BOOK XIV (14)
HYMN I (1)
On the Bridal of Surya, marriage ceremonies in general
 Truth is the base that bears the earth; by Surya are the heavens upheld.
By Law the Adityas stand secure, and Soma holds his place in heaven.
 By Soma are the Adityas strong, by Soma mighty is the earth: Thus Soma in the lap of all these constellations hath his home.
 One thinks, when men have brayed the plant, that he hath drunk the Soma s juice.
Of him whom Brahmans truly know as Soma never mortal eats.
 When they begin to drink thee, then, O God, thou swellest out again.
Vayu in Soma s sentinel.
The month is that which shapes the years.
 Soma, preserved by covering rules, guarded by hymns in Brihati, Thou standest listening to the stones; none tastes of thee who dwells on earth.
 Thought was her coverlet, the power of sight was unguent for her eyes: Her treasure chest was earth and heaven, when Surya went unto her lord.
 Raibhi was her dear bridal friend, and Narasatisi led her home.
Lovely to see was Surya s robe: by Gatha beautified she moves
 Songs were the cross bars of the pole, Kurira metre docked her head.
Both Asvins were the paranymphs: Agni was leader of the train.
 Soma was he who wooed the maid: the groomsmen were both.
Asvins, when The Sun God Savitar bestowed his willing Surya on her lord.
 Her spirit was the bridal car, the canopy thereof was heaven: Two radiant oxen formed the team when Surya came unto her lord. [p. 130]
 Steadily went the steers upheld by holy verse and song of praise, The chariot wheels were listening ears: thy path was tremulous in the sky.
 Pure, as thou wentest, were thy wheels, breath was the axle pier cing them.
Surya advancing to her lord rode on the chariot of her heart.
 The bridal pomp of Surya, which Savitar started, moved along.
In Magha days are oxen slain, in Phalgunis they wed the bride.
 When on your three wheeled chariot, O ye Asvins, ye came as suitors unto Surya s bridal, Where was one chariot wheel of yours? Where stood ye for the sire s command?
 Twin Lords of Lustre, at the time when ye to Surya s wooing came, Then all the Gods agreed to your proposal Pushan as son elected you as father.
 Two wheels of thine the Brahmans know, Surya! according to their times.
That which is hidden only those who know the highest truths have learned.
 Worship we pay to Aryaman, finder of husbands, kindly friend.
As from its stalk a cucumber, from here I loose thee, not from there
 Hence and not thence I send her free.
I make her softly fettered there.
That, bounteous Indra! she may live blest in her fortune and her sons.
 Now from the noose of Varuna I free thee, where with the bless ed Savitar hath bound thee.
May bless be thine together with thy wooer in Order s dwelling, in the world of virtue.
 Let Bhaga take thy hand and hence conduct thee: let the two Asvins on their car transport thee.
Go to the house to be the household s mistress, and speak as lady to thy gathered people.
 Happy be thou and prosper with thy children here: be vigilant to rule the household in this home.
Closely unite thy body with this man thy lord.
So shalt thou, full of years, address thy company. [p. 131]
 Be not divided; dwell ye here; reach the full time of human life.
With sons and grandsons sport and play, rejoicing in your happy home.
 Moving by magic power from east to westward, these children twain go sporting round the ocean.
The one beholds all creatures: thou, the other, art born anew, duly arranging seasons.
 Thou, born afresh, art new and new for ever; ensign of days, before the Dawns thou goest.
Coming, thou orderest for Gods their portion.
Thou lengthenest, Moon, the days of our existence.
 Give thou the wollen robe away: deal treasure to the Brahman priests.
This Witchery hath got her feet: the wife attendeth on her lord.
 It turneth dusky red: the witch who clingeth close is driven off.
Well thrive the kinsmen of this bride: the husband is bound fast in bonds.
 Unlovely is his body when it glistens with that wicked fiend, What time the husband wraps about his limbs the garment of his wife.
 The butchering, the cutting up, the severing of limb and joint Behold the forms which Surya wears: yet these the Brahman purifies,
 Pungent is this, bitter is this, filled as it were with arrow barbs, empoisoned and not fit for use.
The Brahman who knows Surya well deserves the garment of the bride.
 The Brahman takes away the robe as a fair thing that brings good luck.
He knows the expiating rite whereby the wife is kept unharmed.
 Prepare, ye twain, happy and prosperous fortune, speaking the truth in faithful utterances.
Dear unto her, Brihaspati, make the husband, and pleasant be these words the wooer speaketh.
 Remain ye even here and go no farther: strengthen this man, ye Cows, with plenteous offspring.
May Dawns that come for glory, bright with Soma, here may all Gods fix and enchant your spirits. [p. 132]
 Come, O ye Cows, with offspring dwell around him: he doth not stint the Gods alloted portion.
To him, your friend, may Pushan, all the Maruts, to him may Dhatar, Savitar send vigour.
 Straight in direction be the paths, and thornless, whereby our fellows travel to the wooing.
With Bhaga and with Aryaman Dhatar endue the pair with strength!
 Whatever lustre is in dice, whatever lustre is in wine, Whatever lustre is in cows, Asvins, endue this dame therewith.
 With all the sheen that balmeth wine, or thigh of female para mour, With all the sheen that balmeth dice, even with this adorn the dame.
 He who in water shines unfed with fuel, whom sages worship in their sacrifices.
May he, the Waters Child, send us sweet waters those that en hanced the power of mighty Indra.
 I cast away a handful here, hurtful, injurious to health.
I lift another handful up, sparkling and bringing happiness.
 Hither let Brahmans bring her bathing water; let them draw such as guards the lives of heroes.
Aryaman s fire let her encircle, Pushan! Fathers in law stand, with their sons, expectant.
 Blest be the gold to thee, and blest the water, blest the yoke s opening, and blest the pillar.
Blest he the waters with their hundred cleansings: blest be thy body s union with thy husband.
 Cleansing Apala, Indra! thrice, thou gavest sunbright skin to her Drawn, Satakratu! through the hole of car, of wagon, and of yoke.
 Saying thy prayer for cheerfulness, children, prosperity, and wealth, Devoted to thy husband, gird thyself for immortality.
 As vigorous Sindhu won himself imperial lordship of the streams, So be imperial queen when thou hast come within thy husband s home.
 Over thy husband s fathers and his brothers be imperial queen. [p. 133] Over thy husband s sister and, his mother bear supreme control.
 They who have spun, and woven, and extended Goddesses who have drawn the ends together, May they invest thee for full long existence.
Heiress of lengthen ed life, endue this garment,
 They mourn the living, they arrange the sacred rite: the men have set their thoughts upon a distant cast: They who have brought the Fathers this delightful gift, when wives allowed their lords the joy of their embrace.
 I place upon the lap of Earth the Goddess, a firm auspicious stone to bring thee children.
Stand on it, thou, greeted with joy, resplendent: a long long life may Savitar vouchsafe thee.
 As Agni in the olden time took the right hand of this our Earth.
Even so I take and hold thy hand: be not disquieted, with me, with children and with store of wealth.
 God Savitar shall take thy hand, and Soma the King shall make thee rich in goodly offspring, Let Agni, Lord Omniscient, make thee happy, till old old age a wife unto thy husband.
 I take thy hand in mine for happy fortune that thou mayst reach old age with me thy consort, Gods, Aryaman, Bhaga, Savitar, Purandhi, have given thee to be my household s mistress.
 Bhaga and Savitar the God have clasped that hand of thine in theirs, By rule and law thou art my wife: the master of thy house am I.
 Be it my care to cherish her: Brihaspati hath made thee mine.
A hundred autumns live with me thy husband, mother of my sons!
 Tvashtar, by order of the holy sages, hath laid on her Brihaspati s robe for glory, By means of this let Savitar and Bhaga surround this dame, like Surya, with her children.
 May Indra Agni, Heaven Earth, Matarisvan, may Mitra Varuna, Bhaga, both the Asvins, Brihaspati, the host of Maruts, Brahma, and Soma magnify this dame with offspring.
 It was Brihaspati who first arranged the hair on Surya s head, [p. 134] And therefore, O ye Asvins, we adorn this woman for her lord.
 This lovely form the maiden wears in spirit I long to look on as my wife approaching, Her will I follow with my nine companions.
Who is the sage that loosed the bonds that held her?
 I free her: he who sees, within my bosom, my heart s nest knows how her fair form hath struck me.
I taste no stolen food: myself untying Varuna s nooses I am freed in spirit.
 Now from the bond of Varuna I loose thee, wherein the blessed Savitar hath bound thee.
O bride, I give thee here beside thy husband fair space and room and pleasant paths to travel.
 Lift up your weapons.
Drive away the demons.
Transport this woman to the world of virtue.
Dilator, most wise, hath found for her a husband.
Let him who knows, King Bhaga, go before her.
 Bhaga hath formed the four legs of the litter, wrought the four pieces that compose the frame work.
Tvashtar hath decked the straps that go across it, May it be blest, and bring us happy fortune.
 Mount this, all hued.
gold tinted, strong wheeled, fashioned of Kinsuka, this chariot lightly rolling, Bound for the world of life immortal, Surya! Made for thy lord a happy bride s procession.
 To us, O Varuna, bring her, kind to brothers; bring her, Brihaspati, gentle to the cattle.
Bring her, O Indra, gentle to her husband: bring her to us, O Savitar, blest with children.
 Hurt not the girl, ye Pillars twain upon the path which Gods have made.
The portal of the heavenly home we make the bride s auspicious road.
 Let prayer he offered up before and after, prayer in the middle, lastly, all around her.
Reaching the Gods inviolable castle shine in thy lord s world gentle and auspicious.
[p. 135] [p. 136] [p. 137] [p. 138]
HYMN II (2)
On the Bridal of Surya, marriage ceremonies in general, continued
 For thee with bridal train they first escorted Surya to her home, Give to the husband in return, Agni, the wife with future sons.
 Agni hath given the bride again with splendour and a lengthened.
Long lived be he who is her lord: a hundred autumns let him live.
 She was the wife of Soma first: next the Gandharva was thy lord.
Agni was the third husband: now one born of woman is thy fourth.
 Soma to the Gandharva, and to Agni the Gandharva gave.
Now, Agni hath bestowed on me riches and sons and this my bride.
 Your favouring grace hath come, ye who are rich in spoil! Asvins, your longings are stored up within your hearts.
Ye, Lords of Splendour have become our twofold guard: may we as dear friends reach the dwelling of the friend.
 Thou, Dame, rejoicing, take with kindly spirit wealth worthy to be famed, with all thy heroes.
Give, Lords of Light a fair ford, good to drink at: remove the spiteful stump that blocks the pathway.
 May all the Rivers, all the Plants, may all the Forests, all the Fields, O Bride, protect thee from the fiend, guard his sons mother for her lord. [p. 140]
 Our feet are on this pleasant path, easy to travel, bringing bliss, Whereon no hero suffers harm, which wins the wealth of other men.
 Here these my words, ye men, the benediction through which the wedded pair have found high fortune.
May the divine Apsarases, Gandharvas, all they who are these fruitful trees protectors, Regard this bride with their auspicious, favour, nor harm the nuptial pomp as it advances.
 Consumptions, which, through various folk, attack the bride s resplendent train, These let the holy Gods again bear to the place from which they sprang.
 Let not the highway thieves who lie in ambush find the wedded pair.
Let wicked men s malignities go elsewhere by an easy path.
 I look upon the house and bride s procession with prayer and with the gentle eye of friendship.
All that is covered there in perfect beauty may Savitar make pleasant to the husband.
 She hath come home this dame come home to bless us: this her appointed world hath Dhatar shown her.
So may Prajapati, and both the Asvins, Aryaman, Bhaga gladden her with offspring.
 This dame hath come, an animated corn field: there sow, thou man, the seed of future harvest.
She from her teeming side shall bear thee children, and feed them from the fountain of her bosom.
 Take thou thy stand, a Queen art thou, like Vishnu here, Sarasvati! O Sinivali, let her bear children, and live in Bhaga s grace.
 So let your wave bear up the pins, and ye, O Waters, spare the thongs; And never may the holy pair, sinless and innocent, suffer harm.
 Not evil eyed no slayer of thy husband, be strong, mild, kind, and gentle to thy household.
Mother of heroes, love thy husband s father: be happy, and through thee may we too prosper.
 No slayer of thy husband or his father, gentle and bright, bring blessing on the cattle. [p. 141] Loving thy husband s father, bring forth heroes.
Tend well this household fire: be soft and pleasant.
 Up and begone! What wish hath brought thee hither from thine own house? Thy mightier, I conjure thee.
Vain is the hope, O Nirriti, that brought thee.
Fly off, Malignity; stay here no longer.
 As first of all this woman hath adored the sacred household fire.
So do thou, Dame, pay homage to the Fathers and Sarasvati.
 Take thou this wrapper as a screen, to be a covering for the bride O Sinivali, let her bear children, and live in Bhaga s grace.
 Let her who shall be blest with sons, the maid who finds a.
husband, step Upon the rough grass that ye spread and on the skin ye lay beneath.
 Over the ruddy coloured skin strew thou the grass, the Balbuja.
Let her, the mother of good sons, sit there and serve this Agni here.
 Step on the skin and wait upon this Agni: he is the God who drives away all demons.
Here bear thou children to this man thy husband: let this thy boy be happy in his birthnight.
 Let many babes of varied form and nature spring in succession from this fruitful mother.
Wait on this fire, thou bringer of good fortune.
Here with thy husband serve the Gods with worship.
 Bliss bringer, furthering thy household s welfare, dear gladdening thy husband and his father, enter this home, mild to thy hus band s mother.
 Be pleasant to the husband s sire, sweet to thy household and thy lord, To all this clan be gentle, and favour these men s prosperity.
 Signs of good fortune mark the bride.
Come all of you and look at her.
Wish her prosperity: take on you her evil lucks and go your way.
 Ye youthful maidens, ill disposed, and all ye ancient woman here, [p. 142] Give all your brilliance to the bride, then to your several homes depart!
 Surya the child of Savitar mounted for high felicity Her litter with its cloth of gold, wearing all forms of loveliness.
 Rise, mount the bridal bed with cheerful spirit.
Here bring forth children to this man thy husband.
Watchful and understanding like Indrani wake thou before the earliest light of Morning.
 The Gods at first lay down beside their consorts; body with body met in close embracement.
O Dame, like Surya perfect in her grandeur, here rich in future children, meet thy husband.
 Rise and go hence, Visvavasu: with reverence we worship thee.
Steal to her sister dwelling with her father: this is the share mark this of old assigned thee.
 Apsarases rejoice and feast together between the sun and place of sacrificing.
These are thy kith and kin: go thou and join them: I in due season worship thee Gandharva.
 Homage we pay to the Gandharva s favour, obeisance to his eye and fiery anger.
Visvavasu, with prayer we pay thee homage.
Go hence to those Apsarases thy consorts.
 May we be happy with abundant riches.
We from this place have banished the Gandharva.
The God is gone to the remotest region, and we have come where men prolong existence.
 In your due season, Parents! come together.
Mother and sire be ye of future children.
Embrace this woman like a happy lover.
Raise ye up offspring here: increase your riches.
 Send her most rich in every charm, O Pushan, her who shall be the sharer of my pleasures; Her who shall twine her eager arms about me, and welcome all my love and soft embraces.
 Up, happy bridegroom! with a joyous spirit caress thy wife and throw thine arm around her.
Here take your pleasure, procreate your offspring.
May Savitar bestow long life upon you. [p. 143]
 So may the Lord of Life vouchsafe you children, Aryaman bind you, day and night, together.
Enter thy husband s house with happy omens, bring blessing to our quadrupeds and bipeds.
 Sent by the Gods associate with Manu, the vesture of the bride, the nuptial garment, He who bestows this on a thoughtful Brahman, drives from the marriage bed all evil demons.
 The priestly meed wherewith ye twain present me, the vesture of the bride, the nuptial garment, This do ye both, Brihaspati and Indra, bestow with loving kind ness on the Brahman.
 On your soft couch awaking both together, revelling heartily with joy and laughter, Rich with brave sons, good cattle, goodly homestead, live long to look on many radiant mornings.
 Clad in new garments, fragrant, well apparelled, to meet reful gent Dawn have I arisen.
I, like a bird that quits the egg, am freed from sin and purified.
 Splendid are Heaven and Earth, still near to bless us, mighty in their power; The seven streams have flowed: may they, Goddesses, free us from distress
 To Surya and the Deities, to Mitra and to Varuna, Who know aright the thing that is, this adoration have I paid.
 He without ligature, before making incision in the neck.
Closed up the wound again, most wealthy Bounteous Lord who healeth the dissevered parts.
 Let him flash gloom away from us, the blue, the yellow and the red.
I fasten to this pillar here the burning pest Prishataki.
 All witcheries that hang about this garment, all royal Varuna s entangling nooses.
All failure of success and all misfortunes here I deposit fastened to the pillar.
 My body that I hold most dear trembles in terror at this robe.
Tree, make an apron at the top.
Let no misfortune fall on us.
 May all the hems and borders all the threads that form the web and woof. [p. 144] The garment woven by the bride, be soft and pleasant to our touch.
 These maids who from their father s house have come with long ing to their lord have let the preparation pass.
 Her whom Brihaspati hath loosed the Visve Devas keep secure.
With all the splendour that is stored in cows do we enrich this.
 Her whom Brihaspati hath loosed the Visve Devas keep secure.
With all the vigour that is stored in cows do we enrich this girl.
 Her whom Brihaspati, etc.
With all good fortune, etc.
 Her whom Brihaspati, etc.
With all the glory, etc.
 Her whom Brihaspati, etc.
With all the milky store possessed by cows do we enrich this girl.
 Her whom Brihaspati hath freed the Visve Devas keep secure.
With all the store of sap that cows contain do we enrich this.
 If, wearing long loose hair, these men have danced together in thy house, committing sin with shout and cry, May Agni free thee from that guilt, may Savitar deliver thee,
 If in thy house thy daughter here have wept, with wild dishevel led locks, committing sin with her lament.
May Agni, etc.
 If the bride s sisters, if young maids have danced together in thy house, committing sin with shout and cry.
May Agni free thee from that guilt, may Savitar deliver thee.
 If any evil have been wrought by mischief makers that affects thy cattle progeny or house, May Agni free thee from the woe, may Savitar deliver thee.
 This woman utters wish and prayer, as down she casts the husks of corn: Long live my lord and master! yea, a hundred autumns let him live!
 Join thou this couple, Indra! like the Chakravaka and his.
mate: May they attain to full old age with children in their happy home. [p. 145]
 Whatever magic hath been wrought on cushion, chair, or canopy.
Each spell to mar the wedding rites, all this we throw into the bath.
 Whatever fault or error was in marriage or in bridal pomp.
This woe we wipe away upon the cloak the interceder wears.
 We, having laid the stain and fault upon the interceder s cloak, Are pure and meet for sacrifice.
May he prolong our lives for us.
 Now let this artificial comb, wrought with a hundred teeth, remove Aught of impurity that dims the hair upon this woman s head.
 We take away consumption from each limb and member of the bride.
Let not this reach Earth, nor the Gods in heaven, let it not reach the sky or air s wide region.
Let not this dust that sullies reach the Waters, nor Yama, Agni, nor the host of Fathers.
 With all the milk that is in Earth I gird thee, with all the milk that Plants contain I dress thee.
I gird thee round with children and with riches.
Do thou, thus girt, receive the offered treasure.
 I am this man, that dame art thou I am the psalm and thou the verse.
I am the heaven and thou the earth.
So will we dwell together here, parents of children yet to be.
 Unmarried men desire to wed; bountiful givers wish for sons.
Together may we dwell with strength unscathed for high pros perity.
 May they, the Fathers who, to view the bride, have joined this nuptial train, Grant to this lady and her lord children and peaceful happiness.
 Her who first guided by a rein came hither, giving the bride, here offspring and possessions, Let them convey along the future s pathway.
Splendid, with noble children, she hath conquered.
 Wake to long life, watchful and understanding, yea, to a life shall last a hundred autumns Enter the house to be the household s mistress.
A long long life let Savitar vouchsafe thee.
[p. 146] [p. 147] [p. 148]