Gandharbas

Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 23 Jul 2011 13:16 and updated at 23 Jul 2011 13:16

VISHNU PURANA NOUN

vp.1.5 Next from Brahma, in a form composed of the quality of foulness, was produced hunger, of whom anger was born: and the god put forth in darkness beings emaciate with hunger, of hideous aspects, and with long beards. Those beings hastened to the deity. Such of them as exclaimed, Oh preserve us! were thence called Rakshasas 16: others, who cried out, Let us eat, were denominated from that expression Yakshas 17. Beholding them so disgusting, the hairs of Brahma were shrivelled up, and first falling from his head, were again renewed upon it: from their falling they became serpents, called Sarpa from their creeping, and Ahi because they had deserted the head 18. The creator of the world, being incensed, then created fierce beings, who were denominated goblins, Bhutas, malignant fiends and eaters of flesh. The Gandharbas were next born, imbibing melody: drinking of the goddess of speech, they were born, and thence their appellation 19.
vp.1.5 In this manner all creatures, great or small, proceeded from his limbs. The great progenitor of the world having formed the gods, demons, and Pitris, created, in the commencement of the Kalpa, the Yakshas, Pisachas (goblins), Gandharbas and the troops of Apsarasas the nymphs of heaven, Naras (centaurs, or beings with the limbs of horses and human
vp.1.6 [paragraph continues] Kshetriyas who fly not from the field. The region of the winds is assigned to the Vaisyas who are diligent in their occupations and submissive. sudras are elevated to the sphere of the Gandharbas. Those Brahmans who lead religious lives go to the world of the eighty eight thousand saints: and that of the seven Rishis is the seat of pious anchorets and hermits. The world of ancestors is that of respectable householders: and the region of Brahma is the asylum of religious mendicants 10. The imperishable region of the Yogis is the highest seat of Vishnu, where they perpetually meditate upon the supreme being, with minds intent on him alone: the sphere where they reside, the gods themselves cannot behold. The sun, the moon, the planets, shall repeatedly be, and cease to be; but those who internally repeat the mystic adoration of the divinity, shall never know decay. For those who neglect their duties, who revile the Vedas, and obstruct religious rites, the places assigned after death are the terrific regions of darkness, of deep gloom, of fear, and of great terror; the fearful hell of sharp swords, the hell of scourges and of a waveless sea.
vp.1.15 Maitreya. Narrate to me, venerable Brahman, at length, the birth of the gods, Titans, Gandharbas, serpents, and goblins.
vp.1.17 Parasara. Listen, Maitreya, to the story of the wise and magnanimous Prahlada, whose adventures are ever interesting and instructive. Hiranyakasipu, the son of Diti, had formerly brought the three worlds under his authority, confiding in a boon bestowed upon him by Brahma 1. He had usurped the sovereignty of Indra, and exercised of himself the functions of the sun, of air, of the lord of waters, of fire, and of the moon. He himself was the god of riches; he was the judge of the dead; and he appropriated to himself, without reserve, all that was offered in sacrifice to the gods. The deities therefore, flying from their seats in heaven, wandered, through fear of the Daitya, upon the earth, disguised in mortal shapes. Having conquered the three worlds, he was inflated with pride, and, eulogized by the Gandharbas, enjoyed whatever he desired. The Gandharbas, the Siddhas, and the snake gods all attended upon the mighty Hiranyakasipu, as he sat at the banquet. The Siddhas delighted stood before him, some playing on musical instruments, some singing songs in his praise, and others shouting cries of victory; whilst the nymphs of heaven danced gracefully in the crystal palace, where the Asura with pleasure quaffed the inebriating cup.
vp.1.21 18Surabhi was the mother of cows and buffaloes 19: Ira, of trees and creeping plants and shrubs, and every kind of grass: Khasa, of the Rakshasas and Yakshas 20: Muni, of the Apsarasas 21: and Arishta, of the illustrious Gandharbas.
vp.1.21 These were the children of Kasyapa, whether movable or stationary, whose descendants multiplied infinitely through successive generations 22. This creation, oh Brahman, took place in the second or Swarochisha Manwantara. In the present or Vaivaswata Manwantara, Brahma being engaged at the great sacrifice instituted by Varuna, the creation of progeny, as it is called, occurred; for he begot, as his sons, the seven Rishis, who were formerly mind engendered; and was himself the grand sire of the Gandharbas, serpents, Danavas, and gods 23.
vp.2.4 by the Siddhas and Gandharbas, the wind from which, as produced by its fluttering leaves, diffuses delight. The sacred lands of this continent are peopled by the four castes. Its seven holy rivers, that wash away all sin, are the Sukumari, Kumari, Nalini, Dhenuka, Ikshu, Venuka, and Gabhasti. There are also hundreds and thousands of minor streams and mountains in this Dwipa: and the inhabitants of Jalada and the other divisions drink of those waters with pleasure, after they have returned to earth from Indra s heaven. In those seven districts there is no dereliction of virtue; there is no contention; there is no deviation from rectitude. The caste of Mriga is that of the Brahman; the Magadha, of the Kshetriya; the Manasa, of the Vaisya; and the Mandaga of the sudra: and by these Vishnu is devoutly worshipped as the sun, with appropriate ceremonies. saka dwipa is encircled by the sea of milk, as by an armlet, and the sea is of the same breadth as the continent which it embraces 2
vp.2.5 sesha bears the entire world, like a diadem, upon his head, and he is the foundation on which the seven Patalas rest. His power, his glory, his form, his nature, cannot be described, cannot he comprehended by the gods themselves. Who shall recount his might, who wears this whole earth, like a garland of flowers, tinged of a purple dye by the radiance of the jewels of his crests. When Ananta, his eyes rolling with intoxication, yawns, then earth, with all her woods, and mountains, and seas, and rivers, trembles. Gandharbas, Apsarasas, Siddhas, Kinnaras, Uragas, and Charanas are unequal to hymn his praises, and therefore he is called the infinite Ananta(), the imperishable. The sandal paste, that is ground by the wives of the snake gods, is scattered abroad by his breath, and sheds perfume around the skies.
vp.3.11 king. Let him also, after libations have been made to the gods and the rest, present others at pleasure for the benefit of all beings, reciting inaudibly this prayer; May the gods, demons, Yakshas, serpents, Rakshasas, Gandharbas, Pisachas, Guhyakas, Siddhas, Kushmandas, trees, birds, fish, all that people the waters, or the earth, or the air, be propitiated by the water I have presented to them. This water is given by me for the alleviation of the pains of all those who are suffering in the realms of hell. May all those who are my kindred, and not my kindred, and who were my relations in a former life, all who desire libations from me, receive satisfaction from this water. May this water and sesamum, presented by me, relieve the hunger and thirst of all who are suffering from those inflictions, wheresoever they may be 7. Presentations of water, given in the manner, oh king, which I have described, yield gratification to all the world: and the sinless man, who in the sincerity of faith pours out these voluntary libations, obtains the merit that results from affording nutriment to all creatures.
vp.4.3 In the regions below the earth the Gandharbas called Mauneyas (or sons of the Muni Kasyapa), who were sixty millions in number, had defeated the tribes of the Nagas, or snake gods, and seized upon their most precious jewels, and usurped their dominion. Deprived of their power by the Gandharbas, the serpent chiefs addressed the god of the gods, as he awoke from his slumbers; and the blossoms of his lotus eyes opened while listening to their hymns. They said, Lord", how shall we be delivered from this great fear?" Then replied the first of males, who is without beginning, "I will enter into the person of Purukutsa, the son of Mandhatri, the son of Yuvanaswa, and in him will I quiet these iniquitous Gandharbas." On hearing these words, the snake gods bowed and withdrew, and returning to their country dispatched Narmada to solicit the aid of Purukutsa 4.
vp.4.3 Narmada accordingly went to Purukutsa, and conducted him to the regions below the earth, where, being filled with the might of the deity, he destroyed the Gandharbas. He then returned to his own palace; and the snake gods, in acknowledgment of Narmada s services, conferred upon her as a blessing, that whosoever should think of her, and invoke her name, should never have any dread of the venom of snakes. This is the invocation; Salutation" be to Narmada in the morning; salutation be to Narmada at night; salutation be to thee, O Narmada! defend me
vp.4.4 Bharata made himself master of the country of the Gandharbas, after destroying vast numbers of them; and satrughna having killed the Rakshasa chief Lavana, the son of Madhu, took possession of his capital Mathura.
vp.4.6 Kings of the lunar dynasty. Origin of Soma, or the moon: he carries off Tara, the wife of Vrihaspati: war between the gods and Asuras in consequence: appeased by Brahma. Birth of Budha: married to Ila, daughter of Vaivaswata. Legend of his son Pururavas, and the nymph Urvasi: the former institutes offerings with fire: ascends to the sphere of the Gandharbas.
vp.4.6 [paragraph continues] Pururavas for his bride increased every day of its duration; and the affection of Urvasi augmenting equally in fervour, she never called to recollection residence amongst the immortals. Not so with the attendant spirits at the court of Indra; and nymphs, genii, and quiristers, found heaven itself but dull whilst Urvasi was away. Knowing the agreement that Urvasi had made with the king, Viswavasu was appointed by the Gandharbas to effect its violation; and he, coming by night to the chamber where they slept, carried off one of the rams. Urvasi was awakened by its cries, and exclaimed, Ah me! who has stolen one of my children? Had I a husband, this would not have happened! To whom shall I apply for aid?" The Raja overheard her lamentation, but recollecting that he was undressed, and that Urvasi might see him in that state, did not move from the couch. Then the Gandharbas came and stole the other ram; and Urvasi, hearing it bleat, cried out that a woman had no protector who was the bride of a prince so dastardly as to submit to this outrage. This incensed Pururavas highly, and trusting that the nymph would not see his person, as it was dark, he rose, and took his sword, and pursued the robbers, calling upon them to stop, and receive their punishment. At that moment the Gandharbas caused a flash of brilliant lightning to play upon the chamber, and Urvasi beheld the king undressed: the compact was violated, and the nymph immediately disappeared. The
vp.4.6 When the year had expired, Urvasi and the monarch met at Kurukshetra, and she consigned to him his first born ayus; and these annual interviews were repeated, until she had borne to him five sons. She then said to Pururavas, "Through regard for me, all the Gandharbas have expressed their joint purpose to bestow upon my lord their benediction: let him therefore demand a boon." The Raja replied, "My enemies are all destroyed, my faculties are all entire; I have friends and kindred, armies and treasures: there is nothing which I may not obtain except living in the same region with my Urvasi. My only desire therefore is, to pass my life with her." When he had thus spoken, the Gandharbas brought to Pururavas a vessel with fire, and said to him, "Take this fire, and, according to the precepts of the Vedas, divide it into three fires; then fixing your mind upon the idea of living with Urvasi, offer oblations, and you shall assuredly obtain your wishes." The Raja took the brasier, and departed, and came to a forest. Then he began to reflect that he had committed a great folly in bringing away the vessel of fire instead of his bride; and leaving the vessel in the wood, he went disconsolate to his palace. In the middle of the night he awoke, and considered that the Gandharbas had given him the brasier to enable him to obtain the felicity of living with Urvasi, and that it was absurd in him to have left it by the way. Resolving therefore to recover it, he rose, and went to the place
vp.4.6 [paragraph continues] Gayatri 5. Having thence elicited fire, he made it threefold, according to the injunctions of the Vedas, and offered oblations with it, proposing as the end of the ceremony reunion with Urvasi. In this way, celebrating many sacrifices agreeably to the form in which offerings are presented with fire, Pururavas obtained a seat in the sphere of the Gandharbas, and was no more separated from his beloved. Thus fire, that was at first but one, was made threefold in the present Manwantara by the son of Ila 6.
vp.4.11 was Bhadrasena 8; his son was Durdama; his son was Dhanaka 9, who had four sons, Kritaviryya, Kritagni, Kritavarman, and Kritaujas. Kritaviryya s son was Arjuna, the sovereign of the seven Dwipas, the lord of a thousand arms. This prince propitiated the sage Dattatreya, the descendant of Atri, who was a portion of Vishnu, and solicited and obtained from him these boons a thousand arms; never acting unjustly; subjugation of the world by justice, and protecting it equitably; victory over his enemies; and death by the hands of a person renowned in the three regions of the universe. With these means he ruled over the whole earth with might and justice, and offered ten thousand sacrifices. Of him this verse is still recited; "The kings of the earth will assuredly never pursue his steps in sacrifice, in munificence, in devotion, in courtesy, and in self control." In his reign nothing was lost or injured; and so he governed the whole earth with undiminished health, prosperity, power, and might, for eighty five thousand years. Whilst sporting in the waters of the Narmada, and elevated with wine, Ravana came on his tour of triumph to the city Mahishmati, and there he who boasted of overthrowing the gods, the Daityas, the Gandharbas and their king, was taken prisoner by Karttavirya, and confined like a tame beast in a corner of his capital 10. At the expiration of his long reign Karttavirya was killed by Parasurama, who was an embodied portion of the mighty Narayana 11. Of the
vp.5.18 usual daily ceremonial in the river 2. Accordingly the intelligent Akrura bathed, and rinsed his mouth, and then entering the stream, he stood meditating upon the supreme being; but he beheld mentally 3 Balabhadra, having a thousand hooded beads, a garland of Jasmine flowers, and large red eyes, attended by Vasuki, Rambha, and other mighty serpents, praised by the Gandharbas, decorated with wild flowers, wearing dark coloured garments, crowned with a chaplet of lotuses, ornamented with brilliant earrings, inebriate, and standing at the bottom of the river in the water 4. On his lap he also beheld, at his ease, Krishna, of the complexion of a cloud 5, with full and coppery eyes, having an elegant form, and four hands, armed with the discus and other weapons, wearing yellow clothes, decorated with many coloured flowers, and appearing like a cloud embellished with streams of lightning and the bow of Indra; his breast was marked with the celestial sign, his arms were radiant with bracelets, a diadem shone on his brow, and he wore a white lotus for his crest: he was attended by Sanandana and other holy sages, who, fixing their eyes upon the tips of their noses, were absorbed in profound meditation.
vp.5.18 When Akrura beheld Balarama and Krishna in this situation, he was much amazed, and wondered how they could so quickly have got there from the chariot. He wished to ask them this, but Janarddana deprived him of the faculty of speech at the moment. Ascending then from the water, he repaired to the car, and there he found them both quietly seated in the same human persons as before. Plunging again into the water, there he again beheld them, hymned as before by the Gandharbas, saints, sages, and serpents. Apprehending, therefore, their real character, he thus eulogized the eternal deity, who consists of true knowledge:
vp.5.30 Punnagas, Kushmandas, Pisachas, Gandharbas, men, animals, deer, elephants, reptiles, trees, shrubs, creepers, climbers, and grasses; all things, large, middling, small, immense, or minute: thou art all bodies whatsoever, composed of aggregated atoms. This thy illusion beguiles all who are ignorant of thy true nature, the fools who imagine soul to be in that which is not spirit. The notions that "I am this is mine," which influence mankind, are but the delusions of the mother of
vp.5.30 ersed the Sadhyas, Viswas, Maruts, and Gandharbas, like fleeces of cotton from the pods of the Simal tree, through the sky. Garuda also diligently plied his beak and wings and nails, and bit and bruised and scratched the deities who opposed his lord.
vp.6.7 undefinable by words, and is to be discovered solely in one s own spirit. That is the supreme, unborn, imperishable form of Vishnu, who is without (sensible) form, and is characterised as a condition of the supreme soul, which is variously modified from the condition of universal form. But this condition cannot be contemplated by sages in their (early) devotions, and they must therefore direct their minds to the gross form of Hari, which is of universal perceptibility. They must meditate upon him as Hiranyagarbha, as the glorious Vasava, as Prajapati, as the winds, the Vasus, the Rudras, the suns, stars, planets, Gandharbas, Yakshas, Daityas, all the gods and their progenitors, men, animals, mountains, oceans, rivers, trees, all beings, and all sources of beings, all modifications whatever of nature and its products, whether sentient or unconscious, one footed, two footed, or many footed; all these are the sensible form of Hari, to be apprehended by the three kinds of apprehension. All this universal world, this world of moving and stationary beings, is pervaded by the energy of Vishnu, who is of the nature of the supreme Brahma. This energy is either supreme, or, when it is that of conscious embodied spirit, it is secondary. Ignorance, or that which is denominated from works, is a third energy 14; by which the omnipresent energy of embodied spirit is ever excited, and whence it suffers all the pains of repeated worldly existence. Obscured by that energy (of ignorance or
vp.6.7 them: the faculty exists in an ascending degree in Nagas, Gandharbas, Yakshas, gods, sakra, Prajapati, and Hiranyagarbha: and is above all predominant in that male Vishnu() of whom all these various creatures are but the diversified forms, penetrated universally by his energy, as all pervading as the ether.
vp.6.8 Parasara. I have related to you this Purana, which is equal to the Vedas in sanctity, and by hearing which all faults and sins whatever are expiated. In this have been described to you the primary and secondary creation, the families of the patriarchs, the Manwantaras, the regal dynasties; the gods, Daityas, Gandharbas, serpents, Rakshasas, Yakshas, Vidyadharas, Siddhas, and heavenly nymphs; Munis endowed with spiritual wisdom, and practisers of devotion; the distinctions of the four castes, and the actions of the most eminent amongst men; holy places on the earth, holy rivers and oceans, sacred mountains, and legends of the truly wise; the duties of the different tribes, and the observances enjoined by the Vedas. By hearing this, all sins are at once obliterated. In this also the glorious Hari has been revealed, the cause of the creation, preservation, and destruction of the world; the soul of all things, and himself all things: by the repetition of whose name man is undoubtedly liberated from all sins, which fly like wolves that are frightened by a lion. The repetition of his name with devout faith is the best remover of all sins, destroying them as fire purifies the metal from the dross. The stain of the Kali age, which ensures to men sharp punishments in hell, is at once effaced by a single invocation of Hari. He who is all that is, the whole egg of Brahma, with Hiranyagarbha, Indra, Rudra, the adityas, the Aswins, the winds, the Kinnaras, the Vasus, the Sadhyas,
vp.6.8 evas, the celestial gods, the Yakshas, serpents, Rakshasas, the Siddhas, Daityas, Gandharbas, Danavas, nymphs, the stars, asterisms, planets, the seven Rishis, the regents and superintendants of the quarters, men, Brahmans and the rest, animals tame and wild, insects, birds, ghosts and goblins, trees, mountains, woods, rivers, oceans, the subterrene legions, the divisions of the earth, and all perceptible objects he who is all things, who

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