BOOK XII (12)
HYMN I (1)
A hymn of prayer and praise to Prithivi or deified Earth
 Truth, high and potent Law, the Consecrating Rite, Fervour, Brahma, and Sacrifice uphold the Earth.
May she, the Queen of all that is and is to be, may Prithivi make ample space and room for us.
 Not over awded by the crowd of Manu s sons, she who hath many heights and floods and level plains; She who bears plants endowed with many varied powers, may Prithivi for us spread wide and favour us.
 In whom the sea, and Sindhu, and the waters, in whom our food and corn lands had their being, In whom this all that breathes and moves is active, this Earth.
assign us foremost rank and station!
 She who is Lady of the earth s four regions, in whom our food and corn lands had their being, Nurse in each place of breathing, moving creatures, this Earth.
vouchsafe us kine with milk that fails not!
 On whom the men of old before us battled, on whom the Gods attacked the hostile demons, The varied home of bird, and kine and horses, this Prithivi vouchsafe us luck and splendour!
 Firm standing place, all bearing, store of treasures, gold breasted, harbourer of all that moveth.
May Earth who bears Agni Vaisvanara, Consort of mighty Indra, give us great possessions
 May Earth, may Prithivi, always protected with ceaseless care by Gods who never slumber, May she pour out for us delicious nectar, may she bedew us with a flood of splendour.
 She who at first was water in the ocean, whom with their wond rous powers the sages followed, May she whose heart is in the highest heaven, compassed about wit h truth, and everlasting, [p. 76] May she, this Earth, bestow upon us lustre, and grant us power in loftiest dominion.
 On whom the running universal waters flow day and night with never ceasing motion, May she with many streams pour milk to feed us, may she bedew us with a flood of splendour.
 She whom the Asvins measured out, over whom the foot of Vishnu strode, Whom Indra, Lord of Power and Might, freed from all foemen for himself, May Earth pour out her milk for us, a mother unto me her son.
 O Prithivi, auspicious be thy woodlands, auspicious be thy hills and snow clad mountains.
Unslain, unwounded, unsubdued, I have set foot upon the Earth, On earth brown, black, ruddy and every coloured, on the firm earth that Indra guards from danger.
 O Prithivi, thy centre and thy navel, all forces that have issued from thy body Set us amid those forces; breathe upon us.
I am the son of Earth, Earth is my Mother.
Parjanya is my Sire; may he promote me.
 Earth on whose surface they enclose the altar, and all performers spin the thread of worship; In whom the stakes of sacrifice, resplendent, are fixed and raised on high before the oblation, may she, this Earth, prospering, make us prosper.
 The man who hates us, Earth! who fights against us, who threaten us with thought or deadly weapon, make him our thrall as thou hast done aforetime.
 Produced from thee, on thee move mortal creatures: thou bearest them, both quadruped and biped.
Thine, Prithivi, are these Five human Races, for whom, though mortal, Surya as he rises spreads with his rays the light that is immortal.
 In concert may these creatures yield us blessings.
With honey of discourse, O Earth, endow me.
 Kind, ever gracious be the Earth we tread on, the firm Earth, Prithivi, borne up by Order, mother of plants and herbs, the all producer. [p. 77]
 A vast abode hast thou become, the Mighty.
Great stress is on thee, press and agitation, but with unceasing care great Indra guards thee.
So make us shine, O Earth, us with the splendour of gold.
Let no man look on us with hatred.
 Agni is in the earth, in plants; the waters hold Agni in them, in the stones is Agni.
Agni abideth deep in men: Agnis abide in cows and steeds.
 Agni gives shine and heat in heaven: the spacious air is his, the God s Lover of fatness, bearer of oblation, men enkindle him.
 Dark kneed, invested with a fiery mantle, Prithivi sharpen me and give me splendour!
 On earth they offer sacrifice and dressed oblation to the Gods.
Men, mortals, live upon the earth by food in their accustomed way.
May that Earth grant us breath and vital power.
Prithivi give me life of long duration!
 Scent that hath risen from thee, O Earth, the fragrance which.
growing herbs and plants and waters carry, Shared by Apsarases, shared by Gandharvas therewith make thou me sweet: let no man hate me.
 Thy scent which entered and possessed the lotus, the scent which they prepared at Surya s bridal, Scent which Immortals Earth! of old collected, therewith make thou me sweet: let no man hate me.
 Thy scent in women and in men, the luck and light that is in.
males, That is in heroes and in steeds in sylvan beasts and elephants, The splendid energy of maids, therewith do thou unite us,.
Earth! Let no man look on us with hate.
 Rock earth, and stone, and dust, this Earth is held together,.
To this gold breasted Prithivi mine adoration have I paid.
 Hither we call the firmly held, the all supporting Prithivi, On whom the trees, lords of the wood, stand evermore immov able.
 Sitting at ease or rising up, standing or going on our way.
With our right foot and with our left we will not reel upon the earth. [p. 78]
 I speak to Prithivi the purifier, to patient Earth who groweth strong through Brahma.
O Earth, may we recline on thee who bearest strength, increase, portioned share of food, and fatness.
 Purified for our bodies flow the waters: we bring distress on him who would attack us.
I cleanse myself, O Earth, with that which cleanseth.
 Earth, be thine eastern and thy northern regions, those lying southward and those lying westward.
Propitious unto me in all my movements.
Long as I tread the ground let me not stumble.
 Drive us not from the west or east, drive us not from the north or south, Be gracious unto us, O Earth: let not the robbers find us; keep the deadly weapon far away.
 Long as, on thee, I look around, possessing Surya as a friend, So long, through each succeeding year, let not my power of vision fail.
 When, as I lie, O Earth, I turn upon my right side and my left, When stretched at all our length we lay our ribs on thee who meetest us.
Do us no injury there, O Earth who furnishest a bed for all.
 Let what I dig from thee, O Earth, rapidly spring and grow again.
O Purifier, let me not pierce through thy vitals or thy heart.
 Earth, may thy summer, and thy rains, and autumn, thy winter, and thy dewy frosts, and spring time.
May thy years, Prithivi! and ordered seasons, and day and night pour out for us abundance.
 The purifier, shrinking from the Serpent, she who held fires that lie within the waters, Who gives as prey the God blaspheming Dasyus, Earth choosing Indra for her Lord, not Vritra, hath clung to Sakra, to the Strong and Mighty.
 Base of the seat and sheds, on whom the sacrificial stake is reared, On whom the Yajus knowing priests recite their hymns and chant their psalms, And ministers are busied that Indra may drink the Soma juice; [p. 79]
 On whom the ancient Rishis, they who made the world, sang forth the cows, Seven worshippers, by session, with their fervent zeal and sacrifice;
 May she, the Earth, assign to us the opulence for which we yearn, May Bhaga share and aid the task and Indra come to lead the way.
 May she, the Earth, whereon men sing and dance with varied shout and noise, Whereon men meet in battle, and the war cry and the drum resound, May she drive off our foemen, may Prithivi rid me of my foes.
 On whom is food, barley and rice, to whom these Races Five belong, Homage to her, P arjanya s wife, to her whose marrow is the rain!
 Whose castles are the work of Gods, and men wage war upon her plain The Lord of Life make Prithivi, who beareth all things in her womb, pleasant to us on every side!
 May Earth the Goddess, she who bears her treasure stored up in many a place, gold, gems, and riches, Giver of opulence, grant great possessions to us bestowing them with love and favour.
 Earth, bearing folk of many a varied language with divers rites as suits their dwelling places, Pour, like a constant cow that never faileth, a thousand streams of treasure to enrich me!
 Thy snake, thy sharply stinging scorpion, lying concealed, be wildered, chilled with cold of winter, The worm, O Prithivi, each thing that in the Rains revives and stirs, Creeping, forbear to creep on us! With all things gracious bless thou us.
 Thy many ways on which the people travel, the road for car and wain to journey over, Thereon meet both the good and bad, that pathway may we attain without a foe or robber.
With all things gracious bless thou us. [p. 80]
 Supporting both the foolish and the weighty she bears the death both of the good and evil.
In friendly concord with the boar, Earth opens herself for the wild swine that roams the forest.
 All sylvan beasts of thine that love the woodlands, man eaters,.
forest haunting, lions, tigers, Hyena, wolf, Misfortune, evil spirit, drive from us, chase the demons to a distance.
 Gandharvas and Apsarases, Kimidins, and malignant sprites, Pisachas all, and Rakshasas, these keep thou, Earth! afar from us.
 To whom the winged bipeds fly together, birds of each various kind, the swans, the eagles; On whom the Wind comes rushing, Matarisvan, rousing the dust and causing trees to tremble, and flame pursues the blast.
hither and thither;
 Earth, upon whom are settled, joined together, the night and day, the dusky and the ruddy, Prithivi compassed by the rain about her, Happily may she stablish us in each delightful dwelling place.
 Heaven, Earth, the realm of Middle Air have granted me this ample room, Agni, Sun, Waters, all the Gods have joined to give me mental power.
 I am victorious, I am called the lord superior on earth, Triumphant, all overpowering the conqueror on every side
 There, when the Gods, O Goddess, named thee, spreading thy wide expanse as thou wast broadening eastward, Then into thee passed many a charm and glory: thou madest for thyself the world s four regions.
 In hamlets and in woodland, and in all assemblages on earth, In gatherings, meeting of the folk, we will speak glorious things of thee.
 As the horse scattereth the dust, the people who dwelt upon the land, at birth, she scattered, Leader and head of all the world, delightful, the trees protectress and the plants upholder.
 Whatever I say I speak with honey sweetness, whatever I behold for that they love me.
Dazzling, impetuous am I: others who fiercely stir I slay. [p. 81]
 Mild, gracious, sweetly odorous, milky, with nectar in her breast, May Earth, may Prithivi bestow her benison, with milk, on me.
 Whom Visvakarman with oblation followed, when she was set in mid air s billowy ocean A useful vessel, hid, when, for enjoyment, she was made mani fest to those with mothers.
 Thou art the vessel that containeth people, Aditi, granter of the wish, far spreading.
Prajapati, the first born Son of Order, supplieth thee with what soever thou lackest.
 Let thy breasts, frec from sickness and Consumption, be.
Prithivi, produced for our advantage.
Through long extended life wakeful and watching still may we be thy tributary servants.
 O Earth, my Mother, set thou me happily in a place secure.
Of one accord with Heaven, O Sage, set me in glory and in wealth.
HYMN II (2)
A funeral hymn, and deprecation of Agni the Consumer of corpses
 This is no place to hold thee; mount the Nada; this lead is thine appointed share.
Together with Consumption in the cattle, Consumption in our men, go henee, go southward.
 With this we chase and banish all consumptive malady and Death, With sinner andamalicious man, with helper and with minister,
 Death and Misfortune we expel, Malignity we drive away.
O Agni, thou who eatest not the corpse, eat him who hateth us: him whom we hate we send to thee. [p. 83]
 If the corpse eating Agni, or a tiger leaving his lair, hath entered this our homestead, With beans prepared in butter I expel him: far let him go to fires that lie in waters.
 When, angered that a man hath died, we in our wrath have banished thee, That deed is easily set right through thee: we kindle thee again.
 Again have the Adityas, Rudras, Vasus, the Brahman, bringer of good things, O Agni, Again hath Brahmanaspati disposed thee for long life lasting through a hundred autumns.
 I sweep afar, for sacrifice to Fathers, corpse eating Agni who hath come among us, Although he saw this other, Jatavedas: in loftiest space let him inflame the caldron.
 I drive corpse eating Agni to a distance: sin laden let him go to Yamas vassals.
Here let this other, Jatavedas, carry oblation to the Deities, fore knowing.
 I quickly sweep away corpse eating Agni, Death, with his bolt potdepriving men of motion.
From household fire, well knowing, I divide him: so in the world of Fathers be his portion.
 Corpse eating Agni, toil worn, meet for praises, I send away bypaths used by the Fathers.
Stay there; keep watch among the Fathers: come not again to us by ways whereon Gods travel.
 They being cleansed and bright, the purifiers, kindle Sankasuka for our well being.
Impurity leaveth us and sin departeth: lighted by the good cleanser Agni cleanseth.
 Agni the God, the Breaker up, hath mounted to the heights of heaven.
Released from all transgression, he hath from the curse delivered us.
 On Agni here, the Breaker up, we wipe impurities away.
Cleansed, fit for sacrifice have we become: may he prolong our lives.
 The Breaker up, the Burster, the Destroyer, and the Silent One, [p. 84] These have expelled Consumption far, far off from thee and all thou hast,
 Corpse eating Agni we expel, the Agni who bewilders men, Him who is in our horses, in our heroes, cows, and goats, and sheep:
 We drive thee forth to other folk, to alien cattle, alien steeds, Thee the corpse eating Agni, thee the Agni who bewilders men,
 Whereon the Deities, whereon men too have purified themselves, Exalting fatness, cleanse thyself, Agni, therein and mount to heaven.
 O Agni, kindled and adored, turn not away to visit us.
Shine brightly even there in heaven, so that we long may see the Sun.
 Wipe all away on lead and reed, on Agni, him who breaketh up, Then on a black hued sheep, and on a cushion pain that racks.
 Wipe off pollution, lay it in the lead and in the black hued sheep, And headache in the cushion; then be cleansed and fit to sacri fice.
 Go onward, Death, pursue thy special pathway apart from that which Gods are wont to travel.
To thee I say it who hast eyes and hearest: great grow the number of these men around us!
 Divided from the dead are these, the living: now is our calling on the Gods successful.
We have gone forth for dancing and for laughter: may we with brave sons speak to the assembly.
 Here I erect this rampart for the living: let none of these, none other, reach this limit.
May they survive a hundred lengthened autumns, and may they bury Death beneath this mountain.
 Live your full lives and find age delightful, all of you striving, one behind the other.
May Tvashtar, maker of fair things, be gracious, and lead your whole lives on to full existence.
 As the days follow days in close succession, as with the seasons duly come the seasons.
As each successor fails not his foregoer, so constitute the lives of these, Ordainer! [p. 85]
 Gather your strength, my friends; the stream flows stony: acquit yourselves as men, and cross the river.
Abandon here the powers that were malignant, and let us cross to powers exempt from sickness.
 Rise up erect, cross over, my companions: the stream is stony that flows here before us.
Abandon here the powers that were ungracious, and let us cross to powers benign and friendly.
 Becoming pure and bright and purifying begin the Vaisvadevi strain for splendour.
May we rejoice, overpassing troublous places, with all our heroes through a hundred winters.
 On pathways swept by wind, directed upward, passing beyond the lower, on the higher, Thrice seven times have the Rishis, the Departed, forced Mrityu backward with the fastened fetter.
 Effecting Mrityu s footstep ye came hither, to further times pro longing your existence, Seated, drive Mrityu to his proper dwelling: then may we, living, speak to the assembly.
 Let these unwidowed dames with goodly husbands adorn them selves with fragrant balm and unguent, Decked with fair jewels, tearless, sound and healthy, first let the dames go up to where he lieth.
 I with oblation separate both classes, and with my prayer dis part their several portions.
I offer food that wastes not to the Fathers, a nd to these men give life of long duration.
 That Agni, Fathers! who, himself immortal, hath entered and possessed our mortal bosoms, Even him I grasp and hold the God with me, Let him not hate us, may we never hate him.
 When ye have left the household fire, with the Corpse eater southward go.
Do that which is delightful to the Fathers, Brahmans, and your selves.
 Agni, the banqueter on flesh, not banished, for the eldest son Taketh a double share of wealth and spoileth it with poverty.
 What man acquires by plough, by war, all that he wins by toil of hand, [p. 86] He loses all if Agni the Carnivorous be not set aside,
 Unholy, splendour reft is he, his sacrifice unfit to eat.
Krayad deprives of tilth of cow, of riches him whom he pursues,
 Oft as a greedy beggar speaks the mortal who has brought distress, Those whom Carnivorous Agni close at hand runs after and detects.
 When a dame s husband dies the house is tangled in Grahi s net.
A learned Brahman must be sought to drive Carnivorous Agni, forth.
 From any evil we have done, act of impurity or sin, Let waters purge me and from all that comes from Agni Breaker up.
 By pathways travelled by the Gods these waters, well knowing, from below have mounted upward.
High on the summit of the raining mountain the ancient rivers fresh and new are flowing.
 Drive off Carnivorous Agni, thou Agni who eatest not the flesh;.
carry oblation paid to Gods.
 The Flesh eater hath entered him: he hath pursued the Flesh eater.
Making two tigers different wise, I bear away the ungracious one.
 He who holds Gods within himself, the rampart and defence of men, Agni, the sacred household fire, hath come and stands between them both.
 Prolong the lives of those who live, O Agni, Let the dead go unto world of Fathers.
As goodly household fire burn up Arati; give this man dawn brighter than all the mornings.
 Subduing all our adversaries, Agni, give us their food, their strength and their possessions.
 Grasp ye this Indra, furtherer, satisfier: he will release you from disgrace and trouble.
With him drive back the shaft that flies against you, with him.
ward off the missile shot by Rudra.
 Seize with firm hold the Ox who boundeth forward: he will uplift you from disgrace and trouble. [p. 87] Enter this ship of Savitar; let us flee from poverty over all the six expenses.
 Thou followest the day and night, supporting, standing, at peace, promoting, rich in heroes.
Long bearing undiseased and happy sleepers, be ours, O Bed, with smell of man about thee,
 They sever from the Gods, they live in sin and misery evermore, Those whom from very near at hand Carnivorous Agni casteth down as a horse tramples down the reeds.
 The faithless, who from lust of wealth abide with him who feeds on flesh, For ever set upon the fire an alien caldron, not their own.
 Forward in spirit would he fly, and often turns he back again, Whomso Carnivorous Agni from anear discovers and torments.
 Among tame beasts the black ewe is thy portion, and the bright lead is thine, they say, Flesh eater! Mashed beans have been assigned thee for oblation go seek the dark wood and the wildernesses.
 I sought the rustling sugar cane, white Seasamum, and cane and reed.
I made this Indra s fuel, and the Fire of Yama I removed.
 Against the sinking western Sun I set them; each sundered path, knowing my way, I entered.
I have warned off the ghosts of the Departed: to these I give the boon of long existence.
HYMN III (3)
An accompaniment to the preparation and presentation of sacrificial offerings by a householder and his wife, with prayer for prosperity and happiness on earth and in heaven
 Mount, male from male, the skin.
Go thither: summon those whom thou lovest, one and all, to meet thee, Strong as ye were when first ye met each other, still be your strength the same in Yama s kingdom.
 So strong your sight, so many be your powers, so great your force, your energies so many, When fire attends the body as its fuel, then may, ye gain full chargers, O ye couple.
 Together in this world, in God ward pathway, together be ye in the realms of Yama.
Invite, made pure with means of purifying, whatever seed of yours hath been developed.
 Do ye, O sons, unite you with the waters, meeting this living man, ye life sustainers, Allot to them the Odana your mother is making ready, which they call immortal.
 That which your mother and your sire, to banish sin and un cleanness from their lips, are cooking.
That Odana with hundred streams, sky reaching, hath in its might prevaded earth and heaven.
 Live with your sons, when life on earth is ended, live in the sphere most rich in light and sweetness.
In skies that have been won by sacrificers make both the worlds, earth, heaven, your habitation.
 Approach the eastern, yea: the eastern region, this is the sphere to which the faithful turn them, Your cooked oblation that in fire was offered, together, wife and husband, meet to guard it. [p. 90]
 Now, as your steps approach the southern quarter, move in.
your circling course about this vessel.
Herein, accordant with the Fathers, Yama shall mightily protect your cooked oblation.
 Best of the regions is indeed this western wherein the King and gracious Lord is Soma.
Thither resort for rest, follow the pious.
Then gain the laden chargers, O ye couple.
 Ever victorious is the northern region: may the east quarter set us first and foremost.
The Man became the five divisioned metre.
May we abide wit
all our members perfect.
 This stedfast realm is Queen.
To her be homage! To me and to my sons may she be gracious.
Guard thou, O Goddess Aditi, all bounteous, our cooked oblation as an active warder.
 Embrace us as a father clasps his children.
Here on the Earth let kindly breezes fan us.
Let the rice mess these two cook here, O Goddess, know this our truthfulness and zealous fervour.
 If the dark bird hath come to us and, stealing the hanging.
morsel, settled in his dwelling, Or if the slave girl hath, wet handed, smearing the pestle and the mortar, cleansed the waters,
 This pressing stone, broad based and strength bestowing, made pure by cleansing means, shall chase the demon.
Mount on the skin: afford us great protection, Let not the sons sin fall on wife and husband.
 Together with the Gods, banning Pis5chas and demons, hath Vanaspati come hither.
He shall rise up and send his voice out loudly.
May we win all the worlds with him to help us.
 Seven victims held the sacrificial essence, the bright one and the one that hath grown feeble.
The three and thirty Deities attend them.
As such, conduct us io the world of Svarga.
 Unto the world of Svarga shalt thou lead us: there may we dwell beside our wife and children.
I take thy hand Let not Destruction, let not Malignity come hither and subdue us. [p. 91]
 We have subdued that sinful hearted Grahi.
Thou shalt speak sweetly having chased the darkness.
Let not the wooden gear made ready fail us, nor harm the grain of rice that pays due worship.
 Soon to be, decked with butter, all embracing, come to this world wherewith birth unites thee.
Seize thou the winnowing fan which rains have nourished, and let this separate the chaff and refuse.
 Three worlds hath Power Divine marked out and measured, Heaven yonder, and the earth, and airs mid region.
Grasp ye the stalks and in your hands retain them: let them be watered and again be winnowed.
 Manifold, various are the shapes of victims.
Thou growest uni form by great abundance.
Push thou away this skin of ruddy colour: the stone will cleanse as one who cleanses raiment.
 Earth upon earth l set thee.
This thy body is con substantial,.
but in form it differs.
Whatever hath been worn off or scratched in fixing, leak not thereat: I spread a charm to mend it.
 Thou for thy son shalt yearn as yearns a mother.
I lay thee down and with the earth unite thee.
Conjoined with sacrificial gear and butter may pot and jar stand firmly on the altar.
 Eastward may Agni as he cooks preserve thee.
Southward may Indra, grit by Maruts, guard thee, Varuna strengthen and support thee westward, and Soma on the north hold thee together.
 Drops flow, made pure by filters, from the rain cloud: to heaven and earth and to the worlds they travel, May Indra light them up, poured in the vessel, lively and sted fast, quickening living creatures.
 From heaven they come, they visit earth, and rising from earth unite themselves with air s mid region, Purified, excellent, they with shine in beauty.
Thus may they lead us to the world of Svarga.
 Yea, and supreme, alike in conformation, and brilliant and refulgent and immortal, As such, enjoined, well guarding, water givers, dress ye the Odana for wife and husband. [p. 92]
 Numbered, they visit earth, these drops of moisture, commensu rate with plants and vital breathings, Unnumbered, scattered, beautiful in colour, the bright, ones have pervaded all refulgence.
 Heated, they rage and boil in agitation, they cast about their foam and countless bubbles Like a fond woman when she sees her husband what time ye waters and these rice grains mingle,
 Take up these rice grains lying at the bottom: led them be blent and mingled with the waters.
This water I have measured in the vessel, if as mid points the rice grains have been meted.
 Present the sickle: quickly bring it hither.
Let them out plants and joints with hands that harm not.
So may the plants be free from wrath against us, they over whose realm Soma hath won dominion.
 Strew ye fresh grass for the boiled rice to rest on: fair let it be, sweet to the eye and spirit.
Hither come Goddesses with Gods, and sitting here taste in proper season this oblation.
 On the strewn grass.
Vanaspati, be seated; commensurate with Gods and Agnishtomas.
Let thy fair form, wrought as by Tvashtar s hatchet, mark these that yearn for thee within the vessel.
 In sixty autumns may the Treasure Guardian seek to gain heavenly light by cooked oblation.
On this may sons and fathers live dependent.
Send thou this mess to Fire that leads to heaven.
 On the earth s breast stand firmly as supporter: may Deities stir thee who never hast shaken.
So living man and wife with living children remove thee from the hearth of circling Agni.
 All wishes that have blessed those with fulfilment, having won all the worlds have met together.
Let them plunge in both stirring spoon and ladle: raise this and set it in a single vessel.
 Pour out the covering butter, spread it eastward: sprinkle this vessel over with the fatness.
Greet this, ye Deities, with gentle murmur, as lowing cows wel come their tender suckling. [p. 93]
 Thou hast poured oil and made the worlds: let heaven, unequal led, be spread out in wide extension.
Herein be cooked the buffalo, strong pinioned: the Gods shall give the Deities this oblation.
 Whatever thy wife, away from thee, makes ready, or what, O wife, apart from thee, thy husband, Combine it all: let it be yours in common while ye produce one world with joint endeavour.
 All these now dwelling on the earth, mine offspring, these whom, this woman here, my wife, hath borne me, Invite them all unto the vessel: knowing their kinship have the children met together.
 Swollen with savoury meath, the stream of treasures, sources of immortality blent with fatness Soma retains all these; in sixty autumns the Guardian Lord of Treasures may desire them.
 The Lord of Treasures may desire this treasure: lordless on.
every side be all the others.
Our mess, presented seeking heaven, hath mounted in three divisions all three realms of Svarga.
 May Agni burn the God denying demon: let no carnivorous.
Pisacha drink here.
We drive him off, we keep him at a distance.
Adityas and Angirases pursue him!
 This meath do I announce, mingled with butter, to the Angirases and the Adityas.
With pure hands never laid roughly on a Brahman go, pious.
couple, to the world of Svarga.
 Of this have I obtained the noblest portion from that same world whence Parmeshthin gained it.
Pour forth, besprinkle butter rich in fatness: the share of Angiras is here before us.
 To Deities, to Truth, to holy Fervour this treasure we consign,.
this rich deposit, At play, in meeting led it not desert us, never give out to anyone besides me.
 I cook the offering, I present oblation: only my wife attends the holy service.
A youthful world, a son hath been begotten.
Begin a life that brings success and triumph. [p. 94]
 There is no fault in this, no reservation, none when it goes with friends in close alliance.
We have laid down this vessel in perfection: the cooked mess shall re enter him who cooked it.
 To those we love may we do acts that please them.
Away to darkness go all those who hate us! Cow, ox, and strength of every kind approach us! Thus let them banish death of human beings.
 Perfectly do the Agnis know each other, one visitor of plants and one of rivers, And all the Gods who shine and glow in heaven.
Gold is the light of him who cooks oblation.
 Man hath received this skin of his from nature: of other animals not one is naked.
Ye make him clothe himself with might for raiment.
Odana s mouth is a home woven vesture.
 Whatever thou may say at dice, in meeting, whatever falsehood through desire of riches, Ye two, about one common warp uniting, deposit all impurity within it.
 Win thou the rain: approach the Gods.
Around thee thou from the skin shalt make the smoke rise upward.
Soon to be, decked with butter, all embracing, come to this world wherewith one birth unites thee.
 In many a shape hath heaven transformed its body, as in itself is known, of varied eolour.
Cleansing the bright, the dark form hath it banished: the red form in the fire to thee I offer.
 To the eastern region, to Agni the Regent, to Asita the Protector, Aditya the Archer, we present thee, this offering of ours.
Do ye preserve it from aggression To full old age may Destiny conduct us; may full old age deliver us to Mrityu.
Then may we be with our prepared oblation.
 To the southern region, to Indra the Regent, to Tiraschiraji the Protector, to Yama the Archer, we present, etc.
(as in stanza 55)
 To the western region, to Varuna the Regent, to Pridaku the Protector, to Food the Archer, we present, etc.
 To the northern region, to Soma the Regent, to Svaja the Protector, to Thunderbolt the Archer, we present, etc. [p. 95]
 To the stedfast region, to Vishnu the Regent, to Kalmashagriva the Protector, to Plants the Archers, we present, etc.
 To the upper region, to Brihaspati the Regent, to Svitra the Protector, to Rain the Archer, we present thee, this offering of ours.
Do ye preserve it from aggression.
To full old age may Destiny conduct us, may full old age deliver us to Mrityu.
Then may we be with our prepared oblation.
HYMN IV (4)
On the duty of giving cows to Brahmans, and the sin and danger of withholding the gift
 Give the gift, shall be his word: and straightway they have bound the Cow For Brahman priests who beg the boon.
That bringeth sons and progeny.
 He trades and traffics with his sons, and in his cattle suffers loss.
Who will not give the Cow of Gods to Rishis children when they beg.
 They perish through a hornless cow, a lame cow sinks them in a pit.
Through a maimed cow his house is burnt: a one eyed cow destroys his wealth.
 Fierce fever where her droppings fall attacks the master of the kine.
So have they named her Vasa, for thou art called uncontrollable.
 The malady Viklindu springs on him from ground whereon she stands, And suddenly, from fell disease, perish the men on whom she sniffs.
 Whoever twitches up her ears is separated from the Gods.
He deems he makes a mark, but he diminishes his wealth thereby.
 If to his own advantage one applies the long hair of her tail, [p. 98] His colts, in consequence thereof.
die, and the wolf destroys his calves.
 If, while her master owneth her, a carrion crow hath harmed her hair, His young boys die thereof, Decline overtakes them after fell disease.
 What time the Dasi woman throws lye on the droppings of the Cow, Misshapen birth arises thence, inseparable from that sin.
 For Gods and Brahmans is the Cow produced when first she springs to life, Hence to the priests must she be given: this they call guarding private wealth.
 The God created Cow belongs to those who come to ask for her.
They call it outrage on the priests when one retains her as his own.
 He who withholds the Cow of Gods from Rishis sons who ask the gift Is made an alien to the Gods, and subject to the Brahmans wrath:
 Then let him seek another Cow, whatever his profit be in this.
The Cow, not given, harms a man when he denies her at their prayer.
 Like a rich treasure stored away in safety is the Brahmans Cow.
Therefore men come to visit her, with whomsoever she is born.
 So when the Brahmans come unto the Cow they come unto their own.
For this is her withholding, to oppress these in another life.
 Thus after three years may she go, speaking what is not under stood.
He, Narads! would know the Cow, then Brahmans must be sought unto.
 Whoso calls her a worthless Cow, the stored up treasure of the Gods, Bhava and Sarva, both of them, move round and shoot a shaft at him.
 The man who hath no knowledge of her udder and the teats thereof, [p. 99] She yields him milk with these, if he hath purposed to bestow the Cow.
 If he withholds the Cow they beg, she lies rebellious in his stall.
Vain are the wishes and the hopes which he, withholding her, would gain.
 The Deities have begged the Cow, using the Brahman as their mouth: The man who gives her not incurs the enmity of all the Gods.
 Withholding her from Brahmans, he incurs the anger of the beasts, When mortal man appropriates the destined portion of the Gods.
 If hundred other Brahmans beg the Cow of him who owneth her, The Gods have said, She, verily, belongs to him who knows the truth.
 Whoso to others, not to him who hath this knowledge, gives the Cow, Earth, with the Deities, is hard for him to win and rest upon.
 The Deities begged the Cow from him with whom at first she was produced: Her, this one, Narada would know: with Deities he drove her forth.
 The Cow deprives of progeny and makes him poor in cattle who Retains in his possession her whom Brahmans have solicited.
 For Agni and for Soma, for Kama, Mitra and Varuna, For these the Brahmans ask: from these is he who giveth not estranged.
 Long as her owner hath not heard, himself, the verses, let her move Among his kine: when he hath heard, let her not make her home with him;
 He who hath heard her verses and still makes her roam among his kine.
The Gods in anger rend away his life and his prosperity
 Roaming in many a place the Cow is the stored treasure of the Gods, Make manifest thy shape and form when she would seek her dwelling place. [p. 100]
 Her shape and form she manifests when she would seek her dwelling place; Then verily the Cow attends to Brahman priests and their request.
 This thought he settles in his mind.
This safely goeth to the Gods.
Then verily the Brahman priests approach that they may beg the Cow
 By Svadha to the Fathers, by sacrifice to the Deities, By giving them the Cow, the Prince doth not incur the mother s.
 The Prince s mother is the Cow: so was it ordered from of old.
She, when bestowed upon the priests, cannot be given back, they say.
 As molten butter, held at length, drops down to Agni from the scoop, So falls away from Agni he who gives no Cow to Brahman priests.
 Good milker, with rice cake as calf, she in the world comes nigh to him, To him who gave her as a gift the Cow grants every hope and.
 In Yama s realm the Cow fulfils each wish for him who gave her up; But hell, they say, is for the man who, when they beg, bestow her not.
 Enraged against her owner roams the Cow when she hath been impregned.
He deemed me fruitless is her thought; let him be bound in, snares of Death!
 Whoever looking on the Cow as fruitless, cooks her flesh at home, Brihaspati compels his sons and children of his sons to beg.
 Downward she sends a mighty heat, though amid kine a Cow she roams.
Poison she yields for him who owns and hath not given her away.
 The animal is happy when it is bestowed upon the priests: But happy is the Cow when she is made a sacrifice to Gods.
 Narada chose the terrible Vilipti out of all the cows Which the [p. 101] Gods formed and framed when they had risen up from sacri fice
 The Gods considered her in doubt whether she were a Cow or not.
Mirada spake of her and said, The veriest Cow of cows is she.
 How many cows, O Narada, knowest thou, born among man kind I ask thee who dost know, of which must none who is no Brahman eat?
 Vilipti, cow, and she who drops no second calf, Brihaspati! Of these none not a Brahmana should eat if he hope for emi nence.
 Homage, O Narada, to thee who hast quick knowledge of the cows.
Which of these is the direst, whose withholding bringeth death to man?
 Vilipti, O Brihaspati, cow, mother of no second calf Of these none not a Brahman should eat if he hope for eminence.
 Threefold are kine, Vilipti, cow, the mother of no seeond calf: These one should give to priests, and he will not offend Prajapati.
 This Brahmans! is your sacrifice: thus should one think when he is asked, What time they beg from him the Cow fearful in the with holder s house.
 He gave her not to us, so spake the Gods, in anger, of the Cow.
With these same verses they addressed Bheda: this brought him to his death.
 Solicited by Indra, still Bheda refused to give this Cow.
In strife for victory the Gods destroyed him for that sin of his.
 The men of evil counsel who advise refusal of the Cow, Miscreants, through their foolishness, are subjected to Indra s wrath.
 They who seduce the owner of the Cow and say, Bestow her not.
Encounter through their want of sense the missile shot by Rudra s hand.
 If in his home one cooks the Cow, sacrificed or not sacrificed.
Wronger of Gods and Brahmans he departs, dishonest, from the world.
HYMN V (5)
On the duty of giving cows to Brahmans, and the sin and danger of withholding the gift
 Created by toil and holy fervour, found by devotion, resting in right;
 Invested with truth, surrounded with honour, compassed about with glory;
 Girt round with inherent power, fortified with faith, protected, by consecration, installed at sacrifice, the world her resting place;
 Brahma her guide, the Brahman her lord and ruler;
 Of the Kshatriya who taketh to himself this Brahman s cow and oppresseth the Brahman.
 The glory, the heroism, and the favouring fortune depart.
 The energy and vigour, the power and might the speech and mental strength, the glory and duty;
 Devotion and princely sway, kingship and people, brilliance and honour, and splendour and wealth;
 Long life and goodly form, and name and fame, inbreathing and expiration, and sight, and hearing;
 Milk and flavour, and food and nourishment, and right and truth, and action and fulfilment, and children and cattle;
 All these blessings of a Kshatriya depart from him when he oppresseth the Brahman and taketh to himself the hhman s cow.
 Terrible is she this Brahman s cow, and fearfully venomous, visibly witchcraft.
 In her are all horrors and all death.
 In her are all dreadful, deeds, all slaughters of mankind.
 This, the Brahman s cow, being appropriated, holdeth bound in the fetter of Death the oppressor of the Brahman, the blas phemer of the Gods.
 A hundred killing bolt is she: she slays the Brahman s injurer.
 Therefore the Brahmans cow is held inviolable by the wise.
 Running she is a thunderbolt, when driven away she is Vaisvanara;
 An arrow when she draweth up her hooves, and Mahadeva when she looketh around;
 Sharp as a razor when she beholdeth, she thundereth when she belloweth. [p. 104]
 Death is she when she loweth, and a fierce God when she whis keth her tail;
 Utter destruction when she moveth her ears this way and that, Consumption when she droppeth water;
 A missile when milking, pain in the head when milked;
 The taking away of strength when she approacheth, a hand to hand fighter when roughly touched;
 Wounding like an arrow when she is fastened by her mouth, contention when she is beaten;
 Fearfully venomous when falling, darkness when she hath fallen down.
 Following him, the Brahman s cow extinguisheth the vital breath of the injurer of the Brahman.
 Hostility when being cut to pieces, woe to children when the portions are distributed,
 A destructive missile of Gods when she is being seized, misfortune when carried away;
 Misery while being additionally acquired, contumely and abuse while being put in the stall;
 Poison when in agitation, fever when seasoned with condi ments;
 Sin while she is cooking, evil dream when she is cooked;
 Uprooting when she is being turned round, destruction when she hath been turned round;
 Discord by her smell, grief when she is being eviscerated: ser pent with poison in its fang when drawn;
 Loss of power while sacrificially presented, humiliation when she hath been offered;
 Wrathful Sarva while being carved. Simida when cut up:
 Poverty while she is being eaten. Destruction when eaten.
 The Brahman s cow when eaten cuts off the injurer of Brahmans both from this world and from the world yonder.
 Her slaughter is the sin of witchcraft, her cutting up is a thunder bolt, her undigested grass is a secret spell.
 Homelessness is she when denied her rights.
 Having become Flesh eating Agni the Brahman s cow entereth into and devoureth the oppressor of Brahmans.
 She sunders all his members, joints, and roots.
 She cuts off relationship on the father s side and destroys mater nal kinship. [p. 105]
 The Brahman s cow, not restored by a Kshatriya, ruins the marriages and all the kinsmen of the Brahman s oppressor.
 She makes him houseless, homeless, childless: he is extinguished without posterity to succeed him.
So shall it be with the Kshatriya who takes to himself the cow of the Brahmana who hath this knowledge.
 Quickly, when he is smitten down by death, the clamorous vul tures cry:
 Quickly around his funeral fire dance women with dishevelled locks, Striking the hand upon the breast and uttering their evil shriek.
 Quickly the wolves are howling in the habitation where he lived:
 Quickly they ask about him, What is this? What thing hath happened here?
 Rend, rend to pieces, rend away, destroy, destroy him utterly.
 Destroy Angirasi! the wretch who robs and wrongs the Brahmanas, born.
 Of evil womb, thou witchcraft hid, for Vaisvadevi is thy name,
 Consuming, burning all things up, the thunderbolt of spell and charm.
 Go thou, becoming Mrityu sharp as razor s edge pursue thy course:
 Thou bearest off the tyrants strength, their store of merit, and their prayers.
 Bearing off wrong, thou givest in that world to him who hath been wronged.
 O Cow, become a tracker through the curse the Brahman hath pronounced,
 Become a bolt, an arrow through his sin, be terribly venomous.
 O Cow, break thou the head of him who wrongs the Brahmans, criminal, niggard, blasphemer of the Gods.
 Let Agni burn the spiteful wretch when crushed to death and slain by thee.
 Rend, rend to bits, rend through and through, scorch and con sume and burn to dust,
 Consume thou, even from the root, the Brahmans tyrant, god like Cow!
 That he may go from Yama s home afar into the worlds of sin.
its [p. 106]
 So, Goddess Cow, do thou from him, the Brahmans tyrant, criminal, niggard, blasphemer of the Gods,
 With hundred knotted thunderbolt, sharpened and edged with razor blades,
 Strike off the shoulders and the head.
 Snatch thou the hair from off his head, and from his body strip the skin:
 Tear out his sinews, cause his flesh to fall in pieces from his frame.
 Crush thou his bones together, strike and beat the marrow out of him.
 Dislocate all his limbs and joints.
 From earth let the Carnivorous Agni drive him, let Vayu burn.
him from mid air s broad region.
 From heaven let Surya drive him and consume him.