Indra

Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 22 Jul 2011 17:08 and updated at 22 Jul 2011 17:08

VISHNU PURANA NOUN

vp.1.3 Seven Rishis, certain (secondary) divinities, Indra, Manu, and the kings his sons, are created and perish at one period 5; and the interval, called a Manwantara, is equal to seventy one times the number of years contained in the four Yugas, with some additional years: this is the duration of the Manu, the (attendant) divinities, and the rest, which is equal to 852.000 divine years, or to 306.720.000 years of mortals, independent of the additional period 6. Fourteen times this period constitutes
vp.1.6 The means of subsistence having been provided for the beings he had created, Brahma prescribed laws suited to their station and faculties, the duties of the several castes and orders 9, and the regions of those of the different castes who were observant of their duties. The heaven of the Pitris is the region of devout Brahmans. The sphere of Indra, of
vp.1.8 ery where. Govinda is the ocean; Lakshmi its shore. Lakshmi is the consort of Indra Indrani(); Madhusudana is Devendra. The holder of the discus Vishnu() is Yama (the regent of Tartarus); the lotus throned goddess is his dusky spouse Dhumorna(). sri is wealth; sridhara Vishnu() is himself the god of riches Kuvera(). Lakshmi, illustrious Brahman, is Gauri; and Kesava, is the deity of ocean Varuna(). sri is the host of heaven Devasena(); the deity of war, her lord, is Hari. The wielder of the mace is resistance; the power to oppose is sri. Lakshmi is the Kashtha and the Kala; Hari the Nimesha and the Muhurtta. Lakshmi is the light; and Hari, who is all, and lord of all, the lamp. She, the mother of the world, is the creeping vine; and Vishnu the tree round which she clings. She is the night; the god who is armed with the mace and discus is the day. He, the bestower of blessings, is the bridegroom; the lotus throned goddess is the bride.
vp.1.8 "In former times, Daksha commenced a holy sacrifice on the side of Himavan, at the sacred spot Gangadwara, frequented by the Rishis. The gods, desirous of assisting at this solemn rite, came, with Indra at their head, to Mahadeva, and intimated their purpose; and having received his permission, departed in their splendid chariots to Gangadwara, as tradition reports 2. They found Daksha, the best of the devout,
vp.1.8 "In the meanwhile, the virtuous daughter of the mountain king, observing the departure of the divinities, addressed her lord, the god of living beings, and said Uma spake Whither, oh lord, have the gods, preceded by Indra, this day departed? Tell me truly, oh thou who knowest all truth, for a great doubt perplexes me. Maheswara spake; Illustrious goddess, the excellent patriarch Daksha celebrates the sacrifice of a horse, and thither the gods repair. Devi spake; Why then, most mighty god, dost thou also not proceed to this solemnity? by what hinderance is thy progress thither impeded? Maheswara spake; This is the contrivance, mighty queen, of all the gods, that in all sacrifices no portion should be assigned to me. In consequence of an arrangement formerly devised, the gods allow me, of right, no participation of sacrificial offerings. Devi spake; The lord god lives in all bodily forms, and his might is eminent through his superior faculties; he is unsurpassable, he is unapproachable, in splendour and glory and power. That such as he should be excluded from his share of oblations, fills me with deep sorrow, and a trembling, oh sinless, seizes upon my frame. Shall I now practise bounty, restraint, or penance, so that my lord, who is inconceivable, may obtain a share, a half or a third portion, of the sacrifice 4?
vp.1.8 "Then Daksha, frightened, alarmed, and agitated, his eyes suffused with tears, raised his hands reverentially to his brow, and said, If, lord, thou art pleased; if I have found favour in thy sight; if I am to be the object of thy benevolence; if thou wilt confer upon me a boon, this is the blessing I solicit, that all these provisions for the solemn sacrifice, which have been collected with much trouble and during a long time, and which have now been eaten, drunk, devoured, burnt, broken, scattered abroad, may not have been prepared in vain. So let it be, replied Hara, the subduer of Indra. And thereupon Daksha knelt down upon the earth, and praised gratefully the author of righteousness, the three eyed god Mahadeva, repeating the eight thousand names of the deity whose emblem is a bull."
vp.1.9 Legend of Lakshmi. Durvasas gives a garland to Indra: he treats it disrespectfully, and is cursed by the Muni. The power of the gods impaired: they are oppressed by the Danavas, and have recourse to Vishnu. The churning of the ocean. Praises of sri.
vp.1.9 Durvasas, a portion of sankara (siva) 1, was wandering over the earth; when be beheld, in the hands of a nymph of air 2, a garland of flowers culled from the trees of heaven, the fragrant odour of which spread throughout the forest, and enraptured all who dwelt beneath its shade. The sage, who was then possessed by religious phrensy 3, when he beheld that garland, demanded it of the graceful and full eyed nymph, who, bowing to him reverentially, immediately presented it to him. He, as one frantic, placed the chaplet upon his brow, and thus decorated resumed his path; when he beheld Indra() the husband of sachi, the ruler of the three worlds, approach, seated on his infuriated elephant Airavata, and attended by the gods. The phrensied sage, taking from his head the garland of flowers, amidst which the bees collected ambrosia, threw it to the king of the gods, who caught it, and suspended it on the brow of Airavata, where it shone like the river Jahnavi, glittering on the dark summit of the mountain Kailasa. The elephant, whose eyes were dim with inebriety, and attracted by the smell, took hold of the garland with his trunk, and cast it on the earth. That chief of sages, Durvasas, was
vp.1.9 Descending hastily from his elephant, Mahendra endeavoured to appease the sinless Durvasas: but to the excuses and prostrations of the thousand eyed, the Muni answered, "I am not of a compassionate heart, nor is forgiveness congenial to my nature. Other Munis may relent; but know me, sakra, to be Durvasas. Thou hast in vain been rendered insolent by Gautama and others; for know me, Indra, to be Durvasas, whose nature is a stranger to remorse. Thou hast been flattered by Vasishtha and other tender hearted saints, whose loud praises (lave made thee so arrogant, that thou hast insulted me. But who is there in the universe that can behold my countenance, dark with frowns, and surrounded by my blazing hair, and not tremble? What need of words? I will not forgive, whatever semblance of humility thou mayest assume."
vp.1.9 The three regions being thus wholly divested of prosperity, and deprived of energy, the Danavas and sons of Diti, the enemies of the gods, who were incapable of steadiness, and agitated by ambition, put forth their strength against the gods. They engaged in war with the feeble and unfortunate divinities; and Indra and the rest, being overcome in fight, fled for refuge to Brahma, preceded by the god of flame Hutasana(). When the great father of the universe had heard all that had come to pass, he said to the deities, "Repair for protection to the god of high and low; the tamer of the demons; the causeless cause of creation, preservation, and destruction; the progenitor of the progenitors; the immortal, unconquerable Vishnu; the cause of matter and spirit, of his unengendered products; the remover of the grief of all who humble themselves before him: he will give you aid." Having thus spoken to the deities, Brahma proceeded along with them to the northern shore of the sea of milk; and with reverential words thus prayed to the supreme Hari:
vp.1.9 Parasara continued. The gods, having heard this prayer uttered by Brahma, bowed down, and cried, "Be favourable to us; be present to our sight: we bow down to that glorious nature which the mighty Brahma does not know; that which is thy nature, oh imperishable, in whom the universe abides." Then the gods having ended, Vrihaspati and the divine Rishis thus prayed: "We bow down to the being entitled to adoration; who is the first object of sacrifice; who was before the first of things; the creator of the creator of the world; the undefinable: oh lord of all that has been or is to be; imperishable type of sacrifice; have pity upon thy worshippers; appear to them, prostrate before thee. Here is Brahma; here is Trilochana (the three eyed siva), with the Rudras; Pusha, (the sun), with the adityas; and Fire, with all the mighty luminaries: here are the sons of Aswini (the two Aswini Kumaras), the Vasus and all the winds, the Sadhyas, the Viswadevas, and Indra the king of the gods: all of whom bow lowly before thee: all the tribes of the immortals, vanquished by the demon host, have fled to thee for succour."
vp.1.9 Thus prayed to, the supreme deity, the mighty holder of the conch and discus, shewed himself to them: and beholding the lord of gods, bearing a shell, a discus, and a mace, the assemblage of primeval form, and radiant with embodied light, Pitamaha and the other deities, their eyes moistened with rapture, first paid him homage, and then thus addressed him: "Repeated salutation to thee, who art indefinable: thou art Brahma; thou art the wielder of the Pinaka bow (siva); thou art Indra; thou art fire, air, the god of waters, the sun, the king of death Yama(), the Vasus, the Maruts (the winds), the Sadhyas, and Viswadevas. This assembly of divinities, that now has come before thee, thou art; for, the creator of the world, thou art every where. Thou art the sacrifice, the prayer of oblation, the mystic syllable Om, the sovereign of all creatures: thou art all that is to be known, or to be unknown: oh universal soul, the whole world consists of thee. We, discomfited by the Daityas, have fled to thee, oh Vishnu, for refuge. Spirit of all, have compassion upon us; defend us with thy mighty power. There will be affliction, desire, trouble, and grief, until thy protection is obtained: but thou art the remover of all sins. Do thou then, oh pure of spirit, shew favour unto
vp.1.9 from them, delivered it to the gods. sakra and the other deities quaffed the ambrosia. The incensed demons, grasping their weapons, fell upon them; but the gods, into whom the ambrosial draught had infused new vigour, defeated and put their host to flight, and they fled through the regions of space, and plunged into the subterraneous realms of Patala. The gods thereat greatly rejoiced, did homage to the holder of the discus and mace, and resumed their reign in heaven. The sun shone with renovated splendour, and again discharged his appointed task; and the celestial luminaries again circled, oh best of Munis, in their respective orbits. Fire once more blazed aloft, beautiful in splendour; and the minds of all beings were animated by devotion. The three worlds again were rendered happy by prosperity; and Indra, the chief of the gods, was restored to power 8. Seated upon his throne, and once more in
vp.1.9 heard by all beings, replied to the god of a hundred rites (satakratu); "I am pleased, monarch of the gods, by thine adoration. Demand from me what thou desirest: I have come to fulfil thy wishes." "If, goddess," replied Indra, "thou wilt grant my prayers; if I am worthy of thy bounty; be this my first request, that the three worlds may never again be deprived of thy presence. My second supplication, daughter of ocean, is, that thou wilt not forsake him who shall celebrate thy praises in the words I have addressed to thee." "I will not abandon," the goddess answered, "the three worlds again: this thy first boon is granted; for I am gratified by thy praises: and further, I will never turn my face away from that mortal who morning and evening shall repeat the hymn with which thou hast addressed me."
vp.1.9 Thus, Brahman, have I narrated to thee, in answer to thy question, how Lakshmi, formerly the daughter of Bhrigu, sprang from the sea of milk; and misfortune shall never visit those amongst mankind who daily recite the praises of Lakshmi uttered by Indra, which are the origin and cause of all prosperity.
vp.1.11 Dhruva said; "Excellent sages, I wish not for riches, neither do I want dominion: I aspire to such a station as no one before me has attained. Tell me what I must do to effect this object; how I may reach an elevation superior to all other dignities." The Rishis severally thus replied. Marichi said; "The best of stations is not within the reach of men who fail to propitiate Govinda. Do thou, prince, worship the undecaying Achyuta()." Atri said; "He with whom the first of spirits, Janarddana, is pleased, obtains imperishable dignity. I declare unto you the truth." Angiras said; "If you desire an exalted station, worship that Govinda in whom, immutable and undecaying, all that is, exists." Pulastya said; "He who adores the divine Hari, the supreme soul, supreme glory, who is the supreme Brahma, obtains what is difficult of attainment, eternal liberation." "When that Janarddana," observed Kratu, "who in sacrifices is the soul of sacrifice, and who in abstract contemplation is supreme spirit, is pleased, there is nothing man may not acquire." Pulaha said; Indra", having worshipped" the lord of the world, obtained the dignity of king of the celestials. Do thou adore, pious youth, that Vishnu, the lord of sacrifice." "Any thing, child, that the mind covets," exclaimed Vasishtha, "may be obtained by propitiating
vp.1.12 Dhruva commences a course of religious austerities. Unsuccessful attempts of Indra and his ministers to distract Dhruva s attention: they appeal to Vishnu, who allays their fears, and appears to Dhruva. Dhruva praises Vishnu, and is raised to the skies as the pole star.
vp.1.12 The celestials called Yamas, being excessively alarmed, then took counsel with Indra how they should interrupt the devout exercises of Dhruva; and the divine beings termed Kushmandas, in company with their king, commenced anxious efforts to distract his meditations. One, assuming the semblance of his mother Suniti, stood weeping before him, and calling in tender accents, "My son, my son, desist from destroying thy strength by this fearful penance. I have gained thee, my son, after
vp.1.12 the devotions of the boy, they assembled and repaired for succour to Hari, the origin of the world, who is without beginning or end; and thus addressed him: God" of gods, sovereign of the world, god supreme, and infinite spirit, distressed by the austerities of Dhruva, we have come to thee for protection. As the moon increases in his orb day by day, so this youth advances incessantly towards superhuman power by his devotions. Terrified by the ascetic practices of the son of Uttanapada, we have come to thee for succour. Do thou allay the fervour of his meditations. We know not to what station he aspires: to the throne of Indra, the regency of the solar or lunar sphere, or to the sovereignty of riches or of the deep. Have compassion on us, lord; remove this affliction from Our breasts; divert the son of Uttanapada from persevering in his penance." Vishnu replied to the gods; "The lad desireth neither the rank of Indra, nor the solar orb, nor the sovereignty of wealth or of the ocean: all that he solicits, I will grant. Return therefore, deities, to your mansions as ye list, and be no more alarmed: I will put an end to the penance of the boy, whose mind is immersed in deep contemplation."
vp.1.12 The gods, being thus pacified by the supreme, saluted him respectfully and retired, and, preceded by Indra, returned to their habitations: but Hari, who is all things, assuming a shape with four arms, proceeded to Dhruva, being pleased with his identity of nature, and thus addressed him: Son" of Uttanapada, be prosperous. Contented with thy devotions, I, the giver of boons, am present. Demand what boon thou desirest. In that thou hast wholly disregarded external objects, and fixed thy thoughts on me, I am well pleased with thee. Ask, therefore, a suitable reward." The boy, hearing these words of the god of gods, opened his eyes, and beholding that Hari whom he had before seen in his meditations actually in his presence, bearing in his hands the shell, the discus, the mace, the bow, and scimetar, and crowned with a diadem, the bowed his head down to earth; the hair stood erect on his brow, and his heart was depressed with awe. He reflected how best he should offer thanks to the god of gods; what he could say in his adoration; what words were capable of expressing his praise: and being overwhelmed with perplexity, he had recourse for consolation to the deity. "If," he
vp.1.12 Vishnu said to Dhruva; "The object of thy devotions has in truth been attained, in that thou hast seen me; for the sight of me, young prince, is never unproductive. Ask therefore of me what boon thou desirest; for men in whose sight I appear obtain all their wishes." To this, Dhruva answered; Lord" god of all creatures, who abidest in the hearts of all, how should the wish that I cherish be unknown to thee? I will confess unto thee the hope that my presumptuous heart has entertained; a hope that it would be difficult to gratify, but that nothing is difficult when thou, creator of the world, art pleased. Through thy favour, Indra reigns over the three worlds. The sister queen of my mother has said to me, loudly and arrogantly, The royal throne is not for one who is not born of me; and I now solicit of the support of the universe an exalted station, superior to all others, and one that shall endure for ever." Vishnu said to him; "The station that thou askest thou shalt obtain; for I was satisfied with thee of old in a prior existence. Thou wast formerly a Brahman, whose thoughts were ever devoted to me, ever dutiful to thy parents, and observant of thy duties. In course of time a prince became thy friend, who was in the period of youth, indulged in all sensual pleasures, .and was of handsome appearance and elegant form. Beholding, in consequence of associating with him, his affluence, you formed the desire that you might be subsequently born as the son of a king; and,
vp.1.12 celebrate her greatness, who, having given birth to Dhruva, has become the asylum of the three worlds, enjoying to all future time an elevated station, a station eminent above all? He who shall worthily describe the ascent into the sky of Dhruva, for ever shall be freed from all sin, and enjoy the heaven of Indra. Whatever be his dignity, whether upon earth or in heaven, he shall never fall from it, but shall long enjoy life, possessed of every blessing.
vp.1.13 Parasara. Sunitha was originally the daughter of Mrityu, by whom she was given to Anga to wife. She bore him Vena, who inherited the evil propensities of his maternal grandfather. When he was inaugurated by the Rishis monarch of the earth, he caused. it to be every where proclaimed, that no worship should be performed, no oblations offered, no gifts bestowed upon the Brahmans. "I, the king," said he, "am the lord of sacrifice; for who but I am entitled to the oblations." The Rishis, respectfully approaching the sovereign, addressed him in melodious accents, and said, "Gracious prince, we salute you; hear what we have to represent. For the preservation of your kingdom and your life, and for the benefit of all your subjects, permit us to worship Hari, the lord of all sacrifice, the god of gods, with solemn and protracted rites 2; a portion of the fruit of which will revert to you 3. Vishnu, the god of oblations, being propitiated with sacrifice by us, will grant you, oh king, all your desires. Those princes have all their wishes gratified, in whose realms Hari, the lord of sacrifice, is adored with sacrificial rites." "Who," exclaimed Vena, "is superior to me? who besides me is entitled to worship? who is this Hari, whom you style the lord of sacrifice? Brahma, Janarddana. sambhu, Indra, Vayu, Ravi (the sun), Hutabhuk
vp.1.15 "When the Muni, princes, had heard these words, and knew that it was the truth, he began to reproach himself bitterly, exclaiming, Fie, fie upon me; my penance has been interrupted; the treasure of the learned and the pious has been stolen from me; my judgment has been blinded: this woman has been created by some one to beguile me: Brahma is beyond the reach of those agitated by the waves of infirmity 1. I had subdued my passions, and was about to attain divine knowledge. This was foreseen by him by whom this girl has been sent hither. Fie on the passion that has obstructed my devotions. All the austerities that would have led to acquisition of the wisdom of the Vedas have been rendered of no avail by passion that is the road to hell. The pious sage, having thus reviled himself, turned to the nymph, who was sitting nigh, and said to her, Go, deceitful girl, whither thou wilt: thou hast performed the office assigned thee by the monarch of the gods, of disturbing my penance by thy fascinations. I will not reduce thee to ashes by the fire of my wrath. Seven paces together is sufficient for the friendship of the virtuous, but thou and I have dwelt together. And in truth what fault hast thou committed? why should I be wroth with thee? The sin is wholly mine, in that I could not subdue my passions: yet fie upon thee, who, to gain favour with Indra, hast disturbed my devotions; vile bundle of delusion.
vp.1.17 Parasara. Listen, Maitreya, to the story of the wise and magnanimous Prahlada, whose adventures are ever interesting and instructive. Hiranyakasipu, the son of Diti, had formerly brought the three worlds under his authority, confiding in a boon bestowed upon him by Brahma 1. He had usurped the sovereignty of Indra, and exercised of himself the functions of the sun, of air, of the lord of waters, of fire, and of the moon. He himself was the god of riches; he was the judge of the dead; and he appropriated to himself, without reserve, all that was offered in sacrifice to the gods. The deities therefore, flying from their seats in heaven, wandered, through fear of the Daitya, upon the earth, disguised in mortal shapes. Having conquered the three worlds, he was inflated with pride, and, eulogized by the Gandharbas, enjoyed whatever he desired. The Gandharbas, the Siddhas, and the snake gods all attended upon the mighty Hiranyakasipu, as he sat at the banquet. The Siddhas delighted stood before him, some playing on musical instruments, some singing songs in his praise, and others shouting cries of victory; whilst the nymphs of heaven danced gracefully in the crystal palace, where the Asura with pleasure quaffed the inebriating cup.
vp.1.17 he angry passions of our race, and so strive that we obtain that perfect, pure, and eternal happiness, which shall be beyond the power of the elements or their deities, of fire, of the sun, of the moon, of wind, of Indra, of the regent of the sea; which shall be unmolested by spirits of air or earth; by Yakshas, Daityas, or their chiefs; by the serpent gods or monstrous demigods of Swerga; which shall be uninterrupted by men or beasts, or
vp.1.21 Diti, having lost her children, propitiated Kasyapa; and the best of ascetics, being pleased with her, promised her a boon; on which she prayed for a son of irresistible prowess and valour, who should destroy Indra. The excellent Muni granted his wife the great gift she had solicited, but with one condition: "You shall bear a son," he said, "who shall slay Indra, if with thoughts wholly pious, and person entirely pure, you carefully carry the babe in your womb for a hundred years." Having thus said, Kasyapa departed; and the dame conceived, and during gestation assiduously observed the rules of mental and personal purity. When the king of the immortals, learnt that Diti bore a son destined for his destruction, he came to her, and attended upon her with the utmost humility, watching for an opportunity to disappoint her intention. At last, in the last year of the century, the opportunity occurred. Diti
vp.1.21 retired one night to rest without performing the prescribed ablution of her feet, and fell asleep; on which the thunderer divided with his thunderbolt the embryo in her womb into seven portions. The child, thus mutilated, cried bitterly; and Indra repeatedly attempted to console and silence it, but in vain: on which the god, being incensed, again divided each of the seven portions into seven, and thus formed the swift moving deities called Marutas (winds). They derived this appellation from the words with which Indra had addressed them (Ma rodih, Weep not and they became forty nine subordinate divinities, the associates of the wielder of the thunderbolt.
vp.1.22 WHEN Prithu was installed in the government of the earth, the great father of the spheres established sovereignties in other parts of the creation. Soma was appointed monarch of the stars and planets, of Brahmans and of plants, of sacrifices and of penance. Vaisravana was made king over kings; and Varuna, over the waters. Vishnu was the chief of the adityas; Pavaka, of the Vasus; Daksha, of the patriarchs; Vasava, of the winds. To Prahlada was assigned dominion over the Daityas and Danavas; and Yama, the king of justice, was appointed the monarch of the Manes Pitris(). Airavata was made the king of elephants; Garuda, of birds; Indra, of the gods. Uchchaisravas was the chief of horses; Vrishabha, of kine. sesha became the snake king; the lion, the monarch of the beasts; and the sovereign of the trees was the holy fig tree 1. Having thus fixed the limits of each authority, the great progenitor Brahma stationed rulers for the protection of the different quarters of the world: he made Sudhanwan, the son of the patriarch Viraja, the regent of the east; Sankhapada, the son of the patriarch Kardama, of the south; the immortal Ketumat, the son of Rajas, regent of the west; and Hiranyaroman, the son of the patriarch Parjanya, regent of the north 2. By these the whole earth, with its seven continents and its
vp.2.2 The country of Bhadraswa lies on the east of Meru, and Ketumala on the west; and between these two is the region of Ilavrita. On the east of the same is the forest Chaitraratha; the Gandhamadana wood is on the south; the forest of Vaibhraja is on the west; and the grove of Indra, or Nandana, is on the north. There are also four great lakes, the waters of which are partaken of by the gods, called Arunoda, Mahabhadra, sitoda, and Manasa 8.
vp.2.2 On the summit of Meru is the vast city of Brahma, extending fourteen thousand leagues, and renowned in heaven; and around it, in the cardinal points and the intermediate quarters, are situated the stately cities of Indra and the other regents of the spheres 10. The capital of Brahma
vp.2.2 In the country of Bhadraswa, Vishnu resides as Hayasira (the horse headed); in Ketumala, as Varaha (the boar); in Bharata, as the tortoise Kurma(); in Kuru, as the fish Matsya(); in his universal form, every where; for Hari pervades all places: he, Maitreya, is the supporter of all things; he is all things. In the eight realms of Kimpurusha and the rest (or all exclusive of Bharata) there is no sorrow, nor weariness, nor anxiety, nor hunger, nor apprehension; their inhabitants are exempt from all infirmity and pain, and live in uninterrupted enjoyment for ten or twelve thousand years. Indra never sends rain upon them, for the earth abounds with water. In those places there is no distinction of Krita, Treta, or any succession of ages. In each of these Varshas there are respectively seven principal ranges of mountains, from which, oh best of Brahmans, hundreds of rivers take their rise.
vp.2.3 The Varsha of Bharata is divided into nine portions, which I will name to you; they are Indra dwipa, Kaserumat, Tamravarna, Gabhastimat, Naga dwipa, Saumya, Gandharba, and Varuna; the last or ninth Dwipa is surrounded by the ocean, and is a thousand Yojanas from north to south 3.
vp.2.4 by the Siddhas and Gandharbas, the wind from which, as produced by its fluttering leaves, diffuses delight. The sacred lands of this continent are peopled by the four castes. Its seven holy rivers, that wash away all sin, are the Sukumari, Kumari, Nalini, Dhenuka, Ikshu, Venuka, and Gabhasti. There are also hundreds and thousands of minor streams and mountains in this Dwipa: and the inhabitants of Jalada and the other divisions drink of those waters with pleasure, after they have returned to earth from Indra s heaven. In those seven districts there is no dereliction of virtue; there is no contention; there is no deviation from rectitude. The caste of Mriga is that of the Brahman; the Magadha, of the Kshetriya; the Manasa, of the Vaisya; and the Mandaga of the sudra: and by these Vishnu is devoutly worshipped as the sun, with appropriate ceremonies. saka dwipa is encircled by the sea of milk, as by an armlet, and the sea is of the same breadth as the continent which it embraces 2
vp.2.5 Parasara. The extent of the surface of the earth has been thus described to you, Maitreya. Its depth below the surface is said to be seventy thousand Yojanas, each of the seven regions of Patala extending downwards ten thousand. These seven, worthy Muni, are called Atala, Vitala, Nitala, Gabhastimat, Mahatala, Sutala, and Patala 1. Their soil is severally white, black, purple, yellow, sandy, stony, and of gold. They are embellished with magnificent palaces, in which dwell numerous Danavas, Daityas, Yakshas, and great snake gods. The Muni Narada, after his return from those regions to the skies 2, declared amongst the celestials that Patala was much more delightful than Indra s heaven. "What," exclaimed the sage, "can be compared to Patala, where the Nagas are decorated with brilliant and beautiful and pleasure shedding jewels? who will not delight in Patala, where the lovely daughters of the Daityas and Danavas wander about, fascinating even the most austere; where the rays of the sun diffuse light, and not heat, by day; and where the moon shines by night for illumination, not for cold; where the sons of Danu, happy in the enjoyment of delicious viands and strong wines, know not how time passes? There are beautiful groves and streams and lakes where the lotus blows; and the skies are resonant with the Koil s song. Splendid ornaments, fragrant perfumes, rich unguents, the blended music of the lute and pipe and tabor; these and many other enjoyments are the common portion of
vp.2.8 The city of Indra is situated on the eastern side of the Manasottara mountain; that of Yama on the southern face; that of Varuna on the west; and that of Soma on the north: named severally Vaswokasara, Samyamani, Mukhya, and Vibhavari 6.
vp.2.10 Parasara. Between the extreme northern and southern points the sun has to traverse in a year one hundred and eighty degrees, ascending and descending 1. His car is presided over by divine adityas, Rishis, heavenly singers and nymphs, Yakshas, serpents, and Rakshasas (one of each being placed in it in every month). The aditya Dhatri, the sage Pulastya, the Gandharba Tumburu, the nymph Kratusthala, the Yaksha Rathakrit, the serpent Vasuki, and the Rakshas Heti, always reside in the sun s car, in the month of Madhu or Chaitra, as its seven guardians. In Vaisakha or Madhava the seven are aryamat, Pulaha, Narada, Punjikasthali, Rathaujas, Kachanira, and Praheti. In suchi or Jyeshtha they are Mitra, Atri, Haha, Mena, Rathaswana, Takshaka, and Paurusheya. In the month sukra or ashadha they are Varuna, Vasishtha, Huhu, Sahajanya, Rathachitra, Naga, and Budha. In the month Nabhas (or Sravana) they are Indra, Angiras, Viswavasu, Pramlocha, srotas, and Elapatra (the name of both serpent and Rakshas). In the month Bhadrapada they are Vivaswat, Bhrigu, Ugrasena, Anumlocha, apurana, sankhapala, and Vyaghra. In the month of aswin they are Pushan, Gautama, Suruchi, Ghritachi, Sushena, Dhananjaya, and Vata. In the month of Kartik they are Parjanya, Bharadwaja, (another) Viswavasu, Viswachi, Senajit, Airavata, and Chapa. In Agrahayana or Margasirsha they are Ansu, Kasyapa, Chitrasena, Urvasi, Tarkshya, Mahapadma, and Vidyut. In the month of Pausha, Bhaga, Kratu, Urnayu, Purvachitti,
vp.3.1 Account of the several Manus and Manwantaras. Swarochisha the second Manu: the divinities, the Indra, the seven Rishis of his period, and his sons. Similar details of Auttami, Tamasa, Raivata, Chakshusha, and Vaivaswata. The forms of Vishnu, as the preserver, in each Manwantara. The meaning of Vishnu.
vp.3.1 In the third period, or Manwantara of Auttami 6, Susanti was the Indra, the king of the gods; the orders of whom were the Sudhamas, Satyas, sivas, Pradarsanas, and Vasavertis 7; each of the five orders consisting of twelve divinities. The seven sons of Vasishtha were the seven Rishis 8; and Aja, Parasu, Divya, and others, were the sons of the Manu 9.
vp.3.1 The Surupas, Haris, Satyas, and sudhis 10 were the classes of gods, each comprising twenty seven, in the period of Tamasa, the fourth Manu 11. sivi was the Indra, also designated by his performance of a hundred sacrifices (or named satakratu). The seven Rishis were Jyotirdhama, Prithu, Kavya, Chaitra, Agni, Vanaka, and Pivara 12. The sons of Tamasa were the mighty kings Nara, Khyati, santahaya, Janujangha, and others 13.
vp.3.1 In the fifth interval the Manu was Raivata 14: the Indra was Vibhu: the classes of gods, consisting of fourteen each, were the Amitabhas, Abhutarajasas, Vaikunthas, and Sumedhasas 15: the seven Rishis were
vp.3.1 Chakshusha was the Manu of the sixth period 17: in which the Indra was Manojava: the five classes of gods were the adyas, Prastutas, Bhavyas, Prithugas, and the magnanimous Lekhas, eight of each 18: Sumedhas, Virajas, Havishmat, Uttama, Madhu, Abhinaman, and Sahishnu were the seven sages 19: the kings of the earth, the sons of Chakshusha, were the powerful Uru, Puru, satadyumna, and others.
vp.3.2 The son of Chhaya, who was called also a Manu, was denominated Savarni 6, from being of the same caste Savarna() as his elder brother, the Manu Vaivaswata. He presides over the ensuing or eighth Manwantara; the particulars of which, and the following, I will now relate. In the period in which Savarni shall be the Manu, the classes of the gods will be Sutapas, Amitabhas, and Mukhyas; twenty one of each. The seven Rishis will be Diptimat, Galava, Rama, Kripa, Drauni; my son Vyasa will be the sixth, and the seventh will be Rishyasringa 7. The Indra will be Bali, the sinless son of Virochana, who through the favour of Vishnu is actually sovereign of part of Patala. The royal progeny of Savarni will be Virajas, Arvarivas, Nirmoha, and others.
vp.3.2 The ninth Manu will be Daksha savarni 8. The Paras, Marichigarbhas, and Sudharmas will be the three classes of divinities, each consisting of twelve; their powerful chief will be the Indra Adbhuta. Savana, Dyutimat, Bhavya, Vasu, Medhatithi, Jyotishman, and Satya will be the seven Rishis. Dhritaketu, Driptiketu, Panchahasta, Mahamaya, Prithusrava, and others, will be the sons of the Manu.
vp.3.2 In the tenth Manwantara the Manu will be Brahma savarni: the gods will be the Sudhamas, Viruddhas, and satasankhyas: the Indra will be the mighty santi: the Rishis will be Havishman, Sukriti, Satya, Apammurtti, Nabhaga, Apratimaujas, and Satyaketu: and the ten sons of the Manu will be Sukshetra, Uttarnaujas, Harishena, and others.
vp.3.2 In the eleventh Manwantara the Manu will be Dharma savarni: the principal classes of gods will be the Vihangamas, Kamagamas, and Nirmanaratis, each thirty in number 9; of whom Vrisha will be the Indra: the Rishis will be Nischara, Agnitejas, Vapushman, Vishnu, aruni, Havishman, and Anagha: the kings of the earth, and sons of the Manu, will be Savarga, Sarvadharma, Devanika, and others.
vp.3.2 In the twelfth Manwantara the son of Rudra, Savarni, will be the Manu: Ritudhama will be the Indra: and the Haritas, Lohitas, Sumanasas, and Sukarmas will be the classes of gods, each comprising fifteen.
vp.3.2 In the thirteenth Manwantara the Manu will be Rauchya 10: the classes of gods, thirty three in each, will be the Sudhamans, Sudharmans, and Sukarmans; their Indra will be Divaspati: the Rishis will be Nirmoha, Tatwadersin, Nishprakampa, Nirutsuka, Dhritimat, Avyaya, and Sutapas: and Chitrasena, Vichitra, and others, will be the kings.
vp.3.2 In the fourteenth Manwantara, Bhautya will be the Manu 11; Suchi, the Indra: the five classes of gods will be the Chakshushas, the Pavitras, Kanishthas, Bhrajiras, and Vavriddhas: the seven Rishis will be Agnibahu, suchi, sukra, Magadha, Gridhra, Yukta, and Ajita: and the sons of the Manu will be Uru, Gabhira, Bradhna, and others, who will be kings, and will rule over the earth 12.
vp.3.2 deities of the different classes receive the sacrifices during the Manwantaras to which they severally belong: and the sons of the Manu them. selves, and their descendants, are the sovereigns of the earth for the whole of the same term. The Manu, the seven Rishis, the gods, the sons of the Manu, who are the kings, and Indra, are the beings who preside over the world during each Manwantara.
vp.3.3 Twenty eight times have the Vedas been arranged by the great Rishis in the Vaivaswata Manwantara in the Dwapara age, and consequently eight and twenty Vyasas have passed away; by whom, in their respective periods, the Veda has been divided into four. In the first Dwapara age the distribution was made by Swayambhu Brahma() himself; in the second, the arranger of the Veda Veda( vyasa) was Prajapati (or Manu); in the third, Usanas; in the fourth, Vrihaspati; in the fifth, Savitri; in the sixth, Mrityu Death(, or Yama); in the seventh, Indra; in the eighth, Vasishtha; in the ninth, Saraswata; in the tenth, Tridhaman; in
vp.3.11 the earth, to water, and to rain, in a pitcher at hand; and to Dhatri and Vidhatri at the doors of his house, and in the middle of it to Brahma. Let the wise man also offer the Bali, consisting of the residue of the oblations, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, at the four cardinal points of his dwelling, the east and the rest; and in the north east quarter he will present it to Dhanwantari 10. After having thus worshipped the domestic deities, he will next offer part of the residue to all the gods (the Viswadevas); then, in the north west quarter, to Vayu (wind); then, in all directions, to the points of the horizon, to Brahma, to the atmosphere, and to the sun; to all the gods, to all beings, to the lords of beings, to the Pitris, to twilight. Then taking other rice 11, let the householder at pleasure cast it upon a clean spot of ground, as an offering to all beings, repeating with collected mind this prayer; May gods, men, animals, birds, saints, Yakshas, serpents, demons, ghosts, goblins, trees, all that desire food given by me; may ants, worms, moths, and other insects, hungered and bound in the bonds of acts; may all obtain satisfaction from the food left them by me, and enjoy happiness. May they who have neither mother, nor father, nor relations, nor food, nor the means of preparing it, be satisfied and pleased with the food presented for their contentment 12. Inasmuch as all beings, and this food, and I, and Vishnu are not different, I therefore give for their
vp.3.11 "A householder should also at the perpetual sraddha entertain another Brahman, who is of his own country, whose family and observances are known, and who performs the five sacramental rites. He is likewise to present to a Brahman learned in the Vedas four handfulls of food, set apart with the exclamation Hanta; and he is to give to a mendicant religious student three handfulls of rice, or according to his pleasure when he has ample means. These, with the addition of the mendicant before described, are to be considered as guests; and he who treats these four descriptions of persons with hospitality acquits himself of the debt due to his fellow men. The guest who departs disappointed from any house, and proceeds elsewhere, transfers his sins to the owner of that mansion, and takes away with him such a householder s merits. Brahma, Prajapati, Indra, fire, the Vasus, the sun, are present in the person of a
vp.3.14 Aurva proceeded. "Let the devout performer of an ancestral oblation propitiate Brahma, Indra, Rudra, the aswins, the sun, fire, the
vp.3.17 There was formerly a battle between the gods and demons, for the period of a divine year, in which the gods were defeated by the demons under the command of Hrada 2. The discomfited deities fled to the northern shore of the milky ocean, where engaging in religious penance they thus prayed to Vishnu: "May the first of beings, the divine Vishnu, be pleased with the words that we are about to address to him, in order to propitiate the lord of all worlds; from which mighty cause all created things have originated, and into whom they shall again dissolve! Who is able to declare his praise? We, who have been put to shame by the triumph of our foes, will glorify thee, although thy true power and might be not within the reach of words. Thou art earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, crude matter, and primeval soul: all this elementary creation, with or without visible form, is thy body; all, from Brahma to a stock, diversified by place and time. Glory to thee, who art Brahma, thy first form, evolved from the lotus springing from thy navel, for the purpose of creation. Glory to thee, who art Indra, the sun, Rudra, the Vasus, fire, the winds, and even also ourselves. Glory to they, Govinda, who art all demons, whose essence is arrogance and want of discrimination, unchecked by patience or self control. Glory to thee, who art the Yakshas, whose nature is charmed with sounds, and whose frivolous hearts perfect knowledge cannot pervade. Glory to thee, who art all fiends, that walk by
vp.3.18 The delusions of the false teacher paused not with the conversion of the Daityas to the Jaina and Bauddha heresies, but with various erroneous tenets he prevailed upon others to apostatize, until the whole were led astray, and deserted the doctrines and observances inculcated by the three Vedas. Some then spake evil of the sacred books; some blasphemed the gods; some treated sacrifices and other devotional ceremonies with scorn; and others calumniated the Brahmans. "The precepts," they cried, "that lead to the injury of animal life (as in sacrifices) are highly reprehensible. To say that casting butter into flame is productive of reward, is mere childishness. If Indra, after having obtained godhead by multiplied rites, is fed upon the wood used as fuel in holy fire, he is lower than a brute, which feeds at least upon leaves. If an animal slaughtered in religious worship is thereby raised to heaven, would it not be expedient for a man who institutes a sacrifice to kill his own father for a victim? If that which is eaten by one at a sraddha gives satisfaction to another, it must be unnecessary for one who resides at a distance to bring food for presentation in person 6." "First, then, let it be determined what may be (rationally) believed by mankind, and then," said their preceptor, "you will find that felicity may be expected from my instructions. The words of authority do not, mighty Asuras, fall from heaven: the text that has reason is alone to be acknowledged by me, and
vp.3.18 fices, and gave away many gifts, and begot sons, and subdued his enemies in war; and having duly exercised the sovereign power, and cherished benignantly the earth, he died, as became his warrior birth, in battle. His queen again followed him in death, and, conformably to sacred precepts, once more mounted cheerfully his funeral pile. The king then, along with his princess, ascended beyond the sphere of Indra to the regions where all desires are for ever gratified, obtaining ever during and unequalled happiness in heaven, the perfect felicity that is the rarely realised reward of conjugal fidelity 10.
vp.4.1 and utensils were made of gold. Indra was intoxicated with the libations of Soma juice, and the Brahmans were enraptured with the magnificent donations they received. The winds of heaven encompassed the rite as guards, and the assembled gods attended to behold it 20." Marutta was a Chakravartti, or universal monarch: he had a son named Narishyanta 21; his son was Dama 22; his son was Rajyavarddhana; his son was Sudhriti; his son was Nara; his son was Kevala; his son was Bandhumat; his son was Vegavat; his son was Budha 23; his son was Trinavindu, who had a daughter named Ilavila 24. The celestial nymph Alambusha becoming enamoured of Trinavindu, bore him a son named Visala, by whom the city Vaisali was founded 25.
vp.4.1 eternal, without name or shape. Through the favour of that imperishable being am I the agent of his power in creation: through his anger is Rudra the destroyer of the world: and the cause of preservation, Purusha, proceeds also from him. The unborn having assumed my person creates the world; in his own essence he provides for its duration; in the form of Rudra he devours all things; and with the body of Ananta he upholds them. Impersonated as Indra and the other gods he is the guardian of mankind; and as the sun and moon he disperses darkness. Taking upon himself the nature of fire he bestows warmth and maturity; and in the condition of the earth nourishes all beings. As one with air he gives activity to existence; and as one with water he satisfies all wants: whilst in the state of ether, associated with universal aggregation, he furnishes space for all objects. He is at once the creator, and that which is created; the preserver, and that which is preserved; the destroyer, and, as one with all things, that which is destroyed; and, as the indestructible, he is distinct from these three vicissitudes. In him is the world; he is the world; and he, the primeval self born, is again present in the world. That mighty Vishnu, who is paramount over all beings, is now in a portion of himself upon the earth. That city Kusasthali which was formerly your capital, and rivalled the city of the immortals, is now known as Dwaraka 32, and there reigns a portion of that divine being in the
vp.4.2 of Puranjaya for the destruction of your foes." Acknowledging with reverence the kindness of the deity, the immortals quitted his presence, and repaired to Puranjaya, whom they thus addressed: "Most renowned Kshatriya, we have come to thee to solicit thy alliance against our enemies: it will not become thee to disappoint our hopes." The prince replied, "Let this your Indra, the monarch of the spheres, the god of a hundred sacrifices, consent to carry me upon his shoulders, and I will wage battle with your adversaries as your ally." The gods and Indra readily answered, "So be it;" and the latter assuming the shape of a bull, the prince mounted upon his shoulder. Being then filled with delight, and invigorated by the power of the eternal ruler of all movable and immovable things, he destroyed in the battle that ensued all the enemies of the gods; and because he annihilated the demon host whilst seated upon the shoulder (or the hump, Kakud) of the bull, he thence obtained the appellation Kakutstha (seated on the hump 12).
vp.4.2 placed a vessel of consecrated water upon the altar had retired to repose. It was past midnight, when the king awoke, exceedingly thirsty; and unwilling to disturb any of the holy inmates of the dwelling, he looked about for something to drink. In his search he came to the water in the jar, which had been sanctified and endowed with prolific efficacy by sacred texts, and he drank it. When the Munis rose, and found that the water had been drunk, they inquired who had taken it, and said, "The queen that has drunk this water shall give birth to a mighty and valiant son." "It was I," exclaimed the Raja, "who unwittingly drank the water!" and accordingly in the belly of Yuvanaswa was conceived a child, and it grew, and in due time it ripped open the right side of the Raja, and was born, and the Raji, did not die. Upon the birth of the child, "Who will be its nurse?" said the Munis; when, Indra, the king of the gods, appeared, and said, "He shall have me for his nurse" (mam dhasyati); and hence the boy was named Mandhatri. Indra put his fore finger into the mouth of the infant, who sucked it, and drew from it heavenly nectar; and he grew up, and became a mighty monarch, and reduced the seven continental zones under his dominion. And here a verse is recited; "From the rising to the going down of the sun, all that is irradiated by his light, is the land of Mandhatri, the son of Yuvanaswa 19."
vp.4.5 THE son of Ikshwaku, who was named Nimi 1, instituted a sacrifice that was to endure for a thousand years, and applied to Vasishtha to offer the oblations. Vasishtha in answer said, that he had been preengaged by Indra for five hundred years, but that if the Raja, would wait for some time, he would come and officiate as superintending priest. The king made no answer, and Vasishtha went away, supposing that he had assented. When the sage had completed the performance of the ceremonies he had conducted for Indra, he returned with all speed to Nimi, purposing to render him the like office. When he arrived, however, and found that Nimi had retained Gautama and other priests to minister at his sacrifice, he was much displeased, and pronounced upon the king, who was then asleep, a curse to this effect, that since he had not intimated his intention, but transferred to Gautama the duty he had first entrusted to himself, Vasishtha, Nimi should thenceforth cease to exist in a corporeal form. When Nimi woke, and knew what had happened, he in return denounced as an imprecation upon his unjust preceptor, that he also should lose his bodily existence, as the punishment of uttering a curse upon him without previously communicating with him. Nimi then abandoned his bodily condition. The spirit of Vasishtha also leaving his body, was united with the spirits of Mitra and Varuna for a season, until, through their passion for the nymph Urvasi, the sage was born again in a different shape. The
vp.4.6 fellow student. In consequence of Usanas, their preceptor, joining Soma, Jambha, Kujambha, and all the Daityas, Danavas, and other foes of the gods, came also to his assistance; whilst Indra and all the gods were the allies of Vrihaspati.
vp.4.6 [paragraph continues] Pururavas for his bride increased every day of its duration; and the affection of Urvasi augmenting equally in fervour, she never called to recollection residence amongst the immortals. Not so with the attendant spirits at the court of Indra; and nymphs, genii, and quiristers, found heaven itself but dull whilst Urvasi was away. Knowing the agreement that Urvasi had made with the king, Viswavasu was appointed by the Gandharbas to effect its violation; and he, coming by night to the chamber where they slept, carried off one of the rams. Urvasi was awakened by its cries, and exclaimed, Ah me! who has stolen one of my children? Had I a husband, this would not have happened! To whom shall I apply for aid?" The Raja overheard her lamentation, but recollecting that he was undressed, and that Urvasi might see him in that state, did not move from the couch. Then the Gandharbas came and stole the other ram; and Urvasi, hearing it bleat, cried out that a woman had no protector who was the bride of a prince so dastardly as to submit to this outrage. This incensed Pururavas highly, and trusting that the nymph would not see his person, as it was dark, he rose, and took his sword, and pursued the robbers, calling upon them to stop, and receive their punishment. At that moment the Gandharbas caused a flash of brilliant lightning to play upon the chamber, and Urvasi beheld the king undressed: the compact was violated, and the nymph immediately disappeared. The
vp.4.7 Sons of Pururavas. Descendants of Amavasu. Indra born as Gadhi. Legend of Richika and Satyavati. Birth of Jamadagni and Viswamitra. Parasurama the son of the former. Legend( of Parasurama.) Sunahsephas and others the sons of Viswamitra, forming the Kausika race.
vp.4.7 The son of Jahnu was Sumantu 6; his son was Ajaka; his son was Valakaswa 7; his son was Kusa 8, who had four sons, Kusamba, Kusanabha, Amurttaya, and Amavasu 9. Kusamba, being desirous of a son, engaged in devout penance to obtain one who should be equal to Indra. Observing the intensity of his devotions, Indra was alarmed lest a prince of power like his own should be engendered, and determined therefore to take upon himself the character of Kusamba s son 10. He was accordingly born as Gadhi, of the race of Kusa Kausika(). Gadhi had a daughter named Satyavati. Richika, of the descendants of Bhrigu, demanded her in marriage. The king was very unwilling to give his daughter to a peevish old Brahman, and demanded of him, as the nuptial present, a thousand fleet horses, whose colour should be white, with one black ear. Richika having propitiated Varuna, the god of ocean, obtained from him, at the holy place called Aswatirtha, a thousand such steeds; and giving them to the king, espoused his daughter 11.
vp.4.9 Descendants of Raji, son of ayus: Indra resigns his throne to him: claimed after his death by his sons, who apostatize from the religion of the Vedas, and are destroyed by Indra. Descendants of Pratikshatra, son of Kshatravriddha.
vp.4.9 Raji had five hundred sons, all of unequalled daring and vigour. Upon the occurrence of a war between the demons and the gods, both parties inquired of Brahma which would be victorious. The deity replied, "That for which Raji shall take up arms." Accordingly the Daityas immediately repaired to Raji, to secure his alliance; which he promised them, if they would make him their Indra after defeating the gods. To this they answered and said, "We cannot profess one thing, and mean another; our Indra is Prahlada, and it is for him that we wage war." Having thus spoken, they departed; and the gods then came to him on the like errand. He proposed to them the said conditions, and they agreed that he should be their Indra. Raji therefore joined the heavenly host, and by his numerous and formidable weapons destroyed the army of their enemies.
vp.4.9 When the demons were discomfited, Indra placed the feet of Raji upon his head, and said, "Thou hast preserved me from a great danger, and I acknowledge thee as my father; thou art the sovereign chief over all the regions, and I, the Indra of the three spheres, am thy son." The Raja. smiled, and said, "Even be it so. The regard that is conciliated by many agreeable speeches is not to be resisted even when such language proceeds from a foe (much less should the kind words of a friend fail to win our affection)." He accordingly returned to his own city, and Indra remained as his deputy in the government of heaven.
vp.4.9 When Raji ascended to the skies, his sons, at the instigation of Narada, demanded the rank of Indra as their hereditary right; and as the deity refused to acknowledge their supremacy, they reduced him to submission by force, and usurped his station. After some considerable time had elapsed, the god of a hundred sacrifices, Indra, deprived of his share of offerings to the immortals, met with Vrihaspati in a retired
vp.4.9 place, and said to him, "Cannot you give me a little of the sacrificial butter, even if it were no bigger than a jujube, for I am in want of sustenance?" "If," replied Vrihaspati, "I had been applied to by you before, I could have done any thing for you that you wished; as it is, I will endeavour and restore you in a few days to your sovereignty." So saying, he commenced a sacrifice for the purpose of increasing the might of Indra, and of leading the sons of Raji into error, and so effecting their downfall 1. Misled by their mental fascination, the princes became enemies of the Brahmans, regardless of their duties, and contemners of the precepts of the Vedas; and thus devoid of morality and religion, they were slain by Indra, who by the assistance of the priest of the gods resumed his place in heaven. Whoever hears this story shall retain for ever his proper place, and shall never be guilty of wicked acts.
vp.4.14 sura had a friend named Kuntibhoja, to whom, as he had no children, the presented in due form his daughter Pritha. She was married to Pandu, and bore him Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuna, who were in fact the sons of the deities Dharma, Vayu (air), and Indra. Whilst she was yet unmarried, also, she had a son named Karna, begotten by the divine aditya (the sun). Pandu had another wife, named Madri, who had by the twin sons of aditya, Nasatya and Dasra, two sons, Nakula and Sahadeva 18.
vp.4.20 the Brahmans heard this, they turned to santanu, and said, "Come hither, Raja; you need give yourself no further trouble in this matter; the dearth is at an end: this man is fallen from his state, for he has uttered words of disrespect to the authority of the eternal, untreated Veda; and when the elder brother is degraded, there is no sin in the prior espousals of his junior." santanu thereupon returned to his capital, and administered the government as before; and his elder brother Devapi being degraded from his caste by repeating doctrines contrary to the Vedas, Indra poured down abundant rain, which was followed by plentiful harvests 2.
vp.4.20 The son of santanu was the illustrious and learned Bhishma, who was born to him by the holy river goddess, Ganga; and he had by his wife Satyavati two sons, Chitrangada and Vichitraviryya. Chitrangada, whilst yet a youth, was killed in a conflict with a Gandharba, also called Chitrangada. Vichitraviryya married Amba and Ambalika, the daughters of the king of Kasi; and indulging too freely in connubial rites, fell into a consumption, of which he died. By command of Satyavati, my son Krishna dwaipayana, ever obedient to his mother s wishes 4, begot upon the widows of his brother the princes Dhritarashtra and Pandu, and upon a female servant, Vidura. Dhritarashtra had Duryodhana, Duhsasana, and other sons, to the cumber of a hundred. Pandu having incurred the curse of a deer, whose mate he had killed in the chase, was deterred from procreating children; and his wife Kunti, bare to him in consequence three sons, who were begotten by the deities Dharma, Vayu, and Indra; namely, Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuna: and his wife Madri had two sons, Nakula and Sahadeva, by the celestial sons of Aswini. These had each a son by Draupadi. The son of Yudhishthira was Prativindhya; of Bhima, srutasoma; of Arjuna, srutakirtti; of Nakula, satanika; and of Sahadeva, srutakarman. The Pandavas had also other sons 5. By his wife Yaudheyi, Yudhishthira had Devaka.
vp.5.1 The unborn, universal Hari, having heard with his mental ear these eulogiums, was pleased, and thus spake to Brahma: "Tell me, Brahma, what you and the gods desire: speak boldly, certain of success." Brahma, beholding the divine, universal form of Hari, quickly prostrated himself, and again renewed his praises. Glory" to thee, the thousand formed, the thousand armed, the many visaged, many footed; to thee, the illimitable author of creation, preservation, and destruction; most subtile of the subtile, most vast of the great: to thee, who art nature, intellect, and consciousness; and who art other spirit even than the spiritual root of those principles 22. Do thou shew favour upon us. Behold, lord, this earth, oppressed by mighty Asuras, and shaken to her mountain basements, comes to thee, who art her invincible defender, to be relieved from her burden. Behold me, Indra, the Aswins, Varuna, and Yama, the Rudras, the Vasus, the suns, the winds, fire, and all other celestials, prepared to execute whatever thou shalt will that we shall do. Do thou, in whom there is no imperfection, O sovereign of the deities, give thy orders to thy servants: lo, we are ready."
vp.5.1 bulk and complexion. I will myself become incarnate in the eighth conception of Devaki; and you shall immediately take a similar character as the embryo offspring of Yasoda. In the night of the eighth lunation of the dark half of the month Nabhas, in the season of the rains, I shall be born. You shall receive birth on the ninth. Impelled and aided by my power, Vasudeva shall bear me to the bed of Yasoda, and you to that of Devaki. Kansa shall take you, and hold you up to dash you against a stone; but you shall escape from his grasp into the sky, where the hundred eyed Indra shall meet and do homage to you, through reverence for me, and shall bow before you, and acknowledge you as his sister. Having slain Sumbha, Nisumbha, and numerous other demons 25, you shall sanctify the earth in many places 26. Thou art wealth, progeny, fame, patience, heaven and earth, fortitude, modesty, nutrition, dawn, and every other female (form or property). They who address thee morning and afternoon with reverence and praise, and call thee arya, Durga, Vedagarbha, Ambika, Bhadra, Bhadrakali, Kshemi, or Kshemankari, shall receive from my bounty whatever they desire. Propitiated with offerings of wine and flesh and various viands, thou shalt bestow upon mankind all their prayers. Through my favour all men shall ever have faith in thee. Assured of this, go, goddess, and execute my commands."
vp.5.4 Kansa, much troubled in mind, summoned all his principal Asuras, Pralamba, Kesin, and the rest, and said to them, "O valiant chiefs, Pralamba, Kesin, Dhenuka, Putana, Arishta, and all the rest of you, hear my words. The vile and contemptible denizens of heaven are assiduously plotting against my life, for they dread my prowess: but, heroes, I hold them of no account. What can the impotent Indra, or the ascetic Hara, perform? or what can Hari accomplish, except the murder of his foes by fraud? What have we to fear from the adityas, the Vasus, the Agnis, or any others of the immortals, who have all been vanquished by my resistless arms? Have I not seen the king of the gods, when he had ventured into the conflict, quickly retreat from the field, receiving my shafts upon his back, not bravely upon his breast? When in resentment he withheld the fertilizing showers from my kingdom, did not my arrows compel the clouds to part with their waters, as much as were required? Are not all the monarchs of the earth in terror of my prowess, and subject to my orders, save only Jarasandha my sire 1? Now, chiefs of the Daitya race, it is my determination to inflict still deeper degradation upon these evil minded and unprincipled gods. Let therefore every man who is notorious for liberality (in gifts to gods and Brahmans), every man who is remarkable for his celebration of sacrifices, be put to death, that thus the gods shall be deprived of the means by which they subsist. the goddess who has
vp.5.6 Then came on the season of the rains, when the atmosphere laboured with accumulated clouds, and the quarters of the horizon were blended into one by the driving showers. The waters of the rivers rose, and overflowed their banks, and spread beyond all bounds, like the minds of the weak and wicked transported beyond restraint by sudden prosperity. The pure radiance of the moon was obscured by heavy vapours, as the lessons of holy writ are darkened by the arrogant scoffs of fools (and unbelievers). The bow of Indra held its place in the heavens all unstrung, like a worthless man elevated by an injudicious prince to honour. The white line of storks appeared upon the back of the cloud, in such contrast as the bright conduct of a man of respectability opposes to the behaviour of a scoundrel. The ever fitful lightning, in its new alliance with the sky, was like the friendship of a profligate for a man
vp.5.7 When they had thus spoken, the Naga himself, almost exanimate, repeated feebly their solicitations for mercy. "Forgive me," the murmured, "O god of gods! How shall I address thee, who art possessed, through thine own strength and essence, of the eight great faculties, in energy unequalled? Thou art the supreme, the progenitor of the supreme Brahma(): thou art the supreme spirit, and from thee the supreme proceeds: thou art beyond all finite objects; how can I speak thy praise? How can I declare his greatness, from whom cone Brahma, Rudra, Chandra, Indra, the Maruts, the Aswins, the Vasus, and adityas; of whom the whole world is an infinitely small portion, a portion destined to represent his essence; and whose nature, primitive or derived, Brahma and the immortals do not comprehend? How can I approach him, to whom the gods offer incense and flowers culled from the groves of Nandana; whose incarnate forms the king of the deities ever adores, unconscious of his real person; whom the sages, that have withdrawn
vp.5.9 WHEN the demon in the form of an ass, and all his tribe, had been destroyed, the grove of palms became the favourite resort of the Gopas and their wives, and the sons of Vasudeva, greatly pleased, repaired to the Bhandira fig tree. They continued to wander about, shouting and singing, and gathering fruits and flowers from the trees; now driving the cows afar to pasture; now calling them by their names; now carrying the foot ropes of the kine upon their shoulders; now ornamenting themselves with garlands of forest flowers, they looked like two young bulls when the horns first appear. Attired the one in yellow, and the other in sable garments, they looked like two clouds, one white, and one black, surmounted by the bow of Indra. Sporting mutually with frolics beneficial to the world, they roamed about like two monarchs over all the collected sovereigns of the earth. Assuming human duties, and maintaining the human character, they strayed through the thickets, amusing themselves with sports suited to their mortal species and condition, in swinging on the boughs of trees, or in boxing and wrestling and hurling stones.
vp.5.10 Description of autumn. Krishna dissuades Nanda from worshipping Indra: recommends him and the Gopas to worship cattle and the mountains.
vp.5.10 At this season, when the skies were bright with stars, Krishna, repairing to Vraja, found all the cowherds busily engaged in preparing for a sacrifice to be offered to Indra 2; and going to the elders, he asked them, as if out of curiosity, what festival of Indra it was in which they took so much pleasure. Nanda replied to his question, and said, "satakratu or Indra is the sovereign of the clouds and of the waters: sent by him, the former bestow moisture upon the earth, whence springs the grain, by which we and all embodied beings subsist; with which also, and with water, we please the gods: hence too these cows bear calves, and yield milk, and are happy, and well nourished. So when the clouds are seen distended with rain, the earth is neither barren of corn, nor bare of verdure, nor is man distressed by hunger. Indra, the giver of water, having drank the milk of earth by the solar ray, sheds it again upon the earth for the sustenance of all the world. On this account all sovereign princes offer with pleasure sacrifices to Indra at the end of the rains, and so also do we, and so do other people."
vp.5.10 When Krishna heard this speech from Nanda in regard to the worship of Indra, he determined to put the king of the celestials into a
vp.5.10 bound to worship the mountains; to offer sacrifices to cattle. What have we to do with Indra? cattle and mountains are our gods. Brahmans offer worship with prayer; cultivators of the earth adore their landmarks; but we who tend our herds in the forests and mountains should worship them and our kine. Let prayer and offerings then be addressed
vp.5.11 Indra, offended by the loss of his offerings, causes heavy rain to deluge Gokula. Krishna holds up the mountain Govarddhana to shelter the cowherds and their cattle.
vp.5.11 Indra, being thus disappointed of his offerings, was exceedingly angry, and thus addressed a cohort of his attendant clouds, called Samvarttaka: "Ho, clouds," he said, "hear my words, and without delay execute what I command. The insensate cowherd Nanda, assisted by his fellows, has withheld the usual offerings to us, relying upon the protection of Krishna. Now, therefore, afflict the cattle, that are their sustenance, and whence their occupation is derived, with rain and wind. Mounted upon my elephant, as vast as a mountain peak, I will give you aid in strengthening the tempest." When Indra ceased, the clouds, obedient to his commands, came down, in a fearful storm of rain and wind, to destroy the cattle. In an instant the earth, the points of the horizon, and the sky, were all blended into one by the heavy and incessant shower. The clouds roared aloud, as if in terror of the lightning s scourge, and poured down uninterrupted torrents. The whole earth was enveloped in impenetrable darkness by the thick and volumed clouds; and above, below, and on every side, the world was water. The cattle, pelted by the storm, shrunk cowering into the smallest size, or gave up their breath: some covered their calves with their flanks, and some beheld their young ones carried away by the flood. The calves, trembling in the wind, looked piteously at their mothers, or implored in low moans, as it were, the succour of Krishna. Hari, beholding all Gokula agitated with alarm, cowherds,
vp.5.11 is on high; enter beneath it quickly, and it will shelter you from the storm: here you will be secure and at your ease in places defended from the wind: enter without delay, and fear not that the mountain will fall." Upon this, all the people, with their herds, and their waggons and goods, and the Gopis, distressed by the rain, repaired to the shelter of the mountain, which Krishna held steadily over their heads; and Krishna, as he supported the mountain, was contemplated by the dwellers of Vraja with joy and wonder; and, as their eyes opened wide with astonishment and pleasure, the Gopas and Gopis sang his praise. For seven days and nights did the vast clouds sent by Indra rain upon the Gokula of Nanda to destroy its inhabitants, but they were protected by the elevation of the mountain; and the slayer of Bala, Indra, being foiled in his purpose, commanded the clouds to cease. The threats of Indra having been fruitless, and the heavens clear, all Gokula came forth from its shelter, and returned to its own abode. Then Krishna, in the sight of the surprised inhabitants of the forests, restored the great mountain Govarddhana to its original site 1.
vp.5.12 Indra comes to Gokula: praises Krishna, and makes him prince over the cattle. Krishna promises to befriend Arjuna.
vp.5.12 AFTER Gokula had been saved by the elevation of the mountain, Indra became desirous of beholding Krishna. The conqueror of his foes accordingly mounted his vast elephant Airavata, and came to Govarddhana, where the king of the gods beheld the mighty Damodara tending cattle, and assuming the person of a cow boy, and, although the preserver of the whole world, surrounded by the sons of the herdsmen: above his head he saw Garuda, the king of birds, invisible to mortals, spreading out his wings to shade the head of Hari. Alighting from his elephant, and addressing him apart, sakra, his eyes expanding with pleasure, thus spake to Madhusudana: "Hear, Krishna, the reason why I have come hither; why I have approached thee; for thou couldest not otherwise conceive it. Thou, who art the supporter of all, hast descended upon earth, to relieve her of her burden. In resentment of my obstructed rites I sent the clouds to deluge Gokula, and they have done this evil deed. Thou, by raising up the mountain, hast preserved the cattle; and of a verity I am much pleased, O hero, with thy wondrous deed. The object of the gods is now, methinks, accomplished, since with thy single hand thou hast raised aloft this chief of mountains. I have now come by desire of the cattle 1, grateful for their preservation, in order to install you as Upendra; and, as the Indra of the cows, thou shalt be called Govinda 2." Having thus said, Mahendra took a ewer from his elephant
vp.5.12 When Indra had, by direction of the kine, inaugurated Krishna, the husband of sachi said to him affectionately, "I have thus performed what the cows enjoined me. Now, illustrious being, hear what farther I propose, with a view to facilitate your task. A portion of me has been born as Arjuna, the son of Pritha: let him ever be defended by thee, and he will assist thee in bearing thy burden. He is to be cherished by thee, Madhusudana, like another self." To this Krishna replied, "I know thy son, who has been born in the race of Bharata, and I will
vp.5.12 Upon Krishna s ceasing to speak, he and Indra mutually embraced; and the latter, mounting his elephant Airavata, returned to heaven. Krishna, with the cattle and the herdsmen, went his way to Vraja, where the wives of the Gopas watched for his approach.
vp.5.14 roat, as if it had been a piece of wet cloth; and then tearing off one of the horns, he beat the fierce demon with it until he died, vomiting blood from his mouth. Seeing him slain, the herdsmen glorified Krishna, as the companies of the celestials of old praised Indra, when he triumphed over the Asura Jambha 1.
vp.5.16 the death of Kesin, and glorified the amiable god with the lotus eyes. Narada the Brahman, invisible, seated in a cloud, beheld the fall of Kesin, and delightedly exclaimed, "Well done, lord of the universe, who in thy sports hast destroyed Kesin, the oppressor of the denizens of heaven! Curious to behold this great combat between a man and a horse such a one as was never before heard of I have come from heaven. Wonderful are the works that thou hast done, in thy descent upon the earth! they have excited my astonishment; but this, above all, has given me pleasure. Indra and the gods lived in dread of this horse, who tossed his mane, and neighed, and looked down upon the clouds. For this, that thou hast slain the impious Kesin, thou shalt be known in the world by the name of Kesava 2. Farewell: I will now depart. I shall meet thee again, conqueror of Kesin, in two days more, in conflict with Kansa. When the son of Ugrasena, with his followers, shall have been slain, then, upholder of the earth, will earth s burdens have been lightened by thee. Many are the battles of the kings that I have to see, in which thou shalt be renowned. I will now depart, Govinda. A great deed, and acceptable to the gods, has been done by thee. I have been much delighted with thee, and now take my leave." When Narada had gone, Krishna, not in any way surprised, returned with the Gopas to Gokula; the sole object of the eyes of the women of Vraja 3.
vp.5.17 AKRURA, having set off in his quick travelling car, proceeded to visit Krishna at the pastures of Nanda; and, as he went along, he congratulated himself on his superior good fortune, in having an opportunity of beholding a descended portion of the deity. "Now," thought he, "has my life borne fruit; my night is followed by the dawn of day; since I shall see the countenance of Vishnu, whose eyes are like the expanded leaf of the lotus. I shall behold that lotus eyed aspect of Vishnu, which, when seen only in imagination, takes away the sins of men. I shall to day behold that glory of glories, the mouth of Vishnu, whence proceeded the Vedas, and all their dependant sciences. I shall see the sovereign of the world, by whom the world is sustained; who is worshipped as the best of males, as the male of sacrifice in sacrificial rites. I shall see Kesava, who is without beginning or end; by worshipping whom with a hundred sacrifices, Indra obtained the sovereignty over the gods. That Hari, whose nature is unknown to Brahma, Indra, Rudra, the Aswins, the Vasus, adityas, and Maruts, will this day touch my body. The soul of all, the knower of all, he who is all, and is present in all, he who is permanent, undecaying, all pervading, will converse with me. He, the unborn, who has preserved the world in the various forms of a fish, a tortoise, a boar, a horse 1, a lion, will this day speak to me. Now the lord of the earth, who assumes shapes at will, has taken upon him the condition of
vp.5.18 usual daily ceremonial in the river 2. Accordingly the intelligent Akrura bathed, and rinsed his mouth, and then entering the stream, he stood meditating upon the supreme being; but he beheld mentally 3 Balabhadra, having a thousand hooded beads, a garland of Jasmine flowers, and large red eyes, attended by Vasuki, Rambha, and other mighty serpents, praised by the Gandharbas, decorated with wild flowers, wearing dark coloured garments, crowned with a chaplet of lotuses, ornamented with brilliant earrings, inebriate, and standing at the bottom of the river in the water 4. On his lap he also beheld, at his ease, Krishna, of the complexion of a cloud 5, with full and coppery eyes, having an elegant form, and four hands, armed with the discus and other weapons, wearing yellow clothes, decorated with many coloured flowers, and appearing like a cloud embellished with streams of lightning and the bow of Indra; his breast was marked with the celestial sign, his arms were radiant with bracelets, a diadem shone on his brow, and he wore a white lotus for his crest: he was attended by Sanandana and other holy sages, who, fixing their eyes upon the tips of their noses, were absorbed in profound meditation.
vp.5.18 Salutation" to thee, who art uniform and manifold, all pervading, supreme spirit, of inconceivable glory, and who art simple existence. Salutation to thee, O inscrutable, who art truth, and the essence of oblations. Salutation to thee, O lord, whose nature is unknown, who art beyond primeval matter, who existest in five forms, as one with the elements, with the faculties, with matter, with the living soul, with supreme spirit. Shew favour to me, O soul of the universe, essence of all things, perishable or eternal, whether addressed by the designation of Brahma, Vishnu, siva, or the like. I adore thee, O god, whose nature is indescribable, whose purposes are inscrutable, whose name even is unknown; for the attributes of kind or appellation are not applicable to thee, who art THAT 6, the supreme Brahma, eternal, unchangeable, untreated. But as the accomplishment of our objects cannot be attained except through some specific form, thou art termed by us Krishna, Achyuta, Ananta, or Vishnu. Thou, unborn divinity, art all the objects of these impersonations; thou art the gods, and all other beings; thou art the whole world; thou art all. Soul of the universe, thou art exempt from change, and there is nothing except thee in all this existence. Thou art Brahma, Pasupati, aryaman, Dhatri, and Vidhatri; thou art Indra, air, fire, the regent of the waters, the god of wealth, and judge of the dead; and thou, although but one, presidest over the world with various energies, addressed to
vp.5.20 As they proceeded along the high road, they saw coming towards them a young girl, who was crooked, carrying a pot of unguent. Krishna addressed her sportively, and said, "For whom are you carrying that unguent? tell me, lovely maiden; tell me truly." Spoken to as it were through affection, Kubja, well disposed towards Hari, replied to him also mirthfully, being smitten by his appearance; "Know you not, beloved, that I am the servant of Kansa, and appointed, crooked as I am, to prepare his perfumes. Unguent ground by any other he does not approve of: hence I am enriched through his liberal rewards." Then said Krishna, "Fair faced damsel, give us of this unguent, fragrant and fit for kings, as much as we may rub upon our bodies." "Take it," answered Kubja.; and she gave them as much of the unguent as was sufficient for their persons; and they rubbed it on various parts of their faces and bodies 1, till they looked like two clouds, one white and one black, decorated by the many tinted bow of Indra. Then Krishna, skilled in the curative art, took hold of her, under the chin, with the thumb and two fingers, and lifted up her head, whilst with his feet he pressed down her feet; and in this way he made her straight. When she was thus relieved from her deformity, she was a most beautiful woman; and, filled with gratitude and affection, she took Govinda by the garment, and invited him to her house. Promising to come at some
vp.5.20 e Aswins, Indra, and the gods, cannot equal, although they behold them; thou who hast come amongst us for the benefit of the world, art recognised, and delusion is no more."
vp.5.21 Thus having spoken, the human Kesava summoned mentally the deity of the wind, who came upon the instant, and said to him, "Go, Vayu, to Indra, and desire him to lay aside his pomp, and resign to Ugrasena his splendid hall Sudharman: tell him that Krishna commands him to send the royal hall, the unrivalled gem of princely courts, for the assemblage of the race of Yadu." Accordingly Vayu went, and delivered the message to the husband of sachi, who immediately gave up to him the hall Sudharman, and Vayu conveyed it to the Yadavas, the chiefs of whom thenceforth possessed this celestial court, emblazoned with jewels, and defended by the arm of Govinda. The two excellent Yadu youths, versed in all knowledge, and possessed of all wisdom, then submitted to instruction, as the disciples of teachers. Accordingly they repaired to Sandipani who, though born in Kasi, resided at Avanti to study the science of arms, and, becoming his pupils, were obedient and attentive to their master, exhibiting an example to all men of the observance of instituted rules. In the course of sixty four days they had gone through the elements of military science, with the treatises on the use of arms, and directions for the mystic incantations, which secure the aid of supernatural weapons 2. Sandipani, astonished at such proficiency, and knowing that it exceeded human faculties, imagined that the sun and moon had become his scholars. When they had acquired all that he could teach, they said to him, "Now
vp.5.23 When Krishna knew of his approach, he reflected that if the Yadavas encountered the Yavana, they would be so much weakened by the conflict, that they would then be overcome by the king of Magadha; that their force was much reduced by the war with Magadha, whilst that of Kalayavana was unbroken; and that the enemy might be therefore victorious. Thus the Yadavas were exposed to a double danger. He resolved therefore to construct a citadel for the Yadu tribe, that should not be easily taken; one that even women might defend, and in which therefore the heroes of the house of Vrishni should be secure; one in which the male combatants of the Yadavas should dread no peril, though he himself should be drunk or careless, asleep or abroad. Thus reflecting, Krishna solicited a space of twelve furlongs from the ocean, and there he built the city of Dwaraka 3, defended by high ramparts, and beautified with gardens and reservoirs of water, crowded with houses and buildings, and splendid as the capital of Indra, Amaravati. Thither Janarddana conducted the inhabitants of Mathura, and then awaited at that city the approach of Kalayavana.
vp.5.29 Indra comes to Dwaraka, and reports to Krishna the tyranny of Naraka. Krishna goes to his city, and puts him to death. Earth gives the earrings of Aditi to Krishna, and praises him. He liberates the princesses made captive by Naraka, sends them to Dwaraka, and goes to Swarga with Satyabhama.
vp.5.29 sAKRA, the lord of the three worlds, came mounted on his fierce elephant Airavata to visit sauri Krishna() at Dwaraka. Having entered the city, and been welcomed by Hari, he related to the hero the deeds of the demon Naraka. "By thee, Madhusudana, lord of the gods," said Indra, "in a mortal condition, all sufferings have been soothed. Arishta, Dhenuka, Chanura, Mushtika, Kesin, who sought to injure helpless man, have all been slain by thee. Kansa, Kuvalayapida, the child destroying Putana, have been killed by thee; and so have other oppressors of the world. By thy valour and wisdom the three worlds have been preserved, and the gods, obtaining their share of the sacrifices offered by the devout, enjoy satisfaction. But now hear the occasion on which I have come to thee, and which thou art able to remedy. The son of the earth 1, called Naraka, who rules over the city of Pragjyotisha 2, inflicts a great injury upon all creatures. Carrying off the maidens of gods, saints, demons, and kings, he shuts them up in his own palace. He has taken away the umbrella of Varuna, impermeable to water, the jewel mountain crest of Mandara, and the celestial nectar dropping earrings of my mother Aditi; and he now demands my elephant Airavata. I have thus explained to you, Govinda, the tyranny of the Asura; you can best determine how it is to be prevented."
vp.5.29 Having heard this account, the divine Hari gently smiled, and, rising from his throne, took Indra by the hand: then wishing for the eater of
vp.5.29 the serpents, Garuda immediately appeared; upon whom his master, having first seated Satyabhama upon his back, ascended, and flew to Pragjyotisha. Indra mounted his elephant, and, in the sight of the inhabitants of Dwaraka, went to the abode of the gods.
vp.5.30 Krishna restores her earrings to Aditi, and is praised by her: he visits the gardens of Indra, and at the desire of Satyabhama carries off the Parijata tree. sachi excites Indra to its rescue. Conflict between the gods and Krishna, who defeats them. Satyabhama derides them. They praise Krishna.
vp.5.30 Garuda, laden with the umbrella of Varuna and the jewel mountain, and bearing Hrishikesa on his back to the court of Indra, went lightly, as if in sport, along. When they arrived at the portals of Swarga, Hari blew his shell; on which the gods advanced to meet him, bearing respectful offerings. Having received the homage of the divinities, Krishna went to the palace of the mother of the gods, whose turrets resembled white clouds; and on beholding Aditi, paid his respects to her, along with sakra; and, presenting to her her own earrings, informed her of the destruction of the demon Naraka. The mother of the world, well pleased, then fixed her whole thoughts upon Hari, the creator, and thus pronounced his praise: Glory" to thee, O god with the lotus eyes, who removest all fear from those that worship thee. Thou art the eternal, universal, and living soul; the origin of all beings; the instigator of the mental faculty, and faculties of sense; one with the three qualities; beyond the three qualities; exempt from contraries; pure; existing in the hearts of all; void of colour, extension, and every transient modification; unaffected by the vicissitudes of birth or death, sleep or waking. Thou art evening, night, and day; earth, sky, air, water, and fire; mind, intellect, and individuality. Thou art the agent of creation, duration, and dissolution; the master over the agent; in thy forms which are called Brahma, Vishnu, and siva. Thou art gods, Yakshas, Daityas, Rakshasas,
vp.5.30 Vishnu, thus hymned by Aditi, smiled, and said to the mother of the gods, Mother" goddess, do thou shew favour unto me, and grant me thy blessing." "So be it," replied Aditi, "ever as thou wilt; and whilst thou dwellest amongst mortals, the first of men, thou shalt be invincible by gods or demons." Then Satyabhama, accompanied by the queen of Indra, addressed Aditi respectfully, and solicited her benedictions: and Aditi in reply said to her, "Fair browed dame, thou shalt never suffer decay, nor loss of beauty: thou shalt be the asylum of all loveliness, dame of faultless shape." With the assent of Aditi, Indra then respectfully saluted Janarddana in all due form, and conducted him and Satyabhama through Nandana and other pleasant gardens of the gods; where Kesava, the destroyer of Kesi, saw the Parijata tree, the favourite of sachi, which was produced when the ocean was churned for ambrosia: the bark was of gold, and it was embellished with young sprouting leaves of a copper colour, and fruit stalks bearing numerous clusters of fragrant fruit.
vp.5.30 Thus solicited by Satyabhama, Hari smiled upon her, and taking the Parijata plant, put it upon Garuda. The keepers of the garden remonstrated, and said, "This Parijata tree belongs to sachi, the queen of the sovereign of the gods: it is not proper, Govinda, for you to remove it. At the time when the ocean was churned for the beverage of immortality, this tree was produced, for the purpose of providing sachi with flowery ornaments. You cannot be suffered to depart with it. It is through ignorance that this is sought for by any one, as it is the especial property of her on whose countenance the king of the gods delights to look; and who shall go away with impunity, who attempts to carry it off? Assuredly the king of the gods will punish this audacity; for his hand launches the thunderbolt, and the immortals attend upon his steps. Forbear then, Krishna, nor provoke the hostility of all the gods. The wise will not commence actions that can be productive only of unpleasant consequences." Satyabhama, on hearing these words, was exceedingly offended, and said, "What right has sachi what has Indra to the Parijata tree? it was produced at the churning of the ocean as the common property of all worlds. Wherefore, gods, should Indra alone possess it? In the same manner, guardians of the grove, as nectar, as the moon, as the goddess sri herself, so the Parijata tree is the common property of all the world: and since sachi, confiding in the strength of her husband s arm, would keep it
vp.5.30 Accordingly the warders of the garden went and reported to sachi the message of Satyabhama. sachi appealed to her husband, and excited the king of the gods to resent this affront: and Indra accordingly, attended by the army of the celestials, marched to attack Hari, in defence of the Parijata tree. The gods were armed with clubs, swords, maces, and darts; and Indra wielded the thunderbolt. As soon as Govinda saw the king of the gods advancing against him on his elephant, attended by the immortals, he blew his shell so that the sound filled all the regions, and he showered smilingly myriads of arrows upon his assailants. Beholding the air in all directions overspread with his darts, the celestials in return hurled innumerable missiles; but every one of these the destroyer of Madhu, and lord of all worlds, cut playfully into a thousand pieces with his shafts. The devourer of serpents, Garuda, laid hold of the noose of the sovereign of the waters, and tore it to fragments with his beak, as if it had been a little snake. The son of Devaki threw his mace at the club of Yama, and cast it broken upon the ground: he cut in bits the litter of the lord of wealth with his discus: a glance of his eye eclipsed the radiance of the sun: he severed Agni into a hundred parts with his arrows, and scattered the Vasus through the realms of space: with his discus he cut off the points of the tridents of the Rudras, and cast themselves upon the earth: and with the shafts shot from his bow he
vp.5.30 Then the king of the gods and the foe of Madhu encountered and overwhelmed each other with countless shafts, like rain drops falling from two heavy clouds. Garuda in the conflict engaged with Airavata, and Janarddana was opposed to all the deities. When all the other weapons had been cut to pieces, Indra stood armed with his thunderbolt,
vp.5.30 and Krishna with the discus Sudarsana. Beholding them thus prepared for fight, all the people of the three spheres exclaimed, "Alas! alas!" Indra launched his bolt, but in vain, for Hari caught and arrested it: he forbore, however, to hurl his discus, and only called out to Indra to stay. Satyabhama seeing Indra disarmed, and his elephant disabled by Garuda, and the deity himself about to retreat, said to him, King" of the triple sphere, it ill becomes the husband of sachi to run away. Ornamented with Parijata garlands, she will approach you. Of what use is the sovereignty of heaven, embellished with the Parijata tree, no longer beholding Sachi meet you with affection as of yore? Nay, sakra, fly not; you must not suffer shame: here, take the Parijata tree; let the gods be no longer annoyed. Sachi, inflated with pride of her husband, has not welcomed me to her dwelling with respectful presents. As a woman, I am light of purpose, and am anxious for my husband s fame; therefore have I instigated, sakra, this contest with you. But I do not want the Parijata tree, nor do I wish to take that which is another s property. sachi is proud of her beauty. What woman is not proud of her husband?" Thus spoken to by Satyabhama, the king of the gods turned back, and said to her, "Desist, wrathful dame, from afflicting your friend by further reproaches. I am not ashamed of being vanquished by him who is the author of the creation, preservation, and destruction of the world; who is the
vp.5.31 Krishna, with Indra s consent, takes the Parijata tree to Dwaraka; marries the princesses rescued from Naraka.
vp.5.31 Kesava, being thus eulogized by the king of the gods, smiled, and spake gravely to him in reply. "Thou art Indra," said he, "the king of the celestials: we are but mortals, O lord of the world: thou must pardon therefore the offence that I have committed. Let this Parijata tree be taken to its appropriate situation. I removed it in compliance with the words of Satya. Receive back also this your thunderbolt, cast at me; for this is your proper weapon, the destroyer of your foes." Indra answered and said, "Thou beguilest us, O lord, in calling thyself a mortal; but we know thee to be the lord, although not endowed with subtlety of discernment. Thou art that thou art, engaged in the active preservation of the earth; thou extractest the thorns implanted in her bosom, destroyer of the demon race. Let this Parijata tree be transferred to Dwaraka, and it shall remain upon earth as long as thou abidest in the world of mortals." Hari, having assented to the proposal of Indra, returned to earth, hymned by attendant sages, saints, and quiristers of heaven.
vp.5.35 Having thus spoken, the Kuru chiefs, unanimously refusing to set the son of Hari at large, immediately returned into the city. Bala, rolling about with intoxication, and the wrath which their contemptuous language had excited, struck the ground furiously with his heel, so that it burst to pieces with a loud sound that reverberated through the regions of space. His eyes reddened with rage, and his brow was curved with frowns, as he exclaimed, "What arrogance is this, in such vile and pithless creatures! The sovereignty of the Kauravas, as well as our own, is the work of fate, whose decree it also is that they now disrespect or disobey the commands of Ugrasena. Indra may of right give his orders to the gods; and Ugrasena exercises equal authority with the lord of sachi. Fie upon the pride that boasts a throne, the leavings of a hundred mortals! Is not he the sovereign of the earth, the wives of whose servants adorn themselves with the blossoms of the Parijata tree? Ugrasena shall be the undisputed king of kings; for I will not return to his capital until I have rid the world wholly of the sons of Kuru. I will destroy Karna, Duryodhana, Drona, Bhishma, Bahlika, Duhsasana, Bhurisravas, Somadatta, salya, Bhima, Arjuna, Yudhishthira, the twins, and all the other vile descendants of Kuru, with their horses, elephants, and chariots. I will rescue the hero samba from captivity, and carry him, along with his wife, to Dwaraka, where I shall again behold Ugrasena
vp.5.37 Then there came to Kesava, when he was private and alone, a messenger from the gods, who addressed him with reverence, and said, "I am sent to you, O lord, by the deities, and do thou hear what Indra, together with the Viswas, Maruts, adityas, Sadhyas, and Rudras, respectfully represents. More than a hundred years have elapsed since thou, in favour to the gods, hast descended upon earth, for the purpose of relieving it of its load. The demons have been slain, and the burden of earth has been removed: now let the immortals once again behold their monarch in heaven. A period exceeding a century has passed: now, if
vp.6.8 Parasara. I have related to you this Purana, which is equal to the Vedas in sanctity, and by hearing which all faults and sins whatever are expiated. In this have been described to you the primary and secondary creation, the families of the patriarchs, the Manwantaras, the regal dynasties; the gods, Daityas, Gandharbas, serpents, Rakshasas, Yakshas, Vidyadharas, Siddhas, and heavenly nymphs; Munis endowed with spiritual wisdom, and practisers of devotion; the distinctions of the four castes, and the actions of the most eminent amongst men; holy places on the earth, holy rivers and oceans, sacred mountains, and legends of the truly wise; the duties of the different tribes, and the observances enjoined by the Vedas. By hearing this, all sins are at once obliterated. In this also the glorious Hari has been revealed, the cause of the creation, preservation, and destruction of the world; the soul of all things, and himself all things: by the repetition of whose name man is undoubtedly liberated from all sins, which fly like wolves that are frightened by a lion. The repetition of his name with devout faith is the best remover of all sins, destroying them as fire purifies the metal from the dross. The stain of the Kali age, which ensures to men sharp punishments in hell, is at once effaced by a single invocation of Hari. He who is all that is, the whole egg of Brahma, with Hiranyagarbha, Indra, Rudra, the adityas, the Aswins, the winds, the Kinnaras, the Vasus, the Sadhyas,

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