KRISHNA YAJUR VEDA
THE EXPLANATION OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE
PRAPATHAKA IV (4)
vi. 4. 1.
By means of the sacrifice Prajapati created offspring; verily he created them by the subsidiary sacrifices; in that he offers the subsidiary sacrifices, verily thus the sacrificer creates offspring.
He cuts off from the hind portion, for from the hind portion offspring are born; he cuts off from the thick side, for offspring are born from the thick side; he cuts off without confusion, to prevent confusion of the vital airs.
He does not turn (it) round; if he were to turn (it) round, disease would be likely to seize his offspring.
Go to the ocean, hail! he says verily thus he produces seed .
Go to the atmosphere, hail! he says; verily by means of the atmosphere he begets offspring for him, for in accord with the atmosphere offspring are born.
Go to god Savitr, hail! he says; verily, instigated by Savitr, he begets offspring for him.
Go to day and night, hail! he says; verily by means of day and night he begets offspring for him, for in accord with day and night offspring are born.
Go to Mitra and Varuna, hail! he says ; verily he bestows expiration and inspiration on offspring when born.
Go to Soma, hail! he says, for offspring have Soma for their deity.
Go to the sacrifice, hail! he says; verily he makes offspring fit for the sacrifice.
Go to the metres, hail! he says; the metres are cattle; verily he wins cattle.
Go to the sky and the earth, hail! he says; verily on either side he supports offspring when born with the sky and the earth.
Go to the c ouds  of the sky, hail! he says; verily he procures rain for offspring when born; Go to Agni Vaisvanara, hail! he says; verily he establishes in this (world) offspring when born.
He makes a portion of the vital airs, who makes a portion of the intestines; Give me mind and heart he says; verily he summons the vital airs according to their places.
When the beast is offered, pain reaches its heart; it gathers round the heart spit .
if he were to place the heart spit on the earth, he would cause pain to the earth; if on the waters, he would cause pain to the waters; he places it in the meeting place of dry and wet, to appease both.
He should think of whomsoever he hates; verily he causes him pain.
vi. 4. 2.
The gods divided the sacrifice on the Agnidh s altar: of what was left over they said, Let this remain here.
That is why the Vasativari (waters) have their name.
But in the morning they could not arrange (to divide it); they placed it in the waters, they became the Vasativaris.
He takes the Vasativaris; the Vasativaris are the sacrifice; verily having taken from the beginning the sacrifice he stays (with it).
If the sun set, on one who has not taken (the waters), his sacrifice would not be begun , and he would split the sacrifice.
He should either take waters with radiance in them, or having deposited gold he takes them with light in them, or he should take them from the tank of a Brahman who performs many sacrifices, for he is one who has taken the Vasativaris.
He takes the Vasativaris; the Vasativaris are cattle; verily having taken cattle from the beginning he stays (with them).
If he were to take them along the stream, his cattle would be likely to wander from him; he takes them standing against the stream; verily he obstructs cattle and seizes them for him.
Indra  slew Vrtra; he died upon the waters; of them what was pure, fit for sacrifice, and divine, that was set free.
They became the Vahantis.
He takes of the Vahantis; verily he takes those of waters which are pure, fit for sacrifice, and divine.
He should not pass over the nearest Vahantis; if he were to pass over the nearest Vahantis, he would despise the sacrifice.
He should not take of stagnant (waters) the stagnant (waters) are seized by Varuna; if he were to take of stagnant (waters) , be would cause Varuna to seize his sacrifice.
If it is done by day, the night enters the waters; therefore the waters appear dusky by day; if it is done by night, the day enters the waters; therefore the waters appear shining by night; he takes (them) at the union of shade and light; verily for him he secures the colour of day and night.
These waters are rich in oblation he says; verily he takes them made into an oblation.
Rich in oblation be  the sun be says; verily he takes them with light in them.
He takes with an Anustubh; the Anustubh is speech; verily with the whole of speech he takes them.
He takes with a verse of four feet, he places them thrice, they make up seven, the Sakvari has seven feet, the Sakvari is cattle; verily he wins cattle.
For this world the Garhapatya is established, for yonder the Ahavaniya; if he were to place (them) on the Garhapatya, he would have cattle in this world, if on the Ahavaniya, in yonder  world he would have cattle.
He places (them) on both; verily he makes him have cattle in both worlds.
He carries (them) round everywhere, to smite away the Raksases.
Ye are the share of Indra and Agni he says; that is according to the text.
He places (them) on the Agnidh s altar; the Agnidh s altar is the invincible part of the sacrifice; verily he places (them) on the invincible part of the sacrifice.
Wherever in the performance of a sacrifice n thing is done, in that (place) the Raksases infest the sacrifice.
In that he takes of the Vahantis, that part of the sacrifices lies being performed, to prevent the infestation of the Raksases, for they do not move them, but they lie around until the third pressing, for the continuity of the sacrifice.
The theologians say, He indeed would be an Adhvaryu who in making Soma descend should make it descend for all the gods.
To the heart thee! he says; verily he makes it for men; To mind thee! he says; verily he makes it for the Pitrs; To the sky thee! To the sun thee! he says; verily he makes it for the gods; so many are the gods; verily he makes it descend for them all.
Before the utterance of speech  he begins the morning litany; verily he wins all that there is of speech.
The waters is the first thing he utters; the waters are the sacrifice verily over the sacrifice he utters speech.
He recites all (kinds of) metres the metres are cattle; verily he wins cattle.
For one who desires brilliance he should conclude with a Gayatri verse, for one who desires power with a Tristubh verse, for one who desires cattle with a Jagati verse, for one who desires support with an Anustubh verse, for one who desires the sacrifice with a Pankti verse, for one who desires food with a Viraj verse.
Let Agni (kindled) with the kindling stick hear my appeal he says ; verily, instigated by Savitr, having made proclamation to the gods, he goes for the waters.
O Hotr, give directions for the waters he says; for an action which is directed is done.
O bowl priest of the Maitravaruna, run hither
he says; Mitra and Varuna are the leaders of the waters; verily with them he goes for them.
O ye divine waters, child of the water he says; verily by the oblation requiting them he se zes them: then he takes of them made into an oblation and covered with ghee .
Thou art the dragger he says; verily he removes dirt from them.
I draw you for the sustenance of the ocean he says; therefore the waters though eaten and drunk do not waste away.
The pit is the birthplace of the sacrifice, the Vasairivaris are the sacrifice; bringing the bowls of the Hotr and the Maitravaruna into contact he pours in the Vasativaris reciprocally, so that the sacrifice may have its birthplace; verily he produces it from its own birthplace.
O Adhvaryu, didst thou seek the waters? he says; they came to me; look upon them in effect he says.
If it is an Agnistoma, he makes a libation; if an Ukthya, he rubs (butter) on the enclosing sticks; if it is an Atiratra, he goes forward uttering a text, to distinguish the sacrifices.
vi. 4. 4.
On the instigation of god Savitr (with these words) he takes up the pressing stone, for instigation, with the arms of the Asvins he says; for the Asvins were the Adhvaryus of the gods; with the hands of Pusan he says, for support.
The Soma is cattle, the Upansu pressing (stone) is cross breathing; in that he measures round the Upansu pressing (stone), he confers cross breathing upon cattle.
To Indra thee! To Indra thee! (with these words) he measures, for the Soma is taken for Indra.
Five times he measures with the text ; the Pankti has five syllables, the sacrifice is fivefold, verily he wins the sacrifice.
Five times (he measures) in silence; these make up ten; the Viraj has ten syllables, the Viraj is food; verily he wins food by the Viraj.
Ye are savoury, conquerors of Vrtra he says; this is the Soma drinking of the waters; he who knows thus reaches not destruction in the waters.
With thy light which is in the sky he says; verily from these worlds he gathers him .
Soma, the king, reflected on the quarters, he entered the quarters; forward, behind, upward, downward he says, verily from the quarters he gathers him; verily also he wins the quarters for him.
O mother, come forth he says; women are likely to desire him who knows thus.
Thy unerring, watchful name, O Soma he says ; this is Soma s Soma drinking; he who knows thus reaches not destruction from Soma.
When they press Soma they kill him; he keeps back shoots; verily he protects him.
he shoots are the vital airs, Soma is cattle; he later lets go the shoots; verily he bestows vital airs upon cattle; two by two he lets them go; therefore the vital airs are in pairs.
vi. 4. 5.
The Upansu Cup is breath; in that the cups are drawn beginning with the Upansu, they follow on breath.
Aruna Aupavesi used to say, At the morning pressing I establish the sacrifice and then I proceed with it when it has been established.
He first presses eight times; the Gayatri has eight syllables, the morning pressing is connected with the Gayatri; verily thereby he obtains the morning pressing.
(He presses) eleven times on the second occasion; the Tristubh has eleven syllables, the midday pressing is connected with the Tristubh ; verily thereby he obtains the midday pressing.
(He presses) twelve times on the third occasion; the Jagati has twelve syllables, the third pressing is connected with the Jagati; verily thereby he obtains the third pressing.
This is what he calls the establishment of the sacrifice, to prevent loss; for what falls when the sacrifice is established is not lost.
Or rather they say, The Gayatri is not open to question at the morning pressing he who knows thus is not liable to question from his foe; therefore eight times in each case should press .
The theologians say, Other cups are drawn with a strainer; what strainer has the Upansu? Speech is the strainer he should reply.
Be pure for the lord of speech, O strong one he says; verily by speech he purifies him.
With the shoots of the male he says, for the shoots of the Soma are the shoots of the male; purified by the arms he says, for by the arms he purifies him; thou art th god, purifier of gods he says, for he being a god  is the purifier of gods; to those thee whose portion thou art he says, for he draws him for those whose portion he is.
Thou art he who is appropriated he says; verily he makes breath his own; make our food full of sweetness for us he says; verily he makes all food sweet for him; to all the powers of sky and earth thee! he says; verily upon both gods and men he bestows the vital airs.
May mind enter thee! he says ; verily he attains mind.
Fare along the broad atmosphere he says, for the breath has the atmosphere as its deity.
Hail! Thee, of kindly nature, to the sun! he says; the gods of kindly nature are the breaths; verily in them he secretly offers.
To the gods that drink the rays thee! he says; the gods that drink the rays are the rays of the sun; that is their share; verily thereby he delights them.
If he desire, May Parjanya rain , he should rub (the cup) with the (palm of) the hand downwards; verily he brings down the rain.
If he desire, May it not rain he should rub with the hand upwards; verily he keeps up the rain.
If he practise witchcraft, Slay N.N.; then will I sacrifice to thee he should say; verily desiring the libation he slays him.
If he be far away, he should stand until he is weary; verily he follows his breath and slays him.
If he practise witchcraft , he should put (it) down (with the words), I set thee down on the breath of N.N. the breath is restless; veril he brings his breath to rest.
He purifies by means of six shoots; the seasons are six; verily he purifies him by means of the seasons; thrice he purifies these worlds are three; verily he purifies him by means of these worlds.
The theologians say, For what reason is it that three animals take by the hand? In that thrice he draws separately the Upansu with his hand, therefore there are three animals which take by the hand, man, the elephant, and the ape.
vi. 4. 6.
Whatever the gods did as the sacrifice, that the Asuras did.
The gods saw that the sacrifice must be established in the Upansu (cup), and they established it in the Upansu.
The Asuras grasping the thunderbolt attacked the gods; the gods in fear ran up to Indra, Indra obstructed them by means of the Antaryama (cup), and that is why the Antaryama has its name, the obstructor
In that the Antaryama cup is drawn, verily thus the sacrificer obstructs his foes.
Through thee I interpose sky and earth , I interpose the broad atmosphere he says; verily with these worlds the sacrificer obstructs his foes.
The gods reflected, Indra hath now become what we are they said, O bounteous one, give us a share In unison with the gods, the lower and the higher he replied; to both (the sets of) gods, the lower and the higher , he gave a share.
In unison with the gods, the lower and the higher he says; to both (the sets of) gods, the lower and the higher, he gives a share.
O bounteous one, do thou rejoice in the Antaryama he says; verily he does not cut off the sacrificer from the sacrifice.
Thou art taken with a support he says, for the support of inspiration.
If both (cups) were drawn without a filter, inspiration would follow expiration, he would be likely to die.
The Antaryama is drawn with a filter , to separate expiration and inspiration.
The Upansu and the Antaryama (cups) are expiration and inspiration, the Upansu pressing (stone) is cross breathing.
If h desire of a man, May he be likely to die he should set them down for him without being in contact; verily he severs his expiration and inspiration from cross breathing; swiftly he dies.
If he desire of a man, May he live all his days he should set them down for him in contact; verily he connects his expiration and inspiration with cross breathing; he lives all his days.
vi. 4. 7.
The cup for Indra and Vayu is speech; in that the cups are drawn beginning with that to Indra and Vayu, verily they follow speech.
The gods said to Vayu, Let us slay Soma, the king he replied, Let me choose a boon; let your cups be drawn with mine first.
Therefore the cups are drawn with those for Indra and Vayu first.
They slew him; he became putrid; the gods could not endure him, they said to Vayu, Make him sweet for us ; he replied, Let me choose a boon; let your vessels, be said to have me as their deity.
Therefore, being of various deities, they are said to have Vayu as their deity.
Verily did Vayu make him sweet for him; therefore what becomes putrid they hang out in a windy place, for Vayu is its purifier, its sweetener.
They could not find its distribution; Aditi said, Let me choose a boon; then shall ye distribute through me, verily with me as deity may your Soma (draughts) be set down .
Thou art taken with a support he says, and thereby have they Aditi for their deity, for those vessels that are made of wood are born from her womb, those that are made of clay are clearly hers; therefore he says thus.
Speech aforetime spoke without discrimination; the gods said to Indra, Do thou discriminate this speech for us he replied, Let me choose a boon; let this (cup) be drawn for me and for Vayu together.
Therefore the cup is drawn together for Indra and Vayu.
Indra approaching it in the midst discriminated it; therefore is speech spoken distinctly.
Therefore is it drawn once, in the middle, for Indra, and twice for Vayu, for he chose two boons.
vi. 4. 8.
The gods said to Mitra, Let us slay Soma, the king he replied, Not I; for I am the friend of all they answered, Still we will slay him he replied, Let me choose a boon; let them mix the Soma for me with milk.
Therefore they mix with milk (the Soma) for Mitra and Varuna.
From him cattle departed (saying), He that was a friend hath done a cruel deed a cruel deed as it were  does he do who sacrifices with Soma; from him cattle depart.
In that he mixes with milk (the Soma) for Mitra and Varuna, he unites Mitra with cattle, and the sacrificer with cattle.
Aforetime indeed was Mitra thus aware, When I have done this cruel deed, cattle will depart from me therefore he chose thus.
The gods said to Varuna, With thee as helper we will slay Soma, the king he replied, Let me choose a boon, for me  and Mitra together let this (cup) be drawn.
Therefore it is drawn for Mitra and Varuna together; therefore with a king as helper they slay a king, with a Vaisya a Vaisya, with a Sudra a Sudra.
This was not day or night, but undiscriminated; the gods said to Mitra and Varuna, Make this to shine forth for us they replied, Let us choose a boon; let one cup only be drawn before ours.
Therefore the cup for Indra and Vayu is drawn before that for Mitra and Varuna, for the Upansu and the Antaryama (cups) are expiration and inspiration.
Mitra produced the day, Varuna the night; then indeed did this shine forth; in that (a cup) is drawn for Mitra and Varuna, (it is) fo shining forth.
vi. 4. 9.
The head of the sacrifice was cut; the gods said to the Asvins, Ye are physicians; do ye replace the head of the sacrifice they replied.
Let us choose a boon; let there be drawn a cup for us also herein.
For them they drew this cup for the Asvins; then indeed did they replace the head of the sacrifice; in that (the cup) for the Asvins is drawn, (it is) to restore the sacrifice.
The gods said of these two, Impure are they, wandering among men  and physicians.
Therefore a Brahman should not practise medicine, for the physician is impure, unfit for the sacrifice.
Having purified them by the Bahispavamana Stotra() they drew for them this cup for the Asvins; therefore (the cup) for the Asvins is drawn when the Bahispavamana has been sung.
Therefore by one who knows thus the Bahispavamana should be performed; verily he purifies himself.
Their skill as physicians they deposited in three places, in Agni a third, in the waters a third, in the Brahman a third.
Therefore one should put beside him a pot of water  and sit on the right hand of a Brahman when practising medicine; all medicine he performs thereby, his remedy becomes effective.
The theologians say, For what reason are cups for two deities drawn in one vessel, but offered in two? In that (the cups) are drawn in one vessel, therefore there is one breath within; they are offered in two vessels, therefore the breaths outside are in pairs.
Those that are for two deities are the breaths, the Ida is cattle; if he shou d summon the Ida before those that are for two deities , he would obstruct his breaths by cattle, he would be likely to perish.
Having eaten those for two deities, he summons the Ida; verily having placed the breaths in himself he summons the Ida.
(The cup) for Indra and Vayu is speech, that for Mitra and Varuna is the eye, that for the Asvins is the ear; he eats in front that for Indra and Vayu, therefore in front he speaks with speech; in front that for Mitra and Varuna, therefore in front he sees with the eye; moving all round, that for the Asvins; therefore on all sides he hears with the ear.
Those for two deities are the breaths , he sets down full vessels; therefore the breaths are full within; wherever in the performance of the sacrifice nothing is done, in that place the Raksases attack the sacrifice; in that he sets down full vessels the part of the sacrifice being performed is deposited to prevent the entry of the Raksases.
He sets down in the north track of the southern oblation cart; verily he places speech in speech.
They lie (there) until the third pressing, for the continuity of the sacrifice.
vi. 4. 10.
Brhaspati was the Purohita of the gods, Sanda and Marka of the Asuras; the gods had the holy power Brahman(), the Asuras had the holy power Brahman(); they could not overcome one another; the gods invited Sanda and Marka; they replied, Let us choose a boon; let cups be drawn for us also herein.
For them they drew these cups for Sukra and Manthin; then did the gods prosper, the Asuras were defeated.
He for whom knowing thus these Sukra and Manthin (cups) are drawn, prospers himself, his foe  is defeated.
Having driven away these two, the gods offered to themselves, to Indra.
Driven away are Sanda and Marka together with N.N., he should say of whom he hates; with him whom he hates he thus drives them away.
This is the first preparer, all maker (with these words) they offered to themselves, to Indra, these (cups), for Indra kept making these forms.
The Sukra is yonder sun, the Manthin is the moon; they depart towards the east, closing their eyes ; therefore men do not see them as they go east.
Turning back towards the west they sacrifice, therefore men see them going west.
The Sukra and the Manthin are the eyes of the sacrifice, the high altar is the nose.
They offer having gone round (the altar) on both sides; therefore the eyes are on either side of the nose; therefore the eyes are held apart by the nose; they walk round on all sides, to smite away the Raksases.
Now the offerings the gods made on the east, with them they drove away the Asuras who were in front 3]; with those on the west they drove away the Asuras who were behind; other sacrifices are made in the east, the Sukra and Manthin on the west; verily behind and in front the sacrificer drives away his foes; therefore offspring are engendered behind and are brought forth in front.
In accordance with the Sukra and Manthin are offspring born, the eaters and the eaten.
Engendering heroic off spring), come forth, Sukra, with pure radiance , Engendering prolific offspring, come forth, Manthin, with mixed radiance he says; the eaters are those who are heroic, the eaten those that are prolific.
The offspring of him who knows thus becomes an eater, not eaten.
The eye of Prajapati swelled; it fell away, it entered the Vikankata, it did not stay in the Vikankata; it entered barley, it stayed in barley; that is why barley has its name .
In that the Manthin vessel is of Vikankata and he mixes with groats, verily thus he gathers together the eye of Prajapati.
The theologians say, For what reason does the Manthin vessel not go to the Sadas? It is the vessel of misfortune he should say; if it were to go there, the Adhvaryu would be blind, he would be ruined; therefore it does not go there.
vi. 4. 11.
Whatever the gods did at the sacrifice the Asuras did.
The gods saw the cups with the Agrayana at their head; they drew them; then indeed did they reach the top; he for whom knowing thus the cups are drawn with the Agrayana at their head reaches the top of his equals.
With a verse containing the word destructive he should draw for him who has a rival; verily having destroyed his rival he reaches the top of his equals.
Ye gods that are eleven in the sky he says ; so many are the deities; verily he draws it for all of them.
This is thy birthplace; to the All gods thee! he says, for it has the All gods for its deity.
Speech departed from the gods, not being willing to remain for the sacrifice; when speech had departed the gods silently drew the cups; speech reflected, They are excluding me it went into the Agrayana; that is why the Agrayana has its name .
Therefore in the Agrayana speech is uttered.
In that the former cups are drawn in silence, that is as when the hunter lets go (his arrow), (thinking), So far off is my mark at so far I shall not miss.
The Adhvaryu taking the Agrayana, commencing the sacrifice, utters his speech; thrice he utters Him verily thus he chooses the Udgatrs; the Agrayana is Prajapati; in that he utters Him after taking the Agrayana, verily thus Prajapati sniffs offspring ; therefore the cow sniffs the calf on birth.
The Agrayana is the self of the sacrifice; at each pressing he draws it; verily he continues the sacrifice in itself.
He brings (it) up from above verily thus he impregnates seed; he takes (it) from below verily he generates it.
The theologians say, For what reason does the Gayatri, the least of the metres, support the pressings? The Agrayana is the calf of the Gayatri; verily turning back towards it it supports all the pressings.
Therefore a cow turns back towards the calf which is taken away.