Bharata

Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 23 Jul 2011 09:07 and updated at 23 Jul 2011 09:07

VISHNU PURANA NOUN

vp.2.1 Descendants of Priyavrata, the eldest son of Swayambhuva Manu: his ten sons: three adopt a religious life; the others become kings of the seven Dwipas, or isles, of the earth. Agnidhra, king of Jambu dwipa, divides it into nine portions, which he distributes amongst his sons. Nabhi, king of the south, succeeded by Rishabha; and he by Bharata: India named after him Bharata: his descendants reign during the Swayambhuva Manwantara.
vp.2.1 Nabhi, who had for his portion the country of Himahwa, had by his queen Meru the magnanimous Rishabha; and he had a hundred sons, the eldest of whom was Bharata. Rishabha having ruled with equity and wisdom, and celebrated many sacrificial rites, resigned the sovereignty of the earth to the heroic Bharata, and, retiring to the hermitage of Pulastya, adopted the life of an anchoret, practising religious penance, and performing all prescribed ceremonies, until, emaciated by his austerities, so as to be but a collection of skin and fibres, he put a pebble in his mouth, and naked went the way of all flesh 7. The country was
vp.2.1 termed Bharata from the time that it was relinquished to Bharata by his father, on his retiring to the woods 8.
vp.2.1 Bharata, having religiously discharged the duties of his station, consigned the kingdom to his son Sumati, a most virtuous prince; and, engaging in devout practices, abandoned his life at the holy place, salagrama: he was afterwards born again as a Brahman, in a distinguished family of ascetics. I shall hereafter relate to you his history.
vp.2.1 [paragraph continues] Pratihartta: his son was Bhava, who begot Udgitha, who begot Prastara; whose son was Prithu. The son of Prithu was Nakta: his son was Gaya: his son was Nara; whose son was Virat. The valiant son of Virat was Dhimat, who begot Mahanta; whose son was Manasyu; whose son was Twashtri: his son was Viraja: his son was Raja: his son was satajit, who had a hundred sons, of whom Viswagjyotish was the eldest 9. Under these princes, Bharata varsha (India) was divided into nine portions (to be hereafter particularized); and their descendants successively held possession of the country for seventy one periods of the aggregate of the four ages (or for the reign of a Manu).
vp.2.2 The boundary mountains (of the earth) are Himavan, Hemakuta, and Nishadha, which lie south of Meru; and Nila, sweta, and sringi, which are situated to the north of it. The two central ranges (those next to Meru, or Nishadha and Nila) extend for a hundred thousand Yojanas(, running east and west). Each of the others diminishes ten thousand Yojanas, as it lies more remote from the centre. They are two thousand Yojanas in height, and as many in breadth 3. The Varshas or countries between these ranges are Bharata (India), south of the Himavan mountains;
vp.2.2 next Kimpurusha, between Himavan and Hemakuta; north of the latter, and south of Nishadha, is Harivarsha; north of Meru is Ramyaka, extending from the Nila or blue mountains to the sweta (or white) mountains; Hiranmaya lies between the sweta and sringi ranges; and Uttarakuru is beyond the latter, following the same direction as Bharata 4. Each of these is nine thousand Yojanas in extent. Ilavrita is of similar dimensions, but in the centre of it is the golden mountain Meru, and the country extends nine thousand Yojanas in each direction from the four sides of the mountain 5. There are four mountains in this Varsha, formed as buttresses to Meru, each ten thousand Yojanas in elevation: that on the east is called Mandara; that on the south, Gandhamadana; that on the west, Vipula; and that on the north, Suparswa 6: on each of these stands severally a Kadamba tree, a Jambu tree, a Pipal, and a Vata 7; each spreading over eleven hundred Yojanas, and towering aloft like banners on the mountains. From the Jambu tree the insular continent Jambu dwipa derives its appellations. The apples of that tree are as large as elephants: when they are rotten, they fall upon the crest of the mountain, and from their expressed juice is formed the Jambu river, the waters of which are drunk by the inhabitants; and in consequence of drinking of that stream, they pass their days in content and health, being subject neither to perspiration, to foul odours, to decrepitude, nor organic decay. The soil
vp.2.2 is enclosed by the river Ganges, which, issuing from the foot of Vishnu, and washing the lunar orb, falls here from the skies 11, and, after encircling the city, divides into four mighty rivers, flowing in opposite directions. These rivers are the sita, the Alakananda, the Chakshu, and the Bhadra. The first, falling upon the tops of the inferior mountains, on the east side of Meru, flows over their crests, and passes through the country of Bhadraswa to the ocean: the Alakananda flows south, to the country of Bharata, and, dividing into seven rivers on the way, falls into the sea: the Chakshu falls into the sea, after traversing all the western mountains, and passing through the country of Ketumala: and the
vp.2.2 Meru, then, is confined between the mountains Nila and Nishadha (on the north and south), and between Malyavan and Gandhamadana (on the west and east 13): it lies between them like the pericarp of a lotus. The countries of Bharata, Ketumala, Bhadraswa, and Uttarakuru lie, like leaves of the lotus of the world, exterior to the boundary mountains. Jathara and Devakuta are two mountain ranges, running north and south, and connecting the two chains of Nishadha and Nila. Gandhamadana
vp.2.2 In the country of Bhadraswa, Vishnu resides as Hayasira (the horse headed); in Ketumala, as Varaha (the boar); in Bharata, as the tortoise Kurma(); in Kuru, as the fish Matsya(); in his universal form, every where; for Hari pervades all places: he, Maitreya, is the supporter of all things; he is all things. In the eight realms of Kimpurusha and the rest (or all exclusive of Bharata) there is no sorrow, nor weariness, nor anxiety, nor hunger, nor apprehension; their inhabitants are exempt from all infirmity and pain, and live in uninterrupted enjoyment for ten or twelve thousand years. Indra never sends rain upon them, for the earth abounds with water. In those places there is no distinction of Krita, Treta, or any succession of ages. In each of these Varshas there are respectively seven principal ranges of mountains, from which, oh best of Brahmans, hundreds of rivers take their rise.
vp.2.3 Description of Bharata varsha: extent: chief mountains: nine divisions: principal rivers and mountains of Bharata proper: principal nations: superiority over other Varshas, especially as the seat of religious acts. (Topographical lists.)
vp.2.3 THE country that lies north of the ocean, and south of the snowy mountains, is called Bharata, for there dwelt the descendants of Bharata. It is nine thousand leagues in extent 1, and is the land of works, in consequence of which men go to heaven, or obtain emancipation.
vp.2.3 The seven main chains of mountains in Bharata are Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, suktimat, Riksha, Vindhya, and Paripatra 2.
vp.2.3 The Varsha of Bharata is divided into nine portions, which I will name to you; they are Indra dwipa, Kaserumat, Tamravarna, Gabhastimat, Naga dwipa, Saumya, Gandharba, and Varuna; the last or ninth Dwipa is surrounded by the ocean, and is a thousand Yojanas from north to south 3.
vp.2.3 On the east of Bharata dwell the Kiratas (the barbarians); on the west, the Yavanas; in the centre reside Brahmans, Kshetriyas, Vaisyas, and sudras, occupied in their respective duties of sacrifice, arms, trade, and service 4.
vp.2.3 The principal nations of Bharata are the Kurus and Panchalas, in the middle districts: the people of Kamarupa, in the east: the Pundras,
vp.2.3 In the Bharata varsha it is that the succession of four Yugas, or ages, the Krita, the Treta, the Dwapara, and Kali, takes place; that pious ascetics engage in rigorous penance; that devout men offer sacrifices; and that gifts are distributed; all for the sake of another world. In Jambu dwipa, Vishnu, consisting of sacrifice, is worshipped, as the male of sacrificial rites, with sacrificial ceremonies: he is adored under other forms elsewhere. Bharata is therefore the best of the divisions of Jambu dwipa, because it is the land of works: the others are places of enjoyment alone. It is only after many thousand births, and the aggregation of much merit, that living beings are sometimes born in Bharata as men. The gods themselves exclaim, "Happy are those who are born, even from the condition of gods, as men in Bharata varsha, as that is the way to the pleasures of Paradise, or the greater blessing of final liberation. Happy are they who, consigning all the unheeded rewards of their acts to the supreme and eternal Vishnu, obtain existence in that land of works, as their path to him. We know not, when the acts that have obtained us heaven shall have been fully recompensed 7, where we shall renew corporeal confinement; but we know that those men are fortunate who are born with perfect faculties 8 in Bharata varsha."
vp.2.3 Sanjaya speaks to Dhritarashtra. Hear me, monarch, in reply to your inquiries, detail to you the particulars of the country of Bharata.
vp.2.3 universal mothers, productive of abundance, besides hundreds of inferior note, are the rivers of Bharata, according to remembrance 80.
vp.2.3 Next hear from me, descendant of Bharata, the names of the inhabitants of the different countries, They are the Kurus, Panchalas 1, salwas, Madreyas, and dwellers in thickets Jangalas(), surasenas 2, Kalingas 3, Bodhas 4, Malas 5, Matsyas 6, Sukutyas 7, Sauvalyas 8, Kuntalas 9,
vp.2.3 [paragraph continues] Vanavas, Darvas, Vatajamarathorajas, Bahubadhas 90, Kauravyas, Sudamas 91, Sumallis, Badhnas, Karishakas, Kulindapatyakas, Vatayanas 92, Dasarnas 93, Romanas 94, Kusavindus, Kakshas 95, Gopala kakshas 96, Jangalas 97, Kuruvarnakas 98, Kiratas, Barbaras 99, Siddhas, Vaidehas 100 Tamraliptas 101, Audras 102, Paundras 103, dwellers in sandy tracts (saisikatas), and in mountains Parvatiyas(). Moreover, chief of the sons of Bharata, there are the nations of the south, the Draviras 104, Keralas 105, Prachyas 106, Mushikas 107, and Vanavasakas 108; the Karnatakas 109, Mahishakas 110, Vikalyas 111 and Mushakas 112, Jillikas 113, Kuntalas 114, Sauhridas,
vp.2.7 Parasara. The sphere of the earth (or Bhur loka), comprehending its oceans, mountains, and rivers, extends as far as it is illuminated by the rays of the sun and moon; and to the same extent, both in diameter and circumference, the sphere of the sky Bhuvar( loka) spreads above it (as far upwards as to the planetary sphere, or Swar loka) 1. The solar orb is situated a hundred thousand leagues from the earth; and that of the moon an equal distance from the sun. At the same interval above the moon occurs the orbit of all the lunar constellations. The planet Budha Mercury() is two hundred thousand leagues above the lunar mansions. sukra Venus() is at the same distance from Mercury. Angaraka Mars() is as far above Venus; and the priest of the gods Vrihaspati(, or Jupiter) as far from Mars: whilst Saturn Sani() is two hundred and fifty thousand leagues beyond Jupiter. The sphere of the seven Rishis Ursa( Major) is a hundred thousand leagues above Saturn; and at a similar height above the seven Rishis is Dhruva (the pole star), the pivot or axis of the whole planetary circle. Such, Maitreya, is the elevation of the three spheres Bhur(, Bhuvar, Swar) which form the region of the consequences of works. The region of works is here (or in the land of Bharata) 2.
vp.2.8 The mountain range that lies most to the north (in Bharata varsha) is called sringavan (the horned), from its having three principal elevations (horns or peaks), one to the north, one to the south, and one in the centre; the last is called the equinoctial, for the sun arrives there in the middle of the two seasons of spring and autumn, entering the equinoctial points in the first degree of Aries and of Libra, and making day and night of equal duration, or fifteen Muhurttas each. When the sun, most excellent sage, is in the first degree of the lunar mansion, Krittika, and the moon is in the. fourth of Visakha, or when the sun is in the third
vp.2.13 Legend of Bharata. Bharata abdicates his throne, and becomes an ascetic: cherishes a fawn, and becomes so much attached to it as to neglect his devotions: he dies: his successive births: works in the fields, and is pressed as a palankin bearer for the Raja of Sauvira: rebuked for his awkwardness: his reply: dialogue between him and the king.
vp.2.13 Maitreya. Reverend sir 1, all that I asked of you has been thoroughly explained; namely, the situation of the earth, oceans, mountains, rivers, and planetary bodies; the system of the three worlds, of which Vishnu is the stay. The great end of life has also been expounded by you, and the preeminence of holy knowledge. It now remains that you fulfil the promise you made some time since 2, of relating to me the story of king Bharata, and how it happened that a monarch like him, residing constantly at the sacred place salagrama, and engaged in devotion, with his mind ever applied to Vasudeva, should have failed, through time sanctity of the shrine, and the efficacy of his abstractions, to obtain final emancipation; how it was that he was born again as a Brahman; and what was done by the magnanimous Bharata in that capacity: all this it is fit that you inform me.
vp.2.13 On one occasion he went to the Mahanadi 3, for the purpose of ablution: he bathed there, and performed the ceremonies usual after bathing, Whilst thus occupied, there came to the same place a doe big with young, who had come out of the forest to drink of the stream. Whilst quenching her thirst, there was heard on a sudden the loud and fearful roaring of a lion; on which the doe, being excessively alarmed, jumped out of the water upon the bank. In consequence of this great leap, her fawn was suddenly brought forth, and fell into the river; and the king, seeing it carried away by the current, caught hold of the young animal, and saved it from being drowned. The injury received by the deer, by her violent exertion, proved fatal, and she lay down, and died; which being observed by the royal ascetic, he took the fawn in his arms, and returned with it to his hermitage: there he fed it and tended it every day, and it throve and grew up under his care. It frolicked about the cell, and grazed upon the grass in its vicinity; and whenever it strayed to a distance, and was alarmed at a wild beast, it ran back thither for safety. Every morning it sallied forth from home, and every evening returned to the thatched shelter of the leafy bower of Bharata.
vp.2.14 Dialogue continued. Bharata expounds the nature of existence, the end of life, and the identification of individual with universal spirit.
vp.2.15 Bharata relates the story of Ribhu and Nidagha. The latter, the pupil of the former, becomes a prince, and is visited by his preceptor, who explains to him the principles of unity, and departs.
vp.2.16 Ribhu returns to his disciple, and perfects him in divine knowledge. The same recommended to the Raja by Bharata, who thereupon obtains final liberation. Consequences of hearing this legend.
vp.2.16 Parasara resumed. The king, being thus instructed, opened his eyes to truth, and abandoned the notion of distinct existence: whilst the Brahman, who, through the recollection of his former lives, had acquired perfect knowledge, obtained now exemption from future birth. Whoever narrates or listens to the lessons inculcated in the dialogue between Bharata and the king, has his mind enlightened, mistakes not the nature of individuality, and in the course of his migrations becomes fitted for ultimate emancipation.
vp.3.6 The four Vedas, the six Angas (or subsidiary portions of the Vedas, viz. siksha, rules of reciting the prayers, the accents and tones to be observed; Kalpa, ritual; Vyakarana, grammar; Nirukta, glossarial comment; Chhandas, metre; and Jyotish, (astronomy), with Mimansa (theology), Nyaya (logic), Dharma (the institutes of law), and the Puranas, constitute the fourteen principal branches of knowledge: or they are considered as eighteen, with the addition of these four; the ayur veda, medical science (as taught by Dhanwantari); Dhanur veda, the science of archery or arms, taught by Bhrigu; Gandharba veda, or the drama, and the arts of music, dancing, &c., of which the Muni Bharata was the author; and the Artha sastram, or science of government, as laid down first by Vrihaspati.
vp.4.4 lotus springs became fourfold, as the four sons of Dasaratha, Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and satrughna, for the protection of the world. Rama, whilst yet a boy, accompanied Viswamitra, to protect his sacrifice, and slew Tadaka. He afterwards killed Maricha with his resistless shafts; and Subahu and others fell by his arms. He removed the guilt of Ahalya by merely looking upon her. In the palace of Janaka he broke with ease the mighty bow of Maheswara, and received the hand of Sita, the daughter of the king, self born from the earth, as the prize of his prowess. He humbled the pride of Parasurama, who vaunted his triumphs over the race of Haihaya, and his repeated slaughters of the Kshatriya tribe. Obedient to the commands of his father, and cherishing no regret for the loss of sovereignty, he entered the forest,
vp.4.4 Bharata made himself master of the country of the Gandharbas, after destroying vast numbers of them; and satrughna having killed the Rakshasa chief Lavana, the son of Madhu, took possession of his capital Mathura.
vp.4.4 Having thus, by their unequalled valour and might, rescued the whole world from the dominion of malignant fiends, Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and satrughna reascended to heaven, and were followed by those of the people of Kosala who were fervently devoted to these incarnate portions of the supreme Vishnu.
vp.4.4 Rama and his brothers had each two sons. Kusa and Lava were the sous of Rama; those of Lakshmana were Angada and Chandraketu; the sons of Bharata were Taksha and Pushkara; and Subahu and surasena 17 were the sons of satrughna.
vp.4.11 [paragraph continues] Jayadhwaja 15. The son of the last was Talajangha, who had a hundred sons, called after him Talajanghas: the eldest of these was Vitihotra; another was Bharata 16, who had two sons, Vrisha and Sujati 17. The son of Vrisha was Madhu 18; he had a hundred sons, the chief of whom was Vrishni, and from him the family obtained the name of Vrishni 19. From the name of their father, Madhu, they were also called Madhavas; whilst from the denomination of their common ancestor Yadu, the whole were termed Yadavas 20.
vp.4.19 Descendants of Puru. Birth of Bharata, the son of Dushyanta: his sons killed: adopts Bharadwaja or Vitatha. Hastin, founder of Hastinapura. Sons of Ajamidha, and the races derived from them, as Panchalas, &c. Kripa and Kripi found by santanu. Descendants of Riksha, the son of Ajamidha. Kurukshetra named from Kuru. Jarasandha and others, kings of Magadha.
vp.4.19 [paragraph continues] Dushyanta was the emperor Bharata; a verse explanatory of his name is chaunted by the gods; "The mother is only the receptacle; it is the father by whom a son is begotten. Cherish thy son, Dushyanta; treat not sakuntala with disrespect. Sons, who are born from the paternal loins, rescue their progenitors from the infernal regions. Thou art the parent of this boy; sakuntala has spoken truth." From the expression cherish, Bharaswa, the prince was called Bharata 14.
vp.4.19 Bharata had by different wives nine sons, but they were put to death by their own mothers, because Bharata remarked that they bore no resemblance to him, and the women were afraid that he would therefore desert them. The birth of his sons being thus unavailing, Bharata sacrificed to the Maruts, and they gave him Bharadwaja, the son of Vrihaspati by Mamata the wife of Utathya, expelled by the kick of Dirghatamas, his half brother, before his time. This verse explains the purport of his appellation; Silly woman, said Vrihaspati, cherish this child of two fathers (bhara dwa jam). No, Vrihaspati, replied Mamata, do you take care of him. So saying, they both abandoned him; but from their expressions the boy was called Bharadwaja." He was also termed Vitatha, in allusion to the unprofitable (vitatha) birth of the sons of Bharata 15. The son of Vitatha was
vp.5.12 When Indra had, by direction of the kine, inaugurated Krishna, the husband of sachi said to him affectionately, "I have thus performed what the cows enjoined me. Now, illustrious being, hear what farther I propose, with a view to facilitate your task. A portion of me has been born as Arjuna, the son of Pritha: let him ever be defended by thee, and he will assist thee in bearing thy burden. He is to be cherished by thee, Madhusudana, like another self." To this Krishna replied, "I know thy son, who has been born in the race of Bharata, and I will
vp.5.12 befriend him as long as I continue upon earth. As long as I am present, invincible sakra, no one shall be able to subdue Arjuna in fight. When the great demon Kansa has been slain, and Arishta, Kesin, Kuvalayapida, Naraka, and other fierce Daityas, shall have been put to death, there will take place a great war, in which the burden of the earth will be removed. Now therefore depart, and be not anxious on account of thy son; for no foe shall triumph over Arjuna whilst I am present. For his sake I will restore to Kunti all her sons; with Yudhishthira at their head, unharmed, when the Bharata war is at an end."

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