BOOK XIII (13)
HYMN I (1)
The glorification of Rohita, a form of Fire and of the Sun
 Rise, Mighty One, who liest in the waters, and enter this thy fair and glorious kingdom.
Let Rohita who made this All uphold thee carefully nurtured for supreme dominion.
 The strength that was in waters hath ascended.
Mount over the tribes which thou hast generated.
Creating Soma, waters, plants and cattle, bring hitherward both quadrupeds and bipeds.
 Ye Maruts, strong and mighty, sons of Prisni, with Indra for ally crush down our foemen.
Let Rohita, ye bounteous givers, hear you, thrice seven Maruts who delight in sweetness!
 Up to the lap of births, to lofty places, hath Rohita, the germ of Dames, ascended.
Conjoined with these he found the six realms: seeing his way in front here he received the kingship.
 For thee hath Rohita obtained dominion, scattered thine ene mies, become thy safeguard.
So by the potent Sakvaris let Heaven and Earth be milked to yield thee all thy wishes.
 Rohita gave the Earth and Heavens their being.
There Parameshthin held the cord extended.
Thereon reposeth Aja Ekapada.
He with his might hath stab lished Earth and Heaven.
 Rohita firmly stablished Earth and Heaven: by him was ether fixt by him the welkin.
He measured out mid air and all the regions: by him the Gods found life that lasts for ever.
 Arranging shoots, springs, Rohita considered this Universe in all its forms and phases.
May he, gone up to heaven with mighty glory, anoint thy sov ranty with milk and fatness. [p. 108]
 Thy risings up, thy mountings and ascensions wherewith thou fillest heaven and air s mid region By prayer for these, by milk of these, increasing, in Rohita s kingdom watch, among his people.
 The tribes thy heat produced have followed hither the Calf and Gayatri, the strain that lauds him.
With friendly heart let them approach to serve thee, and the Calf Rohita come with his mother.
 Erected, Rohita hath reached the welkin, wise, young, creating every form and figure.
Agni, refulgent with his heightened lustre, in the third realm hath brought us joy and gladness.
 Thousand horned Bull, may Jatavedas, worshipped with butter, balmed with Soma, rich in heroes, Besought, never quit me; may I never forsake thee.
Give me abundant men and herds of cattle.
 Rohita is the sire and mouth of worship: to him with voice, ear, heart I pay oblation.
To Rohita come Gods with joyful spirit.
May he by risings raise me till I join him.
 Rohita ordered sacrifice for Visvakarman: thence have I obta ined this strength and energy.
May I proclaim thee as my kin over the greatness of the world.
 On thee have mounted Brihati and Pankti.
and Kakup with great splendour, Jatavedas! The cry of Vashat with the voice uplifted and Rohita with seed on thee have mounted.
 He goes into the womb of earth, he robes himself in heaven and air.
He on the Bright One s station hath reached heavenly light and all the worlds.
 To us, Vachaspati, may Earth be pleasant, pleasant our dwelling, pleasant be our couches.
Even here may Prana be our friend: may Agni, O Parameshthin give thee life and splendour.
 And those, Vachaspati, our own five seasons, sacred to Visva karman their creator.
Even here our friend be Prana: Parameshthin, may Rohita vouchsafe the life and splendour. [p. 109]
 Breed, O Vachaspati, joy and understanding, kine i n our stall and children in our consorts.
Even here may Prana be our friend: may Agni, O Parameshthin, give thee life and splendour.
 With splendour let God Savitar, and Agni, with splendour Mitra, Varuna invest thee.
Treading down all Malignities, come hither.
Pleasant and glorious hast thou made this kingdom.
 Rohita, car borne by a speckled leader, thou, pouring water,.
goest on in triumph.
 Golden, refulgent, lofty is the Lady, Rohini, Rohita s devoted Consort.
Through her may we win various spoil and booty, through her be conquerors in every battle.
 Rohita s seat is Rohini before us: that is the path the speckled Mare pursueth.
Kasyapas and Gandharvas lead her upward, and heavenly sages ever watch and guard her,
 Surya s bay steeds refulgent and immortal draw the light rolling.
chariot on for ever.
Drinker of fatness, Rohita, resplendent, hath entered into various coloured heaven,
 Rohita, Bull whose horns are sharply pointed, superior of Agni and of Surya, He who supports the sundered earth and heaven, from him the Gods effect their own creations.
 Rohita rose to heaven from mighty ocean, Rohita rose and clomb all steeps and rises.
 Prepare the Milky One who teems with fatness: she is the Gods never reluctant milch cow.
Indra drink Soma: ours be peace and safety.
Let Agni lead the laud, and chase our foemen.
 Both kindling and inflamed, adored with butter and enhanced thereby.
May conquering Agni, conqueror of all, destroy mine enemies.
 Let him smite down in death and burn the foeman who attacketh me.
Our adversaries we consume through Agni the Carnivorous.
 Beat them down, Indra, with thy bolt, beat them down, mighty with thine arm. [p. 110] I through the energy and force of Agni have secured my foes.
 Cast down our foes beneath our feet, O Agni.
Brihaspati, oppress our rebel kinsman.
Low let them fall, O Indra Agni.
Mitra Varuna, powerless to show their anger.
 Ascending up on high, O God.
O Surya, drive my foes away.
Yea, beat them backward with the stone: to deepest darkness let them go.
 Calf of Viraj, the Bull of prayers and worship, whitebacked, he hath gone up to air s mid region.
Singing, they hymn the Calf, with gifts of butter: him who is Brahma they exalt with Brahma.
 Rise up to earth, rise up to heaven above it; rise up to opulence, rise up to kingship.
Rise up to offspring, rise to life immortal; rise, and with Rohita unite thy body.
 With all the Gods who circle round the Sun, upholding royal sway, With all of these may Rohita accordant, give sovranty to thee with friendly spirit.
 Cleansed by prayer, sacrifices bear thee upward: bay coursers, ever travelling, convey thee.
Thy light shines over sea and billowy ocean.
 Rohita, conqueror of cows and riches and gathered spoil, is heaven s and earth s upholder.
Over earth s greatness would I tell my kinship with thee who hast a thousand births and seven.
 A glorious sight to beasts and men, thou goest glorious to the regions and mid regions.
On earth s, on Aditi s bosom, bright with glory.
Fain would I equal Savitar in beauty.
 Thou, yonder, knowest all things here, when here thou knowest what is there.
From here men see the sphere of light, Surya profoundly wise in heaven.
 A God, thou injurest the Gods: thou movest in the ocean s depth.
Men kindle common Agni: him only the higher sages know.
 Beneath the upper realm, above this lower, bearing her Calf at foot, the Cow hath risen [p. 111] Whitherward, to what place hath she departed? Where doth she calve? Not in this herd of cattle.
 She hath become one footed or two footed, four footed, or eight footed or nine footed, This universe s thousand syllabled Pankti Oceans flow forth from her in all directions.
 Rising to heaven, immortal, hear my calling.
Cleansed by prayer, sacrifices bear thee upward.
Bay coursers, ever on the road, convey thee.
 This, O Immortal One, I know of thee, thy progress to the sky thy dwelling place in loftiest heaven.
 Beyond the sky, beyond the Earth looks Surya, and beyond the floods.
The single eye of all that is; to mighty heaven hath he arisen.
 The earth was made his altar, and the wide expanses were the fence.
There Rohita established both these Agnis, fervent heat and cold.
 He stablished heat and cold, he made the mountains sacrificial posts.
Then both the Agnis, Rohita s who found celestial light, with rain for molten butter, sacrificed.
 Rohita s Agni his who found heaven s light is kindled with the prayer.
From him the heat, from him the cold, from him the sacrifice was born.
 Both Agnis, Rohita s who found the light of heaven made strong by prayer, Waxing by prayer, adored with prayer, by prayer enkindled, sacrificed.
 One is deposited in Truth, one kindled in the waters: both Agnis of Rohita who found the light are set aflame with prayer.
 That decked by Wind, and that prepared by Indra Brahman aspati, Agnis of Rohita who found light, prayer enkindled, sacrificed.
 Rohita made the earth to be his altar, heaven his Dakshina.
Then heat he took for Agni, and with rain for molten butter he created every living thing.
 The earth became an altar, heat was Agni, and the butter rain. [p. 112] There Agni made, by song and hymn, these mountains rise and stand erect.
 Then, having made the hills stand up, Rohita spake to Earth, and said: In thee let every thing be born, what is and what is yet to be.
 This sacrifice, the first of all, the past, the present, had its birth.
From that arose this universe, yea, all this world of brightness, brought by Rohita the heavenly Sage.
 If thou should kick a cow, or by indecent act offend the Sun, Thy root I sever; nevermore mayst thou cast shadow on the ground.
 Thou who, between the fire and me, passest across the line of shade.
Thy root I sever: nevermore mayst thou cast shadow on the ground.
 Whoever he be who, Surya, God! comes between thee and me to day, On him we wipe away ill dream, and troubles, and impurity.
 Let us not, Indra, leave the path, the Soma presser s sacrifice.
Let not malignities dwell with us.
 May we obtain, completely wrought, the thread spun out tc reach the Gods, That perfecteth our sacrifice.
[p. 113] [p. 114]
HYMN II (2)
The glorification of the Sun as Aditya, Surya and Rohita
 Radiant, refulgent in the sky are reared the banners of his light, Aditya s, who beholdeth man, mighty in act and bountiful.
 Let us laud him, the whole world s Herdsman, Surya, who with his rays illumines all the regions, Mark of the quarters, brightening them with lustre, swift, mighty pinioned, flying in the ocean.
 From west to east thou speedest freely, making by magic day and night of diverse colours.
This is Aditya, thy transcendent glory, that thou alone art born through all creation.
 Victorious, inspired, and brightly shining, whom seven strong tawny coloured coursers carry, Whom Atri lifted from the flood to heaven, thus men behold thee as thy course thou runnest.
 Let them not snare thee speeding on thy journey: pass safely, swiftly places hard to traverse, While measuring out the day and night thou movest O Surya, even Heaven and Earth the Goddess.
 Hail to thy rapid car whereon, O Surya, thou circlest in a moment both the limits, Whirled by thy bay steeds, best of all at drawing, thy hundred horses or seven goodly coursers!
 Mount thy strong car, O Surya, lightly rolling, drawn by good steeds, propitious, brightly gleaming, Whirled by thy bays, most excellent at drawing, thy hundred horses or seven goodly coursers.
 Surya hath harnessed to his car to draw him seven stately bay steeds gay with wolden housings.
The Bright One started from the distant region: dispelling gloom the God hath climbed the heavens.
 With lofty banner hath the God gone upward, and introduced the light, expelling darkness.
He hath looked round on all the worlds, the Hero, the son of Aditi, Celestial Eagle. [p. 116]
 Rising, thou spreadest out thy rays, thou nourishest all shapes and forms.
Thou with thy power illumest both the oceans, encompassing all spheres with thy refulgence.
 Moving by magic power to east and westward, these two young creatures, sporting, circle ocean.
One of the pair beholds all living creatures: with wheels of gold the bay steeds bear the other.
 Atri established thee in heaven.
O Surya, to create the month.
So on thou goest, firmly held, heating, beholding all that is.
 As the Calf both his parents so thou joinest both the distant bounds, Surely the Gods up yonder knew this sacred mystery long ago.
 Surya is eager to obtain all wealth that lies along the sea, Great is the course spread out for him, his eastward and his westward path.
 He finishes his race with speed and never turns his thought aside, Thereby he keeps not from the Gods enjoyment of the Drink of Life.
 His heralds bear him up aloft, the God who knoweth all that live, Surya, that all may look on him.
 The Constellations pass away, like thieves, departing in the night.
Before the all beholding Sun.
 His herald rays are seen afar refulgent over the world of men, Like flames of fire that burn and blaze.
 Swift and all beautiful art thou, O Surya, maker of the light, Illuming all the radiant realm.
 Thou goest to the hosts of Gods, thou comest hither to mankind, Hither, all light to behold.
 With that same eye of thine wherewith thou seest, brilliant Varuna.
The active one among mankind,
 Traversing sky and wide mid air, thou metest with thy beams our days, Sun, seeing all things that have life.
 Seven bay steeds harnessed to thy car bear thee, O thou far seeing One, [p. 117] God, Surya, with the radiant hair.
 Surya, hath yoked the pure bright seven, the daughters of the car, with these, His own dear team, he travelleth.
 Devout, aflame with fervent heat, Rohita hath gone up to heaven.
He is re born, returning to his birthplace, and hath become the Gods imperial ruler.
 Dear unto all men, facing all directions, with hands and palms on every side extended, He, the sole God, engendering earth and heaven, beareth them with his wings and arms together.
 The single footed hath outstepped the biped, the biped overtakes the triple footed.
The biped hath outstridden the six footed: these sit around the single footed s body.
 When he, unwearied, fain to go, hath mounted his bays, he makes two colours, brightly shining.
Rising with banners, conquering the regions, thou sendest light through all the floods, Aditya.
 Verily, Surya, thou art great: truly, Aditya, thou art great.
Great is thy grandeur, Mighty One: thou, O Aditya, thou art great.
 In heaven, O Bird, and in mid air thou shinest: thou shinest on the earth and in the waters.
Thou hast pervaded both the seas with splendour: a God art thou, O God, light winner, mighty.
 Soaring in mid course hither from the distance, fleet and ins pired, the Bird that flies above us, With might advancing Vishnu manifested, he conquers all that moves with radiant banner:
 Brilliant, observant, mighty Lord, an Eagle illuming both the spheres and air between them.
Day and the Night, clad in the robes of Surya, spread forth more widely all his hero powers.
 Flaming and radiant, strengthening his body, bestowing floods that promptly come to meet us, He, luminous, winged, mighty, strength bestower, hath mounted all the regions as he forms them. [p. 118]
 Bright presence of the Gods, the luminous herald Surya hath mounted the celestial regions.
Day s maker, he hath shone away the darkness, and radiant, passed over places hard to traverse.
 He hath gone up on high, the Gods bright presence, the eye of Mitra, Varuna and Agni.
The soul of all that moveth not or moveth, Surya hath filled the earth and air and heaven,
 High in the midst of heaven may we behold thee whom men call Savitar, the bright red Eagle, Soaring and speeding on thy way, refulgent, unwasting light which Atri erst discovered.
 Him, Son of Aditi, an Eagle hasting along heaven s height, I supplicate in terror, As such prolong our lengthened life, O Surya: may we, unha rmed, enjoy thy gracious favour.
 This gold hued Hansa s wings, soaring to heaven, spread over a thousand days continued journey Supporting all the Gods upon his bosom, he goes his way behold ing every creature.
 Rohita, in primeval days Prajapati, was, after, Time, Mouth of all sacrifices, he, Rohita, brought celestial light.
 He, Rohita, became the world: Rohita gave the heaven its heat.
Rohita with his beams of light travelled along the earth and sea.
 To all the regions Rohita came, the imperial Lord of heaven.
He watches over ocean, heaven, and earth and all existing things.
 Mounting the lofty ones, he, bright, unwearied, splendidly shining, makes two separate colours, While through all worlds that are he sends his lustre, radiant, observant, mighty, wind approacher.
 One form comes on, the other is reverted: to day and night the Strong One shapes and fits him.
With humble prayer for aid we call on Surya, who knows the way, whose home is in the region.
 The suppliant s way, filling the earth, the Mighty circleth the world with eye that none deceiveth.
May he, all seeing, well disposed and holy, give ear and listen to the word I utter.
 Blazing with light his majesty hath compassed ocean and earth and heaven and air s mid region. [p. 119] May he, all seeing, well disposed and holy, give ear and listen to the word I utter.
 Agni is weakened by the people s fuel to meet the Dawn who cometh like a milch cow, Like young trees shooting up on high their branches, his flames are mounting to the vault of heaven.
HYMN III (3)
A glorification of Rohita.
with a malediction on the man who wrongs a Brahman
 He who engendered these, the earth and heaven, who made the worlds the mantle that he weareth, In whom abide the six wide spreading regions through which the Bird s keen vision penetrateth, This God is wroth offended by the sinner who wrongs the Brahman who hath gained this knowledge Agitate him, O Rohita; destroy him: entangle in thy snares the Brahmana s tyrant.
 He from whom winds blow pure in ordered season, from whom the seas flow forth in all directions, [p. 121] This God, etc.
 He who takes life away, he who bestows it; from whom comes breath to every living creature, This God, etc.
 Who with the breath he draws sates earth and heaven, with expiration fills the ocean s belly, This God, etc.
 In whom Viraj, Prajapati, Parameshthin, Agni Vaisvanara abide with Pankti, He who hath taken to himself the breathing of the Supreme, the vigour of the Highest, This God, etc.
 On whom rest six expenses and five regions, four waters, and three syllables of worship, He who hath looked between both spheres in anger, This God, etc.
 He who, consuming food, became its master, the Lord of Prayer, the Regent of Devotion, The world s Lord, present and to be hereafter, This God, etc.
 He who metes out the thirteenth month, constructed with days and nights, containing thirty members, This God, etc.
 Dark the descent; the strong winged birds are golden: they fly aloft to heaven, enrobed in waters.
They have come hither from the seat of Order, This God, etc.
 What silver.
Kasyapa, thou hast refulgent, what brightly shining lotus flower collected, Wherein are gathered seven Suns together, This God, etc.
 In front the Brihat Saman is his mantle, and from behind Rathantara enfolds him, Ever with care robing themselves in splendour.
This God, etc.
 One of his wings was Brihat, and the other Rathantarr.
vigorous with one same purpose, What time the Gods gave Rohita his being.
This God, etc. [p. 122]
 At evening he is Varuna and Agni, ascending in the morning he is Mitra.
As Savitar, he moves through air s mid region, as Indra warms the heavens from the centre.
This God, etc.
 This gold hued Harisa s wings, soaring to heaven spread over a thousand days continued journey.
Supporting all the Gods upon his bosom, he goes his way behol ding every creature.
This God, etc.
 This is the God who dwells within the waters, the thousand rooted, many powered Atri, He who brought all this world into existence.
This God; etc.
 With flying feet his tawny coursers carry the bright God through, the sky, aglow with splendour.
Whose limbs uplifted fire and heat the heavens: hither he shines with beams of golden colour.
This God, etc.
 He beside whom his bay steeds bear the Adityas, by whom as sacrifice go many knowing.
The sole light shining spread through various places.
This God, etc.
 This seven make the one wheeled chariot ready: bearing seven names the single courser draws it.
The wheel, three naved, is sound and undecaying: thereon these worlds of life are all dependent.
This God, etc.
 Eight times attached the potent Courser draws it, Sire of the Gods, father of hymns and praises.
So Matarisvan, measuring in spirit the thread of Order, purifies all regions.
This God, etc.
 The thread that goes through all celestial quarters within the Gayatri, womb of life eternal.
This God, etc.
 There are the settings, three the upward risings, three are the spaces, yea, and three the heavens.
We know thy triple place of birth, O Agni, we know the deities triple generations. [p. 123]
 He who, as soon as born, laid broad earth open, and set the ocean in the air s mid region, This God, etc.
 Thou, Agni, kind with lights and mental powers, hast up in heaven shone as the Sun, enkindled.
The Maruts, sons of Prisni, sang his praises what time the Gods gave Rohita his being.
This God, etc.
 Giver of breath, giver of strength and vigour, he whose com mandment all the Gods acknowledge, He who is Lord of this, of man and cattle, This God, etc.
 The single footed hath outstepped the biped, the biped overtakes the triple footed.
The quadruped hath wrought when bipeds called him, standing and looking on the five collected.
This God is wroth offended by the sinner that wrongs the Brahman who hath gained this knowledge.
Agitate him, O Rohita; destroy him: entangle in thy snares the Brahman s tyrant.
 Born is the darksome Mother s Son, the whitely shining Calf of Night.
He, Rohita, ascendeth up to heaven, hath mounted to the heights.
HYMN IV (4)
A glorification of the Sun as the only Deity
 Down looking, on the ridge of sky Savitar goes to highest heaven.
 To misty cloud filled with his rays Mahendra goes encompassed round.
 Creator and Ordainer, he is Vayu, he is lifted cloud.
 Rudra, and Mahadeva, he is Aryaman and Varuna.
 Agni is he, and Siirya, he is verily Mahayama.
 Calves, joined, stand close beside him, ten in number, with one single head.
 From west to east they bend their way: when he mounts up he shines afar.
 His are these banded Maruts: they move gathered close like porters thongs. [p. 125]
 To misty cloud filled with his rays Mahendra goes encompassed round,
 His are the nine supports, the casks set in nine several places here.
 He keeppeth watch over creatures, all that breatheth and that breatheth not.
 This conquering might hath entered him, He is the sole the simple One, the One alone.
 In him these Deities become simple and One
 Renown and glory, and force and cloud, the Brahman s splendour, and food, and nourishment,
 To him who knoweth this God as simple and one.
 Neither second, nor third, nor yet fourth is he called;
 He is called neither fifth, nor sixth, nor yet seventh
 He is called neither eighth, nor ninth, nor yet tenth.
 He watcheth over creatures, all that breatheth and that breatheth not.
 This conquering might hath entered him.
He is the sole, the simple One, the One alone,
 In him these Deities become simple and One
 Devotion and Religious Fervour, and renown and glory, and force and cloud, the Brahman s splendour, and food and nourishment.
 And past and future, and Faith and lustre, and heaven and sweet oblation,
 To him who knoweth this God as simple and One.
 He, verily, is death, he is immortality, he is the monster, he is the fiend.
 He is Rudra, winner of wealth in the giving of wealth; in uttering homage he is the sacrificial exclamation Vashat duly employed.
 All sorcerers on earth obey with reverence his high behest.
 All constellations yonder, with the Moon, are subject to his will.
 He was brought forth from Day: and Day derives his origin.
 He was brought forth from Night: and Night derives her origins from him.
 He was produced from Air: and Air derives its origin from him.
 He was produced from Wind: and Wind derives his origin from.
him. [p. 126]
 From Heaven was he produced: and Heaven derives his origin from him.
 He sprang from regions of the sky: from him the heavenly regions sprang.
 He is the offspring of the Earth: Earth hath her origin from him.
 He was produced from fire: and fire derives its origin from him.
 He is the waters offspring: and from him the waters were produced.
 From holy verses was he born: from him the holy verses sprang.
 He is the son of sacrifice: and sacrifice was born from him.
 Sacrifice, sacrifice s Lord, he was made head of sacrifice.
 He thundereth, he lighteneth, he casteth down the thunder stone
 For misery or happiness, for mortal man or Asura.
 Whether thou formest growing plants, or sendest rain for happiness, or hast increased the race of man,
 Such is thy greatness, liberal Lord! A hundred bodily forms are thine.
 Millions are in thy million, or thou art a billion in thyself.
 Stronger than immortality is Indra: stronger thou than deaths;
 Yea, stronger than Malignity art thou, O Indra, Lord of Might.
Calling thee Master, Sovran Chief, we pay our reverence to thee.
 Worship to thee whom all behold! Regard me, thou whom all regard,
 With food, and fame, and vigour, with the splendour of a Brahman s rank
 We pay thee reverence calling thee strength, power, and might, and conquering force.
 We pay thee reverence calling thee red power, the silvery expanse.
 We pay thee reverence calling thee vast, wide, the good, the universe.
 We pay thee reverence, calling thee extension, compass, width, and world.
 We pay thee reverence, calling thee rich, opulent in this and that, with wealth unceasing and secure [p. 127]
 Worship to thee whom all behold! Regard me, thou whom all regard.
 With food, and fame, and vigour, with the splendour of a Brahman s rank.