki, Rambha, and other mighty serpents, praised by the Gandharbas, decorated with wild flowers, wearing dark coloured garments, crowned with a chaplet of lotuses, ornamented with brilliant earrings, inebriate, and standing at the bottom of the river in the water 4. On his lap he also beheld, at his ease, Krishna, of the complexion of a cloud 5, with full and coppery eyes, having an elegant form, and four hands, armed with the discus and other weapons, wearing yellow clothes, decorated with many coloured flowers, and appearing like a cloud embellished with streams of lightning and the bow of Indra; his breast was marked with the celestial sign, his arms were radiant with bracelets, a diadem shone on his brow, and he wore a white lotus for his crest: he was attended by Sanandana and other holy sages, who, fixing their eyes upon the tips of their noses, were absorbed in profound meditation.
vp.5.18 When Akrura beheld Balarama and Krishna in this situation, he was much amazed, and wondered how they could so quickly have got there from the chariot. He wished to ask them this, but Janarddana deprived him of the faculty of speech at the moment. Ascending then from the water, he repaired to the car, and there he found them both quietly seated in the same human persons as before. Plunging again into the water, there he again beheld them, hymned as before by the Gandharbas, saints, sages, and serpents. Apprehending, therefore, their real character, he thus eulogized the eternal deity, who consists of true knowledge:
vp.5.18 Salutation" to thee, who art uniform and manifold, all pervading, supreme spirit, of inconceivable glory, and who art simple existence. Salutation to thee, O inscrutable, who art truth, and the essence of oblations. Salutation to thee, O lord, whose nature is unknown, who art beyond primeval matter, who existest in five forms, as one with the elements, with the faculties, with matter, with the living soul, with supreme spirit. Shew favour to me, O soul of the universe, essence of all things, perishable or eternal, whether addressed by the designation of Brahma, Vishnu, siva, or the like. I adore thee, O god, whose nature is indescribable, whose purposes are inscrutable, whose name even is unknown; for the attributes of kind or appellation are not applicable to thee, who art THAT 6, the supreme Brahma, eternal, unchangeable, untreated. But as the accomplishment of our objects cannot be attained except through some specific form, thou art termed by us Krishna, Achyuta, Ananta, or Vishnu. Thou, unborn divinity, art all the objects of these impersonations; thou art the gods, and all other beings; thou art the whole world; thou art all. Soul of the universe, thou art exempt from change, and there is nothing except thee in all this existence. Thou art Brahma, Pasupati, aryaman, Dhatri, and Vidhatri; thou art Indra, air, fire, the regent of the waters, the god of wealth, and judge of the dead; and thou, although but one, presidest over the world with various energies, addressed to
vp.5.19 Akrura conveys Krishna and Rama near to Mathura, and leaves them: they enter the town. Insolence of Kansa s washerman: Krishna kills him. Civility of a flower seller: Krishna gives him his benediction.
vp.5.19 THUS the Yadava Akrura, standing in the river, praised Krishna, and worshipped him with imaginary incense and flowers. Disregarding all other objects, he fixed his whole mind upon the deity; and having continued for a long time in spiritual contemplation, he at last desisted from his abstraction, conceiving he had effected the purposes of soul. Coming up from the water of the Yamuna, he went to the car, and there he beheld Rama and Krishna seated as before. As his looks denoted surprise, Krishna said to him, "Surely, Akrura, you have seen some marvel in the stream of the Yamuna, for your eyes are staring as if with astonishment." Akrura replied, "The marvel that I have seen in the stream of the Yamuna I behold before me, even here, in a bodily shape; for he whom I have encountered in the water, Krishna, is also your wondrous self, of whose illustrious person the whole world is the miraculous developement. But enough of this; let us proceed to Mathura: I am afraid Kansa will be angry at our delay; such is the wretched consequence of eating the bread of another." Thus speaking, he urged on the quick horses, and they arrived after sunset at Mathura. When they came in sight of the city, Akrura said to Krishna and Rama, "You must now journey on foot, whilst I proceed alone in the car; and you must not go to the house of Vasudeva, for the elder has been banished by Kansa on your account."
vp.5.19 Akrura having thus spoken, left them, and entered the city; whilst Rama and Krishna continued to walk along the royal road. Regarded with pleasure by men and women, they went along sportively, looking like two young elephants. As they roamed about, they saw a washerman colouring clothes, and with smiling countenances they went and threw down some of his fine linen. The washerman was the servant of Kansa, made insolent by his master s favour; and he provoked the two lads
vp.5.19 with loud and scurrilous abuse, until Krishna struck him down, with his head to the ground, and killed him. Then taking the clothes, they went their way, clad in yellow and blue raiment, until they came to a flower seller s shop. The flower seller looked at them with astonishment, and wondered who they could be, or whence they could have come. Seeing two youths so lovely, dressed in yellow and blue garments, he imagined them to be divinities descended upon earth. Being addressed by them with mouths budding like lotuses, and asked for some flowers, he placed his hands upon the ground, and touched it with his head, saying, "My lords have shewn me great kindness in coming to my house, fortunate that I am; I will pay them homage." Having thus spoken, the flower seller, with a smiling aspect, gave them whatever choice flowers they selected, to conciliate their favour. Repeatedly prostrating himself before them, he presented them with flowers, beautiful, fragrant, and fresh. Krishna then, being much pleased with him, gave him this blessing; Fortune", good friend, who depends upon me, shall never forsake you: never shall you suffer loss of vigour, or loss of wealth: as long as time shall last your descendants shall not fail. Having long tasted various delights on earth, you shall finally obtain, by calling me to recollection, a heavenly region, the consequence of my favour. Your heart shall ever be intent on righteousness, and fulness of days shall be the portion of your
vp.5.19 Your descendants shall not be subject to natural infirmities, as long as the sun shall endure." Having thus spoken, Krishna and Rama, worshipped by the flower seller, went forth from his dwelling 1.
vp.5.20 Krishna and Balarama meet Kubja; she is made straight by the former: they proceed to the palace. Krishna breaks a bow intended for a trial of arms. Kansa s orders to his servants. Public games. Krishna and his brother enter the arena: the former wrestles with Chanura, the latter with Mushtika, the king s wrestlers; who are both killed. Krishna attacks and slays Kansa: he and Balarama do homage to Vasudeva and Devaki: the former praises Krishna.
vp.5.20 As they proceeded along the high road, they saw coming towards them a young girl, who was crooked, carrying a pot of unguent. Krishna addressed her sportively, and said, "For whom are you carrying that unguent? tell me, lovely maiden; tell me truly." Spoken to as it were through affection, Kubja, well disposed towards Hari, replied to him also mirthfully, being smitten by his appearance; "Know you not, beloved, that I am the servant of Kansa, and appointed, crooked as I am, to prepare his perfumes. Unguent ground by any other he does not approve of: hence I am enriched through his liberal rewards." Then said Krishna, "Fair faced damsel, give us of this unguent, fragrant and fit for kings, as much as we may rub upon our bodies." "Take it," answered Kubja.; and she gave them as much of the unguent as was sufficient for their persons; and they rubbed it on various parts of their faces and bodies 1, till they looked like two clouds, one white and one black, decorated by the many tinted bow of Indra. Then Krishna, skilled in the curative art, took hold of her, under the chin, with the thumb and two fingers, and lifted up her head, whilst with his feet he pressed down her feet; and in this way he made her straight. When she was thus relieved from her deformity, she was a most beautiful woman; and, filled with gratitude and affection, she took Govinda by the garment, and invited him to her house. Promising to come at some
vp.5.20 other time, Krishna smilingly dismissed her, and then laughed aloud on beholding the countenance of Baladeva 2.
vp.5.20 Dressed in blue and yellow garments, and anointed with fragrant unguents, Kesava and Rama proceeded to the hall of arms, which was hung round with garlands. Inquiring of the warders which bow he was to try, and being directed to it, he took it, and bent it; but drawing it with violence, he snapped it in two 3, and all Mathura resounded with the noise which its fracture occasioned. Abused by the warders for breaking the bow, Krishna and Rama retorted, and defied them, and left the hall.
vp.5.20 from the elephant, whom, when goaded upon them by his driver, they had slain, and armed with his tusks, Balabhadra and Janarddana confidently entered the arena, like two lions amidst a herd of deer. Exclamations of pity arose from all the spectators, along with expressions of astonishment. "This then," said the people, "is Krishna! this is Balabhadra! This is he by whom the fierce night walker Putana was slain; by whom the waggon was overturned, and the two Arjuna trees
vp.5.20 felled! This is the boy who trampled and danced on the serpent Kaliya; who upheld the mountain Govarddhana for seven nights; who killed, as if in play, the iniquitous Arishta, Dhenuka, and Kesin! This whom we see is Achyuta! This is he who has been foretold by the wise, skilled in the sense of the Puranas, as Gopala, who shall exalt the depressed Yadava race! This is a portion of the all existing, all generating Vishnu, descended upon earth, who will assuredly lighten her load!" Thus did the citizens describe Rama and Krishna, as soon as they appeared; whilst the breast of Devaki glowed with maternal affection; and Vasudeva, forgetting his infirmities, felt himself young again, on beholding the countenances of his sons as a season of rejoicing. The women of the palace, and the wives of the citizens, wide opened their eyes, and gazed intently upon Krishna. "Look, friends," said they to their companions; "look at the face of Krishna; his eyes are reddened by his conflict with the elephant, and the drops of perspiration stand upon his cheeks, outvieing a full blown lotus in autumn, studded with glittering dew. Avail yourself now of the faculty of vision. Observe his breast, the seat of splendour, marked with the mystic sign; and his arms, menacing destruction to his foes. Do you not notice Balabhadra, dressed in a blue garment; his countenance as fair as the jasmine, as the moon, as the fibres of the lotus stem? See how he gently smiles at the gestures of Mushtika and Chanura,
vp.5.20 As thus the women of the city conversed with one another, Hari, having tightened his girdle, danced in the ring, shaking the ground on which he trod. Balabhadra also danced, slapping his arms in defiance. Where the ground was firm, the invincible Krishna contended foot to foot with Chanura. The practised demon Mushtika was opposed by
vp.5.20 [paragraph continues] Balabhadra. Mutually entwining, and pushing, and pulling, and beating each other with fists, arms, and elbows, pressing each other with their knees, interlacing their arms, kicking with their feet, pressing with their whole weight upon one another 5, fought Hari and Chanura. Desperate was the struggle, though without weapons, and one for life and death, to the great gratification of the spectators. In proportion as the contest continued, so Chanura was gradually losing something of his original vigour, and the wreath upon his head trembled from his fury and distress 6; whilst the world comprehending Krishna wrestled with him as if but in sport. Beholding Chanura losing, and Krishna gaining strength, Kansa, furious with rage, commanded the music to cease. As soon as the drums and trumpets were silenced, a numerous band of heavenly instruments was heard in the sky, and the gods invisibly exclaimed, Victory" to Govinda! Kesava, kill the demon Chanura!" Madhusudana having for a long time dallied with his adversary, at last lifted him up, and whirled him round, with the intention of putting an end to him. Having whirled Chanura round a hundred times, until his breath was expended in the air, Krishna dashed him on the ground with such violence as to smash his body into a hundred fragments, and strew the earth with a hundred pools of gory mire. Whilst this took place, the mighty Baladeva was engaged in the same manner with the demon bruiser Mushtika. Striking
vp.5.20 breast with his knees, he stretched him on the ground, and pummelled him there till he was dead. Again, Krishna encountered the royal bruiser Tomalaka, and felled him to the earth with a blow of his left hand. When the other athlet saw Chanura, Mushtika, and Tomalaka killed, they fled from the field; and Krishna and Sankarshana danced victorious on the arena, dragging along with them by force the cowherds of their own age. Kansa, his eyes reddening with wrath, called aloud to the surrounding people, "Drive those two cow boys out of the assembly: seize the villain Nanda, and secure him with chains of iron: put Vasudeva to death with tortures intolerable to his years: and lay hands upon the cattle, and whatever else belongs to those cowherds who are the associates of Krishna."
vp.5.20 Upon hearing these orders, the destroyer of Madhu laughed at Kansa, and, springing up to the place where he was seated, laid hold of him by the hair of his head, and struck his tiara to the ground: then casting him down upon the earth, Govinda threw himself upon him. Crushed by the weight of the upholder of the universe, the son of Ugrasena, Kansa the king, gave up the ghost. Krishna then dragged the dead body, by the hair of the head, into the centre of the arena, and a deep furrow was made by the vast and heavy carcass of Kansa, when it was dragged along the ground by Krishna, as if a torrent of water had run through it 7. Seeing Kansa thus treated, his brother Sumalin came to his succour; but he was encountered, and easily killed, by Balabhadra. Then arose a general cry of grief from the surrounding circle, as they beheld the king of Mathura thus slain, and treated with such contumely, by Krishna. Krishna, accompanied by Balabhadra, embraced the feet of Vasudeva and of Devaki; but Vasudeva raised him up; and he and Devaki recalling to recollection what he had said to them at his birth, they bowed to Janarddana, and the former thus addressed him: "Have compassion upon mortals, O god, benefactor and lord of deities: it is by thy favour to us two that thou hast become the (present) upholder of the
vp.5.21 Krishna encourages his parents; places Ugrasena on the throne; becomes the pupil of Sandipani, whose son he recovers from the sea: he kills the marine demon Panchajana, and makes a horn of his shell.
vp.5.21 asena had resumed his royal seat, Krishna addressed him, and said, Sovereign" lord, command boldly what else is to be done. The curse of Yayati has pronounced our race unworthy of dominion 1; but with me, for your servant, you may issue your orders to the gods. How should kings disobey them?"
vp.5.21 Thus having spoken, the human Kesava summoned mentally the deity of the wind, who came upon the instant, and said to him, "Go, Vayu, to Indra, and desire him to lay aside his pomp, and resign to Ugrasena his splendid hall Sudharman: tell him that Krishna commands him to send the royal hall, the unrivalled gem of princely courts, for the assemblage of the race of Yadu." Accordingly Vayu went, and delivered the message to the husband of sachi, who immediately gave up to him the hall Sudharman, and Vayu conveyed it to the Yadavas, the chiefs of whom thenceforth possessed this celestial court, emblazoned with jewels, and defended by the arm of Govinda. The two excellent Yadu youths, versed in all knowledge, and possessed of all wisdom, then submitted to instruction, as the disciples of teachers. Accordingly they repaired to Sandipani who, though born in Kasi, resided at Avanti to study the science of arms, and, becoming his pupils, were obedient and attentive to their master, exhibiting an example to all men of the observance of instituted rules. In the course of sixty four days they had gone through the elements of military science, with the treatises on the use of arms, and directions for the mystic incantations, which secure the aid of supernatural weapons 2. Sandipani, astonished at such proficiency, and knowing that it exceeded human faculties, imagined that the sun and moon had become his scholars. When they had acquired all that he could teach, they said to him, "Now
vp.5.21 named Panchajana, who lives in the form of a conch shell, seized the boy: he is still under my waters. On hearing this, Krishna plunged into the sea; and having slain the vile Panchajana, he took the conch shell, which was formed of his bones (and bore it as his horn), the sound of which fills the demon hosts with dismay, animates the vigour of the gods, and annihilates unrighteousness. The heroes also recovered the boy from the pains of death, and restored him in his former person to his father. Rama and Janarddana then returned to Mathura, which was well presided over by Ugrasena, and abounded in a happy population both of men and women 1.
vp.5.22 Parasara. The mighty Kansa had married the two daughters of Jarasandha, one named Asti, the other Prapti. Jarasandha was king of Magadha, and a very powerful prince 1; who, when he heard that Krishna had killed his son in law, was much incensed, and, collecting a large force, marched against Mathura, determined to put the Yadavas and Krishna to the sword. Accordingly he invested the city with three and twenty numerous divisions of his forces 2. Rama and Janarddana sallied from the town with a slender, but resolute force, and fought bravely with the armies of Magadha. The two youthful leaders prudently resolved to have recourse to their ancient weapons, and accordingly the bow of Hari, with two quivers filled with exhaustless arrows, and the mace called Kaumodaki, and the ploughshare of Balabhadra, as well as the club Saunanda, descended at a wish from heaven. Armed with these weapons, they speedily discomfited the king of Magadha and his hosts, and reentered the city in triumph.
vp.5.22 Although the wicked king of Magadha, Jarasandha, was defeated, yet Krishna knew that whilst he escaped alive he was not subdued; and in fact he soon returned with a mighty force, and was again forced by Rama and Krishna to fly. Eighteen times 3 did the haughty prince of Magadha renew his attack upon the Yadavas, headed by Krishna; and was as often defeated and put to the rout by them, with very inferior numbers. That the Yadavas were not overpowered by their foes, was owing to the present might of the portion of the discus armed Vishnu.
vp.5.23 Birth of Kalayavana: he advances against Mathura. Krishna builds Dwaraka, and sends thither the Yadava tribe: he leads Kalayavana into the cave of Muchukunda: the latter awakes, consumes the Yavana king, and praises Krishna.
vp.5.23 When Krishna knew of his approach, he reflected that if the Yadavas encountered the Yavana, they would be so much weakened by the conflict, that they would then be overcome by the king of Magadha; that their force was much reduced by the war with Magadha, whilst that of Kalayavana was unbroken; and that the enemy might be therefore victorious. Thus the Yadavas were exposed to a double danger. He resolved therefore to construct a citadel for the Yadu tribe, that should not be easily taken; one that even women might defend, and in which therefore the heroes of the house of Vrishni should be secure; one in which the male combatants of the Yadavas should dread no peril, though he himself should be drunk or careless, asleep or abroad. Thus reflecting, Krishna solicited a space of twelve furlongs from the ocean, and there he built the city of Dwaraka 3, defended by high ramparts, and beautified with gardens and reservoirs of water, crowded with houses and buildings, and splendid as the capital of Indra, Amaravati. Thither Janarddana conducted the inhabitants of Mathura, and then awaited at that city the approach of Kalayavana.
vp.5.23 When the hostile army encamped round Mathura, Krishna unarmed went forth, and beheld the Yavana king. Kalayavana, the strong armed, recognizing Vasudeva, pursued him; him whom the thoughts of perfect ascetics cannot overtake. Thus pursued, Krishna entered a large cavern, where Muchukunda, the king of men, was asleep. The rash Yavana entering the cave, and beholding a man lying asleep there, concluded it
vp.5.23 must be Krishna, and kicked him; at which Muchukunda awoke, and casting on him an angry glance, the Yavana was instantly consumed, and reduced to ashes. For in a battle between the gods and demons, Muchukunda had formerly contributed to the defeat of the latter; and, being overcome with sleep, he solicited of the gods as a boon that he should enjoy a long repose. "Sleep long and soundly," said the gods; "and whoever disturbs you shall be instantly burnt to ashes by fire emanating from your body 4."
vp.5.24 Muchukunda goes to perform penance. Krishna takes the army and treasures of Kalayavana, and repairs with them to Dwaraka. Balarama visits Vraja: inquiries of its inhabitants after Krishna.
vp.5.24 Krishna having by this stratagem destroyed his enemy, returned to Mathura, and took captive his army, rich in horses, elephants and cars, which he conducted to Dwaraka, and delivered to Ugrasena, and the Yadu race was relieved from all fear of invasion. Baladeva, when hostilities had entirely ceased, being desirous of seeing his kinsmen, went to Nanda s cow pens, and there again conversed with the herdsmen and their females, with affection and respect. By some, the elders, he was embraced; others, the juniors, he embraced; and with those of his own age, male or female, he talked and laughed. The cowherds made many kind speeches to Halayudha; but some of the Gopis spoke to him with the affectation of anger, or with feelings of jealousy, as they inquired after the loves of Krishna with the women of Mathura. "Is all well with the fickle and inconstant Krishna?" said they: "Does the volatile swain, the friend of an instant, amuse the women of the city by laughing at our rustic efforts (to please him)? Does he ever think of us, singing in chorus to his songs? Will he not come here once again to see his mother? But why talk of these things? it is a different tale to tell for
vp.5.24 him without us, and for us without him. Father, mother, brother, husband, kin, what have we not abandoned for his sake? but he is a monument of ingratitude. Yet tell us, does not Krishna talk of coming here? Falsehood is never, O Krishna, to be uttered by thee. Verily this is Damodara, this is Govinda, who has given up his heart to the damsels of the city, who has no longer any regard for us, but looks upon us with disdain." So saying, the Gopis, whose minds were fixed on Krishna, addressed Rama in his place, calling him Damodara and Govinda, and laughed and were merry; and Rama consoled them by communicating to them agreeable, modest, affectionate, and gentle messages from Krishna. With the cowherds he talked mirthfully, as he had been wont to do, and rambled along with them over the lands of Vraja 1.
vp.5.26 Krishna carries off Rukmini: the princes who come to rescue her repulsed by Balarama. Rukmin overthrown, but spared by Krishna, founds Bhojakata. Pradyumna born of Rukmini.
vp.5.26 Bishmaka was king of Vidarbha, residing at Kundina 1. He had a son named Rukmin, and a beautiful daughter termed Rukmini. Krishna fell in love with the latter, and solicited her in marriage; but her brother who hated Krishna, would not assent to the espousals. At the suggestion of Jarasandha, and with the concurrence of his son, the powerful sovereign Bhishmaka affianced Rukmini to sisupala. In order to celebrate the nuptials, Jarasandha and other princes, the friends of sisupala, assembled in the capital of Vidarbha; and Krishna, attended by Balabhadra and many other Yadavas, also went to Kundina to witness the wedding. When there, Hari contrived, on the eve of the nuptials, to carry off the princess 2, leaving Rama and his kinsmen to sustain the weight of his enemies. Paundraka, the illustrious Dantavakra, Viduratha, sisupala, Jarasandha, salya, and other kings, indignant at the insult, exerted themselves to kill Krishna, but were repelled by Balarama and the Yadavas. Rukmin, vowing that he would never enter Kundina again until he had slain Kesava in fight, pursued and overtook him. In the combat that ensued, Krishna destroyed with his discus, as if in sport, the host of Rukmin, with all its horse, and elephants, and foot, and chariots, and overthrew him, and hurled him on the ground, and would have put him to death, but was withheld by the entreaties of Rukmini. "He is my only brother," she exclaimed, "and must not be slain by
vp.5.26 thee: restrain your wrath, O divine lord, and give me my brother in charity." Thus addressed by her, Krishna, whom no acts affect, spared Rukmin 3; and he (in pursuance of his vow) founded the city Bhojakata 4, and ever afterwards dwelt therein. After the defeat of Rukmin, Krishna married Rukmini in due form, having first made her his own by the Rakshasa ritual 5. She bore him the gallant Pradyumna, a portion of the deity of love. The demon Sambara carried him off, but he slew the demon.
vp.5.27 Pradyumna stolen by Sambara; thrown into the sea, and swallowed by a fish; found by Mayadevi: he kills Sambara, marries Mayadevi, and returns with her to Dwaraka. Joy of Rukmini and Krishna.
vp.5.27 Observing these marks of passionate affection, the son of Krishna said to the lotus eyed Mayadevi, "Why do you indulge in feelings so unbecoming the character of a mother?" To which she replied, "Thou art not a son of mine; thou art the son of Vishnu, whom Kala Sambara carried away, and threw into the sea: thou vast swallowed by a fish, but wast rescued by me from its belly. Thy fond mother, O beloved, is still weeping for thee." When the valiant Pradyumna heard this, he was filled with wrath, and defied Sambara to battle. In the conflict that ensued, the son of Madhava slew the whole host of Sambara. Seven times he foiled the delusions of the enchanter, and making himself master of the eighth, turned it against Sambara, and killed him. By the same faculty he ascended into the air, and proceeded to his father s house, where he alighted, along with Mayavati, in the inner apartments. When the women beheld Pradyumna, they thought it was Krishna himself. Rukmini, her eyes dimmed with tears, spoke tenderly to him, and said, "Happy is she who has a son like this, in the bloom of youth. Such would be the age of my son Pradyumna, if he was alive. Who is the fortunate mother adorned by thee? and yet from thy appearance, and from the affection I feel for thee, thou art assuredly the son of Hari."
vp.5.27 At this moment Krishna, accompanied by Narada, arrived; and the latter said to the delighted Rukmini, "This is thine own son, who has come hither after killing Sambara, by whom, when an infant, he was stolen from the lying in chamber. This is the virtuous Mayavati, his wife, and not the wife of Sambara. Hear the reason. When Manmatha, the deity of love, had perished 2, the goddess of beauty, desirous to secure
vp.5.28 Wives of Krishna. Pradyumna has Aniruddha: nuptials of the latter. Balarama beat at dice, becomes incensed, and slays Rukmin and others.
vp.5.28 RUKMINI bare to Krishna these other sons, Charudeshna, Sudeshna, Charudeha, Sushena, Charugupta, Bhadracharu, Charuvinda, Sucharu, and the very mighty Charu; also one daughter, Charumati. Krishna had seven other beautiful wives, Kalindi, Mitravrinda, the virtuous Nagnajiti, the queen Jambavati; Rohini, of beautiful form; the amiable and excellent daughter of the king of Madra, Madri; Satyabhama, the daughter of satrujit; and Lakshmana, of lovely smiles 1. Besides these, he had sixteen thousand other wives 2.
vp.5.28 The heroic Pradyumna was chosen for her lord, at her public choice of a husband, by the daughter of Rukmin; and he had by her the powerful and gallant prince Aniruddha, who was fierce in fight, an ocean of prowess, and the tamer of his foes. Kesava demanded in marriage for him the granddaughter of Rukmin; and although the latter was inimical to Krishna, he betrothed the maiden (who was his son s daughter) to the son of his own daughter (her cousin Aniruddha). Upon the occasion of the nuptials Rama and other Yadavas attended Krishna to Bhojakata, the city of Rukmin. After the wedding had been solemnized, several of the kings, headed by him of Kalinga, said to Rukmin, "This wielder of the ploughshare is ignorant of the dice, which may be converted into his misfortune: why may we not contend with him, and beat him, in play?" The potent Rukmin replied to them, and said, "So let it be:" and he engaged Balarama at a game of dice in the palace. Balarama soon lost to Rukmin a thousand Nishkas 3: he then staked and lost another thousand; and then pledged ten thousand, which Rukmin, who was well skilled in gambling, also won. At this the king of Kalinga laughed aloud, and the weak and exulting Rukmin grinned, and said, Baladeva" is losing, for he knows nothing of the game; although, blinded by a vain passion for play, he thinks he understands the dice." Halayudha, galled by the broad laughter of the Kalinga prince, and the contemptuous speech of Rukmin, was exceedingly angry, and,
vp.5.28 not accept the pledge in words, he did so by his acts (having cast the dice)." Balarama thus excited, his eyes red with rage, started up, and struck Rukmin with the board on which the game was played, and killed him 4. Taking hold of the trembling king of Kalinga, he knocked out the teeth which he had shewn when he laughed. Laying hold of a golden column, he dragged it from its place, and used it as a weapon to kill those princes who had taken part with his adversaries. Upon which the whole circle, crying out with terror, took to flight, and escaped from the wrath of Baladeva. When Krishna heard that Rukmin had been killed by his brother, he made no remark, being afraid of Rukmini on the one hand, and of Bala on the other; but taking with him the newly wedded Aniruddha, and the Yadava tribe, he returned to Dwaraka.
vp.5.29 Indra comes to Dwaraka, and reports to Krishna the tyranny of Naraka. Krishna goes to his city, and puts him to death. Earth gives the earrings of Aditi to Krishna, and praises him. He liberates the princesses made captive by Naraka, sends them to Dwaraka, and goes to Swarga with Satyabhama.
vp.5.29 sAKRA, the lord of the three worlds, came mounted on his fierce elephant Airavata to visit sauri Krishna() at Dwaraka. Having entered the city, and been welcomed by Hari, he related to the hero the deeds of the demon Naraka. "By thee, Madhusudana, lord of the gods," said Indra, "in a mortal condition, all sufferings have been soothed. Arishta, Dhenuka, Chanura, Mushtika, Kesin, who sought to injure helpless man, have all been slain by thee. Kansa, Kuvalayapida, the child destroying Putana, have been killed by thee; and so have other oppressors of the world. By thy valour and wisdom the three worlds have been preserved, and the gods, obtaining their share of the sacrifices offered by the devout, enjoy satisfaction. But now hear the occasion on which I have come to thee, and which thou art able to remedy. The son of the earth 1, called Naraka, who rules over the city of Pragjyotisha 2, inflicts a great injury upon all creatures. Carrying off the maidens of gods, saints, demons, and kings, he shuts them up in his own palace. He has taken away the umbrella of Varuna, impermeable to water, the jewel mountain crest of Mandara, and the celestial nectar dropping earrings of my mother Aditi; and he now demands my elephant Airavata. I have thus explained to you, Govinda, the tyranny of the Asura; you can best determine how it is to be prevented."
vp.5.30 Krishna restores her earrings to Aditi, and is praised by her: he visits the gardens of Indra, and at the desire of Satyabhama carries off the Parijata tree. sachi excites Indra to its rescue. Conflict between the gods and Krishna, who defeats them. Satyabhama derides them. They praise Krishna.
vp.5.30 Garuda, laden with the umbrella of Varuna and the jewel mountain, and bearing Hrishikesa on his back to the court of Indra, went lightly, as if in sport, along. When they arrived at the portals of Swarga, Hari blew his shell; on which the gods advanced to meet him, bearing respectful offerings. Having received the homage of the divinities, Krishna went to the palace of the mother of the gods, whose turrets resembled white clouds; and on beholding Aditi, paid his respects to her, along with sakra; and, presenting to her her own earrings, informed her of the destruction of the demon Naraka. The mother of the world, well pleased, then fixed her whole thoughts upon Hari, the creator, and thus pronounced his praise: Glory" to thee, O god with the lotus eyes, who removest all fear from those that worship thee. Thou art the eternal, universal, and living soul; the origin of all beings; the instigator of the mental faculty, and faculties of sense; one with the three qualities; beyond the three qualities; exempt from contraries; pure; existing in the hearts of all; void of colour, extension, and every transient modification; unaffected by the vicissitudes of birth or death, sleep or waking. Thou art evening, night, and day; earth, sky, air, water, and fire; mind, intellect, and individuality. Thou art the agent of creation, duration, and dissolution; the master over the agent; in thy forms which are called Brahma, Vishnu, and siva. Thou art gods, Yakshas, Daityas, Rakshasas,
vp.5.30 Thus solicited by Satyabhama, Hari smiled upon her, and taking the Parijata plant, put it upon Garuda. The keepers of the garden remonstrated, and said, "This Parijata tree belongs to sachi, the queen of the sovereign of the gods: it is not proper, Govinda, for you to remove it. At the time when the ocean was churned for the beverage of immortality, this tree was produced, for the purpose of providing sachi with flowery ornaments. You cannot be suffered to depart with it. It is through ignorance that this is sought for by any one, as it is the especial property of her on whose countenance the king of the gods delights to look; and who shall go away with impunity, who attempts to carry it off? Assuredly the king of the gods will punish this audacity; for his hand launches the thunderbolt, and the immortals attend upon his steps. Forbear then, Krishna, nor provoke the hostility of all the gods. The wise will not commence actions that can be productive only of unpleasant consequences." Satyabhama, on hearing these words, was exceedingly offended, and said, "What right has sachi what has Indra to the Parijata tree? it was produced at the churning of the ocean as the common property of all worlds. Wherefore, gods, should Indra alone possess it? In the same manner, guardians of the grove, as nectar, as the moon, as the goddess sri herself, so the Parijata tree is the common property of all the world: and since sachi, confiding in the strength of her husband s arm, would keep it
vp.5.30 and Krishna with the discus Sudarsana. Beholding them thus prepared for fight, all the people of the three spheres exclaimed, "Alas! alas!" Indra launched his bolt, but in vain, for Hari caught and arrested it: he forbore, however, to hurl his discus, and only called out to Indra to stay. Satyabhama seeing Indra disarmed, and his elephant disabled by Garuda, and the deity himself about to retreat, said to him, King" of the triple sphere, it ill becomes the husband of sachi to run away. Ornamented with Parijata garlands, she will approach you. Of what use is the sovereignty of heaven, embellished with the Parijata tree, no longer beholding Sachi meet you with affection as of yore? Nay, sakra, fly not; you must not suffer shame: here, take the Parijata tree; let the gods be no longer annoyed. Sachi, inflated with pride of her husband, has not welcomed me to her dwelling with respectful presents. As a woman, I am light of purpose, and am anxious for my husband s fame; therefore have I instigated, sakra, this contest with you. But I do not want the Parijata tree, nor do I wish to take that which is another s property. sachi is proud of her beauty. What woman is not proud of her husband?" Thus spoken to by Satyabhama, the king of the gods turned back, and said to her, "Desist, wrathful dame, from afflicting your friend by further reproaches. I am not ashamed of being vanquished by him who is the author of the creation, preservation, and destruction of the world; who is the
vp.5.31 Krishna, with Indra s consent, takes the Parijata tree to Dwaraka; marries the princesses rescued from Naraka.
vp.5.31 When Krishna arrived over Dwaraka, he blew his shell, and delighted all the inhabitants with the sound. Then alighting from Garuda, he proceeded with Satyabhama to her garden, and there planted the great Parijata tree, the smell of which perfumed the earth for three furlongs, and an approach to which enabled every one to recollect the events of a prior existence; so that, on beholding their faces in that tree, all the Yadavas contemplated themselves in their (original) celestial forms. Then Krishna took possession of the wealth, elephants, horses, and women, which he had recovered from Naraka, and which had been brought to Dwaraka by the servants of the demon; and at an auspicious season he espoused all the maidens whom Naraka had carried off from their friends;
vp.5.32 Children of Krishna. Usha, the daughter of Bana, sees Aniruddha in a dream, and becomes enamoured of him.
vp.5.32 Parasara. I have enumerated to you Pradyumna and the other sons of Rukmini. Satyabhama bore Bhanu and Bhairika. The sons of Rohini were Diptimat, Tamrapakshi, and others. The powerful samba and other sons were born of Jambavati. Bhadravinda and other valiant youths were the sons of Nagnajiti. saivya (or Mitravinda) had several sons, of whom Sangramajit was the chief. Vrika and others were begotten by Hari on Madri. Lakshmana had Gatravat and others: and sruta and others were the sons of Kalindi 1. Krishna had sons also by his other wives, in all one hundred and eighty thousand. The eldest of the whole was Pradyumna, the son of Rukmini: his son was Aniruddha, from whom Vraja was born: his mother was Usha, the daughter of Bana, and grand daughter of Bali, whom Aniruddha won in war. On that occasion a fierce battle took place between Hari and sankara, in which the thousand arms of Bana were lopped away by the discus of the former.
vp.5.32 Maitreya. HOW happened it, venerable Brahman, that a contest on account of Usha arose between siva and Krishna? and in what manner did Hari cut off the thousand arms of Bana? This, illustrious sir, thou art able to narrate.
vp.5.32 Chitralekha then delineated the most eminent gods, demons, spirits, and mortals, and shewed them to Usha. Putting aside the portraits of gods, spirits, snake gods, and demons, the princess selected those of mortals, and amongst them the heroes of the races of Andhaka and Vrishni. When she came to the likenesses of Krishna and Rama, she was confused with shame; from the portrait of Pradyumna she modestly averted her eyes; but the moment she beheld the picture of his son, the object of her passion, her eyes wide expanded, and all her bashfulness was discarded. "This is he! this is he!" said she to Chitralekha; and her friend, who was endowed with magic power, bade her be of good cheer, and set off through the air to Dwaraka.
vp.5.33 Bana solicits siva for war: finds Aniruddha in the palace, and makes him prisoner. Krishna, Balarama, and Pradyumna come to his rescue siva and Skanda aid Bana: the former is disabled; the latter put to flight. Bana encounters Krishna, who cuts off all his arms, and is about to put him to death. siva intercedes, and Krishna a spares his life. Vishnu and siva are the same.
vp.5.33 this, they were satisfied; for they had imagined he had been taken away by the gods (in reprisal for the Parijata tree). Krishna therefore immediately summoned Garuda, who came with a wish; and mounting upon him, along with Bala and Pradyumna, he set off for the city of Bana. On their approach to the city they were opposed by the spirits who attend on Rudra, but these were soon destroyed by Hari, and he and his companions reached the vicinity of the town. Here mighty Fever, an emanation from Maheswara, having three feet and three heads 2, fought desperately with Vishnu in defence of Bana. Baladeva, upon whom his ashes were scattered, was seized with burning heat, and his eyelids trembled: but he obtained relief by clinging to the body of Krishna. Contending thus with the divine holder of the bow, the Fever emanating from siva was quickly expelled from the person of Krishna by Fever which he himself engendered. Brahma beholding the impersonated malady bewildered by the beating inflicted by the arms of the deity, entreated the latter to desist; and the foe of Madhu refrained, and absorbed into himself the fever he had created. The rival Fever then departed, saying to Krishna, "Those men who call to memory the combat between us shall be ever exempt from febrile disease."
vp.5.33 with the whole of the Daitya host, assisted by sankara and Kartikeya, fought with sauri. A fierce combat took place between Hari and sankara; all the regions shook, scorched by their flaming weapons, and the celestials felt assured that the end of the universe was at hand. Govinda, with the weapon of yawning, set sankara a gape; and then the demons and the demigods attendant upon siva were destroyed on every side; for Hara, overcome with incessant gaping, sat down in his car, and was unable longer to contend with Krishna, whom no acts affect. The deity of war, Kartikeya, wounded in the arm by Garuda, struck by the weapons of Pradyumna, and disarmed by the shout of Hari, took to flight. Bana, when he saw sankara disabled, the Daityas destroyed, Guha fled, and siva s followers slain, advanced on his vast car, the horses of which were harnessed by Nandisa, to encounter Krishna and his associates Bala and Pradyumna. The valiant Balabhadra, attacking the host of Bana, wounded them in many ways with his arrows, and put them to a shameful rout; and their sovereign beheld them dragged about by Rama with his ploughshare, or beaten by him with his club, or pierced by Krishna with his arrows: he therefore attacked Krishna, and a fight took place between them: they cast at each other fiery shafts, that pierced through their armour; but Krishna intercepted with his arrows those of Bana, and cut them to pieces. Bana nevertheless wounded Kesava, and the wielder of the discus wounded Bana;
vp.5.33 and both desirous of victory, and seeking enraged the death of his antagonist, hurled various missiles at each other. When an infinite number of arrows had been cut to pieces, and the weapons began to be exhausted, Krishna resolved to put Bana to death. The destroyer of the demon host therefore took up his discus Sudarsana, blazing with the radiance of a hundred suns. As he was in the act of casting it, the mystical goddess Kotavi, the magic lore of the demons, stood naked before him 4. Seeing her before him, Krishna, with unclosed eyes, cast
vp.5.33 [paragraph continues] Sudarsana, to cut off the arms of Bana. The discus, dreaded in its flight by the whole of the weapons of the demons, lopped off successively the numerous arms of the Asura. Beholding Krishna with the discus again in his hand, and preparing to launch it once more, for the total demolition of Bana, the foe of Tripura (siva) respectfully addressed him. The husband of Uma, seeing the blood streaming from the dissevered arms of Bana, approached Govinda, to solicit a suspension of hostilities, and said to him, Krishna", Krishna, lord of the world, I know thee, first of spirits, the supreme lord, infinite felicity, without beginning or end, and beyond all things. This sport of universal being, in which thou takest the persons of god, animals, and men, is a subordinate attribute of thy energy. Be propitious therefore, O lord, unto me. I have given Bana assurance of safety; do not thou falsify that which I have spoken. He has grown old in devotion to me; let him not incur thy displeasure. The Daitya has received a boon from me, and therefore I deprecate thy wrath." When he had concluded, Govinda, dismissing his resentment against the Asura, looked graciously on the lord of Uma, the wielder of the trident, and said to him, "Since you, sankara, have given a boon unto Bana, let him live: from respect to your promises, my discus is arrested: the assurance of safety granted by you is granted also by me. You are fit to apprehend that you are not distinct from me.
vp.5.33 which I am, thou art; and that also is this world, with its gods, demons, and mankind. Men contemplate distinctions, because they are stupified by ignorance." So saying, Krishna went to the place where the son of Pradyumna was confined. The snakes that bound him were destroyed, being blasted by the breath of Garuda: and Krishna, placing him, along with his wife, upon the celestial bird, returned with Pradyumna and Rama to Dwaraka 4.
vp.5.34 Paundraka, a Vasudeva, assumes the insignia and style of Krishna, supported by the king of Kasi. Krishna marches against, and destroys them. The son of the king sends a magical being against Krishna: destroyed by his discus, which also sets Benares on fire, and consumes it and its inhabitants.
vp.5.34 Parasara. Hear, excellent Brahman, with reverent attention, an account of the burning of Varanasi by Krishna, in the course of his relieving the burdens of the earth.
vp.5.34 There was a Vasudeva who was called Paundraka 1, and who, though not the Vasudeva, was flattered by ignorant people as the descended deity, until he fancied himself to be the Vasudeva 2 who had come down upon earth. Losing all recollection of his real character, he assumed the emblems of Vishnu, and sent an ambassador to the magnanimous Krishna with this message; "Relinquish, thou foolish fellow, the discus; lay aside all my insignia, my name, and the character of Vasudeva; and come and do me homage; and I will vouchsafe thee means of subsistence." At which Janarddana laughed, and replied, "Go, messenger, back to Paundraka, and say to him from me, I will dispatch to thee my emblem the discus without fail. Thou wilt rightly apprehend my meaning, and consider what is to be done; for I shall come to thy city, bringing the discus with me, and shall undoubtedly consign it to thee. If thou wilt command me to come, I will immediately obey, and be with
vp.5.34 When the king of Kasi heard of the preparations of Kesava, he sent his army (to the aid of Paundraka), himself bringing up the rear; and with the force of the king of Kasi, and his own troops, Paundraka, the false Vasudeva, marched to meet Krishna. Hari beheld him afar off, standing in his car, holding a discus, a club, a mace, a scimitar, and a lotus, in his hands; ornamented with a garland of flowers; bearing a bow; and having his standard made of gold: he had also the Srivatsa mark delineated on his breast; he was dressed in yellow garments, and decorated with earrings and a tiara. When the god whose standard is Garuda beheld him, he laughed with a deep laugh, and engaged in conflict with the hostile host of cavalry and elephants, fighting with swords, scimitars, maces, tridents, spears, and bows. Showering upon the enemy the shafts from his saranga bow, and hurling at them his mace and discus, he quickly destroyed both the army of Paundraka and that of the king of Kasi. He then said to the former, who was foolishly wearing his emblems, Paundraka", you desired me by your envoy to resign to you all my insignia. I now deliver them to you. Here is
vp.5.34 When the inhabitants of Kasi saw the head of their king shot into their city, they were much astonished, and wondered how it could have happened, and by whom the deed could have been done. Having ascertained that the king had been killed by Krishna, the son of the monarch of Kasi 4, together with the priest of the family, propitiated sankara; and that deity, well pleased to be adored in the sacred place Avimukta, desired the prince to demand a boon: on which he prayed, and said, "O lord, mighty god, through thy favour let thy mystic spirit arise to destroy Krishna, the murderer of my father." "It shall be so," answered sankara: and from out of the southern fire upsprang a vast and formidable female 5, like flame out of fire, blazing with ruddy light, and with fiery radiance streaming amidst her hair. Angrily she called upon Krishna, and departed to Dwaraka; where the people, beholding her, were struck with dismay, and fled for protection to Madhusudana, the refuge of all worlds. The wielder of the discus knowing that the fiend had been produced by the son of the king of Kasi, through his adoration of the deity whose emblem is a bull, and being engaged in sportive amusements, and playing at dice, said to the discus, "Kill this fierce creature, whose tresses are of plaited flame." Accordingly Sudarsana, the discus
vp.5.36 HEAR also, Maitreya, another exploit performed by the mighty Balarama. The great Asura, the foe of the friends of the gods, Naraka, had a friend of exceeding prowess in the monkey named Dwivida, who was animated by implacable hostility against the deities, and vowed to revenge on the whole of them the destruction of Naraka by Krishna, at the instigation of the king of the celestials, by preventing sacrifices, and effecting the annihilation of the mortal sphere. Blinded by ignorance, he accordingly interrupted all religious rites, subverted all righteous observances, and occasioned the death of living beings: he set fire to the forests, to villages, and to towns: sometimes he overwhelmed cities and hamlets with falling rocks; or lifting up mountains in the waters, he cast them into the ocean: then taking his place amidst the deep, he agitated the waves, until the foaming sea rose above its confines, and swept away the villages and cities situated upon its shores. Dwivida also, who could assume what shape he would, enlarged his bulk to an immense size, and rolling and tumbling and trampling amidst the corn fields, he crushed and spoiled the harvests. The whole world, disordered by this iniquitous monkey, was deprived of sacred study and religious rites, and was greatly afflicted.
vp.5.37 Destruction of the Yadavas. samba and others deceive and ridicule the Rishis. The former bears an iron pestle: it is broken, and thrown into the sea. The Yadavas go to Prabhasa by desire of Krishna: they quarrel and fight, and all perish. The great serpent sesha issues from the mouth of Rama. Krishna is shot by a hunter, and again becomes one with universal spirit.
vp.5.37 IN this manner did Krishna, assisted by Baladeva, destroy demons and iniquitous monarchs, for the good of the earth; and along with Phalguna 1 also did he relieve earth of her load, by the death of innumerable hosts. Having thus lightened the burdens of the earth, and slain many unrighteous princes, he exterminated 2, by the pretext of an imprecation denounced by Brahmans, his own Yadava race. Then quitting Dwaraka, and relinquishing his mortal being, the self born reentered, with all his emanations, his own sphere of Vishnu.
vp.5.37 it be thy pleasure, return to Swarga. This is the solicitation of the celestials. But should such not be thy will, then remain here as long as it may be desirable to thy dependants 6." To this Krishna replied, "All that thou hast said I am well aware of. The destruction of the Yadavas by me has commenced. The burdens of the earth are not removed until the Yadavas are extirpated. I will effect this also in my descent, and quickly; for it shall come to pass in seven nights. When I have restored the land of Dwaraka to the ocean, and annihilated the race of Yadu, I will proceed to the mansions of the immortals. Apprise the gods, that, having abandoned my human body, and accompanied by Sankarshana, I will then return to them. The tyrants that oppressed the earth, Jarasandha and the rest, have been killed; and a youth, even of the race of Yadu, is, no less than they, an incumbrance. When therefore I have taken away this great weight upon earth, I will return to protect the sphere of the celestials. Say this to them." The messenger of the gods, having received this reply, bowed, and took his heavenly course to the king of the gods.
vp.5.37 The mighty Krishna now beheld signs and portents both in earth and heaven, prognosticating, day and night, the ruin of Dwaraka 7.
vp.5.37 [paragraph continues] Shewing these to the Yadavas, he said, "See; behold these fearful phenomena: let us hasten to Prabhasa, to avert these omens." When he had thus spoken to the eminent Yadava, the illustrious Uddhava saluted and said to him, "Tell me, O lord, what it is proper that I should do, for it seems to me that thou wilt destroy all this race: the signs that are manifest declare nothing less than the annihilation of the tribe." Then Krishna replied to him, "Do you go by a celestial route, which my favour shall provide you, to the holy place Badarikasrama, in the Gandhamadana mountain, the shrine of Naranarayana; and on that spot, sanctified by them, thou, by meditating on me, shalt obtain perfection through my favour. When the race of Yadu shall have perished, I shall proceed to heaven; and the ocean shall inundate Dwaraka, when I have quitted it." Accordingly Uddhava, thus instructed by Kesava, saluted him with veneration, and departed to the shrine of Naranarayana 8.
vp.5.37 Then the Yadavas ascended their rapid cars, and drove to Prabhasa 9, along with Krishna, Rama, and the rest of their chiefs 10. They bathed there, and, excited by Vasudeva, the Kukkuras and Andhakas indulged in liquor. As they drank, the destructive flame of dissension was kindled amongst them by mutual collision, and fed with the fuel of abuse. Infuriated by the divine influence, they fell upon one another with missile weapons, and when those were expended, they had recourse to the rushes growing nigh. The rushes in their hands became like thunderbolts,
vp.5.37 and they struck one another with them fatal blows. Pradyumna, samba, Kritavarman, Satyaki, Aniruddha, Prithu, Viprithu, Charuvarman, Charuka, Akrura, and many others, struck one another with the rushes, which had assumed the hardness of thunderbolts 11. Kesava interposed to prevent them, but they thought that he was taking part with each severally, and continued the conflict. Krishna then enraged took up a handful of rushes to destroy them, and the rushes became a club of iron, and with this he slew many of the murderous Yadavas; whilst others, fighting fiercely, put an end to one another. The chariot of the holder of the discus, named Jaitra, was quickly carried off by the swift steeds, and swept away by the sea, in the sight of Daruka the charioteer. The discus, the club, the bow, the quiver, the shell, and the sword of Kesava, having circumambulated their lord, flew along the path of the sun. In a short time there was not a single Yadava left alive, except the mighty Krishna and Daruka 12. Going towards Rama, who
vp.5.37 Daruka, being thus instructed, prostrated himself again and again before Krishna, and walked round him repeatedly, and then departed as he had been desired; and having conducted Arjuna to Dwaravati, the intelligent servant of Krishna established Vajra as king. The divine Govinda then, having concentrated in himself that supreme spirit which is one with Vasudeva, was identified with all beings 14. Respecting the words of the Brahman, the imprecation of Durvasas 15, the illustrious
vp.5.37 [paragraph continues] Krishna sat engaged in thought, resting his foot upon his knee. Then came there a hunter, named Jara 16, whose arrow was tipped with a blade made of the piece of iron of the club, which had not been reduced to powder; and beholding from a distance the foot of Krishna, he mistook it for part of a deer, and shooting his arrow, lodged it in the sole 17. Approaching his mark, he saw the four armed king, and, falling at his feet, repeatedly besought his forgiveness, exclaiming, "I have done this deed unwittingly, thinking I was aiming at a deer! Have pity upon me, who am consumed by my crime; for thou art able to consume me!" Bhagavat replied, "Fear not thou in the least. Go, hunter, through my favour, to heaven, the abode of the gods." As soon as he had thus spoken, a celestial car appeared, and the hunter, ascending it, forthwith proceeded to heaven. Then the illustrious Krishna, having united himself with his own pure, spiritual, inexhaustible, inconceivable, unborn, undecaying, imperishable, and universal spirit, which is one with Vasudeva, abandoned his mortal body and the condition of the threefold qualities 18.
vp.5.38 Arjuna having found the bodies of Krishna and of Rama, performed for them, and the rest of the slain, the obsequial rites. The eight queens of Krishna, who have been named, with Rukmini at their head, embraced the body of Hari, and entered the funeral fire 1. Revati also, embracing the corpse of Rama, entered the blazing pile, which was cool to her, happy in contact with her lord. Hearing these events, Ugrasena and Anakadundubhi, with Devaki and Rohini, committed themselves to the flames 2. The last ceremonies were performed for all these by Arjuna, who then made all the people leave the city, and took Vajra with him. The son of Kunti conducted the thousands of the wives of Krishna, with Vajra, and all the people, from Dwaraka, with tenderness and care, and travelled slowly away. The Sudharman palace and the Parijata tree, which had been brought to earth by Krishna, both proceeded to heaven; and on the same day that Hari departed from the earth the powerful dark bodied Kali age descended 3. The ocean rose, and submerged the whole of Dwaraka, except alone the dwelling of the deity of the race of Yadu. The sea has not yet been able to wash that temple away, and there Kesava constantly abides, even in the present day. Whoever visits that holy shrine, the place where Krishna pursued his sports, is liberated from all his sins 4.
vp.5.38 in spite of all his efforts to tighten it, it continued flaccid: neither could he call to recollection the incantations of the superhuman weapons. Losing all patience, he launched, as best he might, his shafts upon the enemy; but those shot from Gandiva merely scratched the skin. The arrows given him by Agni to carry certain destruction now were themselves destroyed, and were fatal to Arjuna in his contest with herdsmen. He endeavoured to recall the might of Krishna; animated by which, his numerous arrows had overthrown mighty kings; but he tried in vain, for now they were put aside by the peasants, or they flew at random, wide of their aim. His arrows being expended, he beat the banditti with the horn of his bow; but they only laughed at his blows: and the barbarians, in the sight of Arjuna, carried off all the women of the Vrishni and Andhaka tribes, and went their way 7.
vp.5.38 Arjuna, having sighed deeply, related to Vyasa all the circumstances of his discomfiture, and continued; Hari", who was our strength, our might, our heroism, our prowess, our prosperity, our brightness, has left us, and departed. Deprived of him, our friend, illustrious, and ever kindly speaking, we have become as feeble as if made of straw. Purushottama, who was the living vigour of my weapons, my arrows and my bow, is gone. As long as we looked upon him, fortune, fame, wealth, dignity never abandoned us: but Govinda is gone from amongst us. That Krishna has quitted earth, through whose power Bhishma, Drona, the king of Anga, Duryodhana, and the rest, were consumed. Not I alone, but Earth, has grown old, miserable, and lustreless, in the absence of the holder of the discus. Krishna, through devotion to whom Bhishma and other mighty men perished like moths in the flame of my valour, is gone; and I am now overcome by cowherds. The bow Gandiva, that was famed throughout the three worlds, has been foiled, since he has departed, by the sticks of peasants: the myriads of women over whom I was lord have been carried off from me by thieves, armed but with cudgels: the whole household of Krishna, O Krishna 8, has been forcibly carried away by peasants, who with their staves have put my strength to shame. That I am shorn of my lustre I do not marvel: it is wonderful that I live. Surely, grandsire, I alone am so shameless as to survive the stain of indignity inflicted by the vile."
vp.5.38 of all creatures. All that exists is founded on time. Know this, Arjuna, and retain your fortitude. Rivers, seas, mountains, the whole earth, gods, men, animals, trees, insects, are all created, and all will be destroyed, by time. Knowing that all that is, is the effect of time, be tranquillized. These mighty works of Krishna, whatever they have been, have been performed to relieve earth of its burdens: for this he has come down. Earth, oppressed by her load, has had recourse to the assembly of the immortals; and Janarddana, who is one with time, has descended on that account. This object has been now accomplished: all the kings of the earth are slain; the race of Vrishni and Andhaka is destroyed: no more remained for him to accomplish. Therefore has the lord departed whither he pleased, his ends being all fulfilled. At the period of creation the god of gods creates; in that of duration he preserves; and at the end of all he is mighty to annihilate. Now all is done. Therefore, Arjuna, be not afflicted by thy defeat: the prowess of mortals is the gift of time. Bhishma, Karna, and other kings, have been slain by thee alone; this was the work of time: and why, therefore, should not thy discomfiture, by those less than thou art, occur? In like manner as through thy devotion to Vishnu these were overthrown by thee, so at last has thy defeat by miserable thieves been wrought by time. That divinity, assuming various bodies, preserves the world; and in the end the lord of creatures
vp.6.2 subsequent inquiry." On hearing which, Krishna Dwaipayana laughed, and said to the holy persons who had come to see him, whose eyes were wide open with astonishment, "I perceived, with the eye of divine knowledge, the question you intended to ask, and in allusion to it I uttered the expressions, Well done, well done. In truth, in the Kali age duty is discharged with very little trouble by mortals, whose faults are all washed away by the water of their individual merits; by sudras, through diligent attendance only upon the twice born; and by women, through the slight effort of obedience to their husbands. Therefore, Brahmans, did I thrice express my admiration of their happiness; for in the Krita and other ages great were the toils of the regenerate to perform their duty. I waited not for your inquiry, but replied at once to the question you purposed to ask. Now, ye who know what virtue is, what else do you wish me to tell you?"
vp.6.4 I have thus described to you the intermediate dissolution of the world, occurring at the end of every Kalpa. I will now, Maitreya, describe to you elemental dissolution. When by dearth and fire all the worlds and Patalas are withered up, and the modifications of Mahat and other products of nature are by the will of Krishna destroyed, the progress of

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