Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 23 Jul 2011 08:15 and updated at 23 Jul 2011 08:15


vp.2.8 Fifteen twinklings of the eye Nimeshas() make a Kashtha; thirty Kashthas, a Kala; thirty Kalas, a Muhurtta (forty eight minutes); and thirty Muhurttas, a day and night: the portions of the day are longer or shorter, as has been explained; but the Sandhya is always the same in increase or decrease, being only one Muhurtta 15. From the period that a line may be drawn across the sun (or that half his orb is visible) to the expiration of three Muhurttas (two hours and twenty four minutes), that interval is called Pratar (morning), forming a fifth portion of the day. The next portion, or three Muhurttas from morning, is termed Sangava (forenoon): the three next Muhurttas constitute mid day: the afternoon comprises the next three Muhurttas: the three Muhurttas following are considered as the evening: and the fifteen Muhurttas of the day are thus classed in five portions of three each. But the day consists of fifteen Muhurttas only at the equinoxes, increasing or diminishing in number in the northern and southern declinations of the sun, when the day encroaches on the night, or the night upon the day. The equinoxes occur in the seasons of spring and autumn, when the sun enters the signs of Aries and Libra. When the sun enters Capricorn (the winter solstice), his northern progress commences; and his southern when he enters Cancer (the summer solstice).
vp.2.8 The mountain range that lies most to the north (in Bharata varsha) is called sringavan (the horned), from its having three principal elevations (horns or peaks), one to the north, one to the south, and one in the centre; the last is called the equinoctial, for the sun arrives there in the middle of the two seasons of spring and autumn, entering the equinoctial points in the first degree of Aries and of Libra, and making day and night of equal duration, or fifteen Muhurttas each. When the sun, most excellent sage, is in the first degree of the lunar mansion, Krittika, and the moon is in the. fourth of Visakha, or when the sun is in the third

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