BOOK X (10)
HYMN I (1)
A charm against witchcraft
 Afar let her depart: away we drive her whom, made with hands, all beautiful, Skilled men prepare and fashion like a bride amid her nuptial train.
 Complete, with head and nose and ears, all beauteous, wrought with magic skill Afar let her depart: away we drive her.
 Made by a Sudra or a Prince, by priests or women let her go.
Back to her maker as her kin, like a dame banished by her lord.
 I with this salutary herb have ruined all their magic arts, The spell which they have cast upon thy field, thy cattle, or thy men.
 Ill fall on him who doeth ill, on him who curseth fall the curse! We drive her back that she may slay the man who wrought the witchery.
 Against her comes the Angirasa, the Priest whose eye is over us.
Turn back all witcheries and slay those practisers of magic arts.
 Whoever said to thee, Go forth against the foeman up the stream, To him, O Kritya, go thou back.
Pursue not us, the sinless ones.
 He who composed thy limbs with thought as a deft joiner builds a car, Go to him: thither lies thy way.
This man is all unknown to thee.
 The cunning men, the sorcerers who fashioned thee and held thee fast, [p. 2] This cures and mars their witchery, this, repellent, drives it back the way it came.
With this we make thee swim.
 When we have found her ducked and drenched, a hapless cow whose calf hath died, Let all my woe depart and let abundant riches come to me.
 If, as they gave thy parents aught, they named thee, or at sacri fice, From all their purposed evil let these healing herbs deliver thee.
 From mention of thy name, from sin against the Fathers or the Gods, These herbs of healing shall by prayer release thee, by power, by holy texts, the milk of
 As the wind stirs the dust from earth and drives the rain cloud from the sky, So, chased and banished by the spell, all misery departs from me.
 Go with a resonant cry, depart, like a she ass whose cords are loosed.
Go to thy makers: hence! away! Go driven by the potent spell.
 This, Kritya, is thy path, we say, and guide thee.
We drive thee back who hast been sent against us.
Go by this pathway, breaking loose for onslaught even as a host complete with cars and horses.
 No path leads hitherward for thee to travel.
Turn thee from us: far off, thy light is yonder.
Fly hence across the ninety floods, the rivers most hard to pass.
Begone, and be not wounded.
 As wind the trees, so smite and overthrow them: leave not cow, horse, or man of them surviving Return, O Kritya, unto those who made thee.
Wake them from sleep to find that they are childless.
 The charm or secret power which they have buried for thee in sacred grass, field, cemetery, Or spell in household fire which men more cunning have wrought against thee innocent and simple,
 That tool of hatred, understood, made ready, stealthy and buried deep, have we discovered, [p. 3] Let that go back to whence it came, turn thither like a horse and kill the children of the sorcerer.
 Within our house are swords of goodly iron.
Kritya, we know thy joints and all their places.
Arise this instant and begone! What, stranger! art thou seek ing here?
 O Kritya, I will cut thy throat and hew thy feet off.
Run, be gone! Indra and Agni, Guardian Lords of living creatures, shield us well!
 May Soma, gracious friend, imperial Sovran, and the world s Masters look on us with favour.
 Bhava and Sarva cast the flash of lightning, the weapon of the Gods, against the sinner who made the evil thing, who deals in witchcraft!
 If thou hast come two footed or four footed, made by the sorcerer, wrought in perfect beauty, Become eight footed and go hence.
Speed back again, thou evil one.
 Anointed, balmed, and well adorned, bearing all trouble with thee, go.
Even as a daughter knows her sire, so know thy marker, Kritya, thou.
 Kritya, begone, stay not.
Pursue as it were the wounded crea ture s track.
He is the chase, the hunter thou he may not slight or humble thee.
 He waits, and aiming with his shaft smites him who first would shoot at him, And, when the foeman deals a blow before him, following strikes him down.
 Hearken to this my word; then go thither away whence thou hast come; to him who made thee go thou back.
 The slaughter of an innocent, O Kritya, is an awful deed.
Slay not cow, horse, or man of ours.
In whatsoever place thou art concealed we rouse thee up there from: become thou lighter than a leaf.
 If ye be girt about with clouds of darkness, bound as with a net.
We rend and tear all witcheries hence and to their maker send them back. [p. 4]
 The brood of wizard, sorcerer, the purposer of evil deed.
Crush thou, O Kritya spare not, kill those practisers of magic arts.
 As Surya frees himself from depth of darkness, and casts away the night and rays of morning, So I repel each baleful charm which an enchanter hath pre pared; And, as an elephant shakes off the dust, I cast the plague aside.
HYMN II (2)
Purusha, Primeval Man or humanity personified
 Who framed the heels of Purusha? Who fashioned the flesh of him? Who formed and fixed his ankles? Who made the openings and well moulded fingers? Who gave him foot soles and a central station?
 Whence did they make the ankles that are under, and the knee bones of Purusha above them? What led them onward to the legs construction? Who planned and formed the knees articulations?
 A fourfold frame is fixt with ends connected, and up above the knees a yielding belly.
The hips and thighs, who was their generator, those props where by the trunk grew firmly stablished?
 Who and how many were those Gods who fastened the chest of Purusha and neck together? How many fixed his breasts? Who formed his elbows? How many joined together ribs and shoulders?
 Who put together both his arms and said, Let him show manly strength? Who and what God was he who set the shoulderblades upon the trunk?
 Who pierced the seven openings in the head? Who made these ears, these nostrils, eyes, and mouth, Through whose surpassing might in all directions bipeds and quadrupeds have power of motion?
 He set within the jaws the tongue that reaches far, and thereon placed Speech the mighty Goddess.
He wanders to and fro mid living creatures, robed in the waters.
Who hath understood it?
 Who was he, first, of all the Gods who fashioned his skull and brain and occiput and forehead, The pile that Purusha s two jaws supported? Who was that God who mounted up to heaven?
 Whence bringeth mighty Purusha both pleasant and unpleasant things, Of varied sort, sleep, and alarm, fatigue, enjoyments and de lights?
 Whence is there found in Purusha want, evil, suffering, dis tress? [p. 6] Whence come success, prosperity opulence, thought, and utte rance?
 Who stored in him floods turned in all directions, moving diverse and formed to flow in rivers, Hasty, red, copper hued, and purple, running all ways in Purusha, upward and downward?
 Who gave him visible form and shape? Who gave him magni tude and name? Who gave him motion, consciousness? Who furnished Purusha with feet?
 Who wove the vital air in him, who filled him with the down ward breath? What God bestowed on Purusha the general pervading air?
 What God, what only Deity placed sacrifice in Purusha? Who gave him truth and falsehood? Whence came Death and immortality?
 Who wrapped a garment round him? Who arranged the life he hath to live? Who granted him the boon of speech? Who gave this fleetness to his feet?
 Through whom did he spread waters out, through whom did he make Day to shine? Through whom did he enkindle Dawn and give the gift of even tide?
 Who set the seed in him and said, Still be the thread of life spun out? Who gave him intellect besides? Who gave him voice and gestic power?
 Through whom did he bedeck the earth, through whom did he encompass heaven? Whose might made Purusha surpass the mountains and created things?
 Through whom seeks he Parjanya out, and Soma of the piercing sight? Through whom belief and sacrifice? Through whom was spirit laid in him?
 What leads him to the learned priest? What leads him to this Lord Supreme? How doth he gain this Agni? By whom hath he measured out the year? [p. 7]
 He, Brahma gains the learned priest, he Brahma, gains this Lord Supreme.
As Brahma, Man wins Agni here Brahma hath measured out the year.
 Through whom doth he abide with Gods? Through whom with the Celestial Tribes? Why is this other called a star? Why is this called the Real Power?
 Brahma inhabits with the Gods, Brahma among the Heavenly Tribes.
Brahma this other star is called.
Brahma is called the Real Power.
 By whom was this our earth disposed? By whom was heaven placed over it? By whom was this expanse of air raised up on high and stre tched across?
 By Brahma was this earth disposed: Brahma is sky arranged above.
Brahma is this expanse of air lifted on high and stretched across.
 Together, with his needle hath Atharvan sewn his head and heart.
And Pavamana hovered from his head on high above his brain.
 That is indeed Atharvan s head, the well closed casket of the Gods.
Spirit and Food and Vital Air protect that head from injury.
 Stationed on high, Purusha hath pervaded all regions spread aloft and stretched transversely.
He who knows Brahma s cattle, yea, the fort whence Purusha is named,
 Yea, knows that fort of Brahma girt about with immortality, Brahma and Brahmas have bestowed sight, progeny, and life on him.
 Sight leaves him not, breath quits not him before life s natural decay, Who knows the fort of Brahma, yea, the fort whence Purusha is named.
 The fort of Gods, impregnable, with circles eight and portals nine, [p. 8] Contains a golden treasure chest, celestial, begirt with light.
 Men deep in lore of Brahma know that Animated Being which Dwells in the golden treasure chest that hath three spokes and three supports.
 Brahma hath passed within the fort, the golden castle; never subdued, Bright with excessive brilliancy, compassed with glory round about.
HYMN III (3)
Purusha, Primeval Man or humanity personified
 Here is my charm the Varana, slayer of rivals, strong in act.
With this grasp thou thine enemies, crush those who fain would injure thee.
 Break them in pieces; grasp them and destroy them.
This Amu let shall go before and lead thee.
With Varana the Gods, from morn to morning, have warded off the Asuras enchantment.
 This charm, this Varana healeth all diseases, bright with a thou sand eyes and golden glister.
This charm shall conquer and cast down thy foemen.
Be thou the first to slay the men who hate thee.
 This will stay witchcraft wrought for thee, will guard thee from the fear of man: From all distress and misery this Varana will shield thee well.
 Guard against ill of varied kind is Varana this heavenly Plant.
The Gods have stayed and driven off Consumption which had seized this man.
 If in thy sleep thou see an evil vision, oft as the beast repeats his loathed approaches, This Amulet, this Varana will guard thee from sneeze, and from the bird s ill omened message.
 From Mischief, from Malignity, from incantation, from alarm, From death, from stronger foeman s stroke the Varana will guard thee well.
 Each sinful act that we have done, my mother, father, and my friends, [p. 10] From all the guilt this heavenly Plant will be our guard and sure defence.
 Affrighted by the Varana let my rivals near akin to me Pass to the region void of light: to deepest darkness let them go.
 Safe are my cattle, safe am I, long lived with all my men around.
This Varana, mine Amulet, shall guard me well on every side.
 This Varana is on my breast, the sovran, the celestial Plant.
Let it afflict my foemen as Indra quelled fiends and Asuras.
 Through hundred autumn seasons, long to live, I wear this Varana.
May it bestow on me great strength, cattle, and royalty and power.
 As with its might the wind breaks down the trees, the sovrans of the wood, So break and rend my rivals, born before me and born after.
Let the Varana protect thee well.
 As Agni and the wind devour the trees, the sovrans of the wood, Even so devour my rivals, born before me and born after.
Let the Varana protect thee well.
 As, shattered by the tempest, trees lie withering ruined on the ground.
Thus over throw my rivals thou, so crush them down and ruin.
them, those born before and after.
Let this Varana protect thee well.
 Cut them in pieces, Varana! before their destined term of life, Those who would hurt his cattle, those who fain would harm.
the realm he rules.
 As Surya shines with brightest sheen, as splendour hath been stored in him, So may the Charm, the Varana, give me prosperity and fame.
With lustre let it sprinkle me, and balm me with magni ficence.
 As glory dwelleth in the Moon and in the Sun who vieweth men, So may the Charm, etc.
 As glory dwelleth in the Earth, and in this Jatavedas here, So may the Charm etc. [p. 11]
 As glory dwelleth in a maid, and in this well constructed car, So may the Charm, etc.
 As glory dwelleth in the draught of Soma and the honeyed.
drink, So may the Charm, etc.
 As glory dwells in sacrifice to Agni, and the hallowing word, So may the Charm, etc.
 As glory is bestowed upon the patron and this sacrifice, So may the Charm, etc.
 As glory dwelleth in the Lord of Life and in this God Supreme,.
So may the Charm, etc.
 As immortality and truth have been established in the Gods, So may the Charm, the Varana, give me prosperity and fame.
With lustre let it sprinkle me, and balm me with magnificence.
HYMN IV (4)
A charm to destroy venomous serpents
 The first of all is Indra s car, next is the chariot of the Gods the third is Varuna s alone.
The last, the Serpents chariot, struck the pillar and then sped away. [p. 12]
 Their lustre is the Darbha grass, its young shoots are their horse s tail: the reed s plume is their chariot seat.
 Strike out, white courser! with thy foot, strike both with fore and hinder foot, Stay the dire poison of the Snakes, and make it weak as soaking wood.
Loud neighing he hath dived below, and rising up again replied, Stayed the dire poison of the Snakes, and made it weak as soaking wood.
 Paidva kills Kasarnila, kills both the white Serpent and the black, Paidva hath struck and cleft in twain Ratharvi s and the Viper s head.
 Go onward, horse of Pedu! go thou first: we follow after thee.
Cast thou aside the Serpents from the pathway whereupon we tread.
 Here was the horse of Pedu born: this is the way that takes him hence.
These are the tracks the courser left, the mighty slayer of the Snakes.
 Let him not close the opened mouth, nor open that which now is closed.
Two snakes are in this field, and both, female and male, are powerless.
 Powerless are the serpents here, those that are near and those afar.
I kill the scorpion with a club, and with a staff the new come snake.
 This is the remedy against Aghasva and the adder, both: Indra and Paidva have subdued and tamed the vicious snake for me.
 We fix our thoughts on Pedu s horse, strong, off spring of a stedfast line.
Behind our backs the vipers here crouch down and lie in wait for us.
 Bereft of life and poison they lie slain by bolt armed Indra s hand.
Indra and we have slaughtered them.
Tiraschirajis have been slain, and vipers crushed and brayed to bits. [p. 13] Slay Darvi in the Darbha grass, Karikrata, and White and Black.
 The young maid of Kirata race, a little damsel, digs the drug, Digs it with shovels wrought of gold on the high ridges of the hills.
 Hither the young uuconquered leech who slays the speckled snake hath come.
He verily demolishes adder and scorpion; both of them.
 Indra, Mitra and Varuna, and Vata and Parjanya both have given the serpent up to me.
 Indra hath given him up to me, the female viper and the male, The adder, him with stripes athwart, Kasarnila, Dasonasi.
 O Serpent, Indra hath destroyed the sire who first engendered thee: And when these snakes are pierced and bored what sap and vigour will be theirs?
 Their heads have I seized firmly as a fisher grasps the spotted prey, Waded half through the stream and washed the poison of the serpents off.
 Let the floods hurry on and bear the poison of all snakes afar.
Tiraschirajis have been slain and vipers crushed and brayed to bits.
 As from the salutary plants I deftly pick the fibres out, And guide them skilfully like mares, so let thy venom, Snake! depart,
 All poison that the sun and fire, all that the earth and plants contain, Poison of most effectual power let all thy venom pass away.
 Serpents which fire or plants have generated, those which have sprung from waters or the lightning, Whose mighty broods are found in many places, these serpents we will reverently worship.
 Thou art a maid called Taudi, or Ghritachi is thy name.
Thy place; Is underneath my foot.
I take the poison killing remedy.
 From every member drive away the venom, and avoid the heart.
Then let the poison s burning heat pass downward and away from thee. [p. 14]
 The bane hath fled afar.
It wept, and asked the poison how it fared.
 Agni hath found the venom of the serpent, Soma drawn it out.
Back to the biter hath returned the poison, and the snake hath died.
HYMN V (5)
A charm to overthrow a rival and gain strength, dignity, long life, children, and general prosperity
 Ye are the power of Indra, ye the force and strength of Indra, ye his hero might and manliness.
I join you with the bonds of Prayer to the victorious enterprise.
 For the victorious enterprise let all creation stand by me.
For me ye, Waters, are prepared. [p. 15]
 Ye are the share of Agni.
Grant, O heavenly Waters unto us the Waters brilliant energy.
By statute of Prajapati I set you down for this our world.
 Waters, your ceremonial share of Waters which the waters hold, which aids our sacrifice to Gods, This as a remnant here I leave.
Do not thou wash it clean away.
With this we let the man go by who hates us and whom we abhor.
Him would I fain overthrow and slay with this our ceremonial act, with this our prayer, our thunder bolt.
 Whatever evil I have done within this last triennium, From all that woe and misery let the waters shield and guard me well.
 Onward I urge your gathered floods: enter your own abiding place, Uninjured and with all your strength.
Let nothing bend or bow us down.
 May the pure Waters cleanse us from defilement, Fair to behold remove our sin and trouble, and bear away ill dream and all pollution.
 Thou art the step of Vishnu, rival slayer, sharpened by earth, aglow with fire of Agni, Earth have I ranged: from earth we bar him who hates us and whom we hate.
 Ours is superior place and ours is conquest: may I in all fights tread down spite and malice.
Let him not live, let vital breath desert him.
 With this I here invest the power and splendour, the life of that man and his vital breathing, the son of such a sire and such a woman, here do I overthrow and cast him downward.
 I follow Surya s course in heaven, the course that takes him to the South.
May that bestow upon me wealth and glory of a Brahman s rank.
 I turn me to the regions bright with splendour.
May they bestow upon me wealth and glory of a Brahman s rank.
 I turn me to the Rishis Seven.
May they, etc.
 I turn me unto Prayer.
May that, etc.
 I turn me unto Brahmans. May they etc. [p. 16]
 We hunt that man, we beat him down and slay him with our murderous blows.
We with the spell have hurried him to Parameshthin s opened jaws.
 Let the shot missile catch him with Vaisvanara s two mighty fangs.
This offering, and the mightiest Goddess, the Fuel, eat him up!
 Thou art the bound of Varuna the King.
Bind, such an one, the son of such a woman, in vital breath and in the food that feeds him.
 All food of thine, O Lord of Life, that lies, upon the face of earth, Thereof bestow thou upon us.
O Lord of Life, Prajapati!
 Celestial Waters have I sought: with juice have I besprinkled them.
With milk, O Agni, have I come; bestow upon me splendid strength.
 Give me the boon of splendid strength; give, Agni! progeny and life.
May the Gods know this prayer of mine, may Indra with the Rishis know.
 What curse soever couples launch against us, whatever bitter speech the chatterers utter, With Manyu s arrow, offspring of the spirit, transfix thou to the heart the Yatudhanas,
 Destroy the Yatudhanas with thy fervour, consume the demons with thy wrath, O Agni.
Destroy the fool s gods with thy fiery splendour, destroy the blazing ones, the insatiable.
 Well skilled, against this man I hurl the Water s bolt with four spikes, to cleave his head asunder.
May it destroy all members of his body.
Let the whole host of Gods approve my purpose.
HYMN VI (6)
The glorification of an all powerful amulet
 With power I cut away the head of my malignant rival, of mine evil hearted enemy.
 This Amulet of citron wood shall make for me a trusty shield Filled with the mingled beverage, with sap and vigour hath it come.
 What though the strong armed carpenter have cleft thee with his hand and axe.
Pure animating waters shall cleanse thee and make thee bright again.
 This Amulet, decked with chain of gold, shall give faith, sacrifice, and might, and dwell as guest within our house.
 To this we give apportioned food, clarified butter, wine, and meath.
May it provide each boon for us as doth a father for his sons. [p. 18] Again, again, from morn to morn, having approached the deities.
 The Charm Brihaspati hath bound, the fatness dropping citron wood, the potent Khadira for strength, This Agni hath put on: it yields clarified butter for this man.
Again, again, from morn to morn.
With this subdue thine enemies.
 The Charm Brihaspati hath bound, the fatness dropping citron wood, the potent Khadira, for strength, This Charm hath Indra put on him for power and manly puissance.
It yieldeth strength to strengthen him, again, again, from morn to morn, having approached the deities.
 The Charin Brihaspati, etc.
This Charm hath Soma put on him for might, for hearing, and for sight.
This yields him energy indeed, again, again, etc.
 The Charm Brihaspati, etc.
This Surya put on him, with this conquered the regions of the sky.
This yieldeth him ability, again, etc.
 The Charm Brihaspati, etc.
This Charm did Chandra wear, with this conquered the forts of Asuras, the golden forts of Danavas.
This yields him glory and renown, again, etc.
 The Amulet Brihaspati bound on the swiftly moving Wind.
This yieldeth him a vigorous steed, again, etc.
 The Asvins with this Amulet protect this culture of our fields.
This yields the two Physicians might, again, etc.
 Savitar wore this Amulet: herewith he won this lucid heaven.
This yields him glory and delight, again, etc.
 Wearing this Charm the Waters flow eternally inviolate.
This yieldeth them ambrosia, again etc.
 King Varuna assumed and wore this salutary Amulet.
This yieldeth him his truthfulness, again, etc.
 Wearing this Amulet the Gods conquered in battle all the worlds.
This yieldeth victory for them, again, etc.
 The Amulet Brihaspati formed for the swiftly moving Wind, This salutary Amulet the Deities assumed and wore. [p. 19] This yieldeth them the universe, again, again, from morn to morn.
With this subdue thine enemies.
 The seasons formed that Amulet, the Groups of Seasons fashion ed it.
The Year having constructed it preserveth everything that is.
 The regions of the heaven, the points that lie between them fashioned it.
Created by Prajapati, may the Charm cast my foemen down.
 Atharvan made the Amulet, Atharvan s children fashioned it.
With them the sage Angirases broke through the Dasyus fortresses.
With this subdue thine enemies.
 Dhatar bound on this Amulet: he ranged and ordered all that is.
With this do thou subdue thy foes.
 The Amulet Brihaspati formed for the Gods, that slew the fiends.
That Amulet here hath come to me combined with sap and energy.
 The Amulet, etc.
That Amulet here hath come to me, hath come with cows, and goats, and sheep, hath come with food and progeny.
 The Amulet, etc.
That Amulet here hath come to me with store of barley and of rice, with greatness and prosperity.
 The Amulet, etc.
That Amulet here hath come to me with streams of butter and of mead, with sweet delicious beverage.
 The Amulet, etc.
That Amulet here hath come to me with power and abundant strength, hath come with glory and with wealth.
 The Amulet, etc.
That Amulet here hath come to me with splendour and a blaze of light, with honour and illustrious fame.
 The Amulet Brihaspati made for the Gods, that slew the fiends, That Amulet here hath come to me combined with all prosperities.
 That Amulet may the Deities bestow on me to win success, The conquering, strength increasing Charm, the damager of enemies.
 I bind on me my happy fate with holy prayer and energy.
Foeless destroyer of the foe, it hath subdued mine enemies. [p. 20]
 May this Chaim, offspring of the Gods, make me superior to my foe.
So may this charm whose milk expressed these three worlds longingly await, Be fastened on me here, that it may crown me with surpassing power.
 The Charm to which men, Fathers, Gods look ever for their maintenance, May this be fastened on me here, to crown me with surpassing power
 As, when the plough hath tilled the soil, the seed springs up in.
fertile land, Let cattle, progeny, and food of every kind spring up with me.
 Charm, forwarder of sacrifice, who hast a hundred priestly fees.
Speed to preeminence him to whom I have attached thy happy fate.
 Love thou, O Agni, pleased with burnt oblations, this sacred fuel that is ranged in order.
In him may we find grace and loving kindness, happiness, progeny, and sight and cattle, in Jatavedas kindled with devotion.
HYMN VII (7)
Skambha, the Pillar or Fulcrum of all existence
 Which of his members is the seat of Fervour: Which is the base of Ceremonial Order? [p. 21] Where in him standeth Faith? Where Holy Duty? Where, in what part of him is truth implanted?
 Out of which member glows the light of Agni? Form which proceeds the breath of Matarisvan? From which doth Chandra measure out his journey, travelling over Skambha s mighty body?
 Which of his members is the earth s upholder? Which gives the middle air a base to rest on? Where, in which member is the sky established? Where hath the space above the sky its dwelling?
 Whitherward yearning blazeth Agni upward? Whitherward yearning bloweth Matarisvan? Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha to whom with long ing go the turning pathways?
 Whitheward go the half months, and, accordant with the full year, the months in their procession? Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha to whom go seasons and the groups of seasons?
 Whitherward yearning speed the two young Damsels, accordant, Day and Night, of different colour? Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha to whom the Waters take their way with longing?
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha, On whom Prajapati set up and firmly stablished all the worlds?
 That universe which Prajapati created, wearing all forms,, the highest, midmost, lowest, How far did Skambha penetrate within it? What portion did he leave unpenetrated?
 How far within the past hath Skambha entered? How much of him hath reached into the future? That one part which he set in thousand places, how far did Skambha penetrate within it?
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha in whom men recognize the Waters, Brahma, In whom they know the worlds and their enclosures, in whom are non existence and existence?
 Declare that.
Skambha, who is he of many, In whom, exerting every power, Fervour maintains her loftiest vow; [p. 22] In whom are comprehended Law, Waters, Devotion and Belief
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha On whom as their foundation earth and firmament and sky are set; In whom as their appointed place rest Fire and Moon and Sun and Wind?
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha He in whose body are contained all three and thirty Deities?
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha.
In whom the Sages earliest born, the Richas, Saman, Yajus, Earth, and the one highest Sage abide?
 Who out of many, tell me, is the Skambha.
Who comprehendeth, for mankind, both immortality and death, He who containeth for mankind the gathered waters as his veins?
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha, He whose chief arteries stand there, the sky s four regions, he irk whom Sacrifice putteth forth its might?
 They who in Purusha understand Brahma know Him who is.
He who knows Him who is Supreme, and he who knows the Lord of Life, These know the loftiest Power Divine, and thence know Skambha thoroughly.
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha Of whom Vaisvanara became the head, the Angirases his eye, and Yatus his corporeal parts?
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha Whose mouth they say is Holy Lore, his tongue the Honey sweetened Whip, his udder is Viraj, they say?
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha From whom they hewed the lichas off, from whom they chipped the Yajus, he Whose hairs are Sama verses and his mouth the Atharvangirases
 Men count as it were a thing supreme nonentity s conspicuous branch; And lower man who serve thy branch regard it as an entity.
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha [p. 23] In whom Adityas dwell, in whom Rudras and Vasus are contained, In whom the future and the past and all the worlds are firmly set;
 Whose secret treasure evermore the three and thirty Gods protect? Who knoweth now the treasure which, O Deities ye watch and guard?
 Where the Gods, versed in Sacred Lore, worship the loftiest Power Divine The priest who knows them face to face may be a sage who knows the truth.
 Great, verily, are those Gods who sprang from non existence into life.
Further, men say that that one part of Skambha is nonentity.
 Where Skambha generating gave the Ancient World its shape and form, They recognized that single part of Skambha as the Ancient World,
 The three and thirty Gods within his body were disposed as limbs: Some, deeply versed in Holy Lore, some know those three and thirty Gods.
 Men know Hiranyagarbha as supreme and inexpressible: In the beginning, in the midst of the world, Skambha poured that gold.
 On Skambha Fervour rests, the worlds and Holy Law repose on him.
Skambha, I clearly know that all of thee on Indra is imposed.
 On Indra Fervour rests, on him the worlds and Holy Law recline.
Indra, I clearly know that all of thee on Skambha findeth rest.
 Ere (once) sun and dawn man calls and calls one Deity by the other s name.
When the Unborn first sprang into existence he reached that independent sovran lordship; than which aught higher never hath arisen.
 Be reverence paid to him, that highest Brahma, whose base is Earth, his belly Air, who made the sky to be his head. [p. 24]
 Homage to highest Brahma, him whose eye is Surya and the Moon who groweth young and new again, him who made Agni for his mouth.
 Homage to highest Brahma, him whose two life breathings were the Wind, The Angirases his sight: who made the regions be his means of sense.
 Skambha set fast these two, the earth and heaven, Skambha maintained the ample air between them.
Skambha established the six spacious regions: this whole world Skambha entered and pervaded.
 Homage to highest Brahma, him who, sprung from Fervour and from toil, Filled all the worlds completely, who made Soma for himself alone.
 Why doth the Wind move ceaselessly? Why doth the spirit take no rest? Why do the Waters, seeking truth, never at any time repose?
 Absorbed in Fervour, is the mighty Being, in the world s centre, on the waters surface.
To him the Deities, one and all betake them.
So stand the tree trunk with the branches round it.
 Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha.
To whom the Deities with hands, with feet, and voice, and ear, and eye.
Present unmeasured tribute in the measured hall of sacrifice?
 Darkness is chased away from him: he is exempt from all dist ress.
In him are all the lights, the three abiding in Prajapati.
 He verily who knows the Reed of Gold that stands amid the flood, is the mysterious Lord of Life.
 Singly the two young Maids of different colours approach the six pegged warp in turns and weave it.
The one draws out the threads, the other lays them: they break them not, they reach no end of labour.
 Of these two, dancing round as it were, I cannot distinguish whether ranks before the other.
A Male in weaves this web, a Male divides it: a Male hath stretched it to the cope of heaven [p. 25]
 These pegs have buttressed up the sky.
The Samans have turned them into shuttles for the weaving.
HYMN VIII (8)
Speculations on the Supreme Being and Cosmogonical and theological subjects
 Worship to loftiest Brahma, Lord of what hath been and what shall be, To him who rules the universe, and heavenly light is all his own!
 Upheld by Skambha s power these two, the heaven and the earth, stand fast.
Skambha is all this world of life, whatever breathes or shuts an.
 Three generations have gone by and vanished and others near have entered into sunlight.
There stood on high he who metes out the region into green, plants hath passed the Golden coloured.
 One is the wheel, the tires are twelve in number, the naves are three What man hath understood it? Three hundred spokes have thereupon been hammered, and sixty pins set firmly in their places. [p. 28]
 Discern thou this, O Savitar.
Six are the twins, one singly born.
They claim relationship in that among them which is born alone.
 Though manifest, it lies concealed in the vast place they call the old: Therein is firmly stationed all the moving, breathing universe.
 Up, eastward downward in the west, it rolleth, with countless elements, one wheeled, single fellied.
With half it hath begotten all creation.
Where hath the other half become unnoticed?
 In front of these the five horsed car moves onward: side horses, harnessed with the others draw it.
No one hath seen its hither course untravelled; the height sees it more near, the depth more distant.
 The bowl with mouth inclined and bottom upward holds stored within it every form of glory.
Thereon together sit the Seven Rishis who have become this mighty One s protectors
 The Verse employed at opening and conclusion, the Verse employed in each and every portion; That by which sacrifice proceedeth onward.
I ask thee which is that of all the Verses.
 That which hath power of motion, that which flies, or stands, which breathes or breathes not, which, existing, shuts the eye Wearing all forms that entity upholds the earth, and in its close consistence still is only one.
 The infinite to every side extended, the finite and the infinite around us, These twain Heaven s Lord divides as he advances, knowing the past hereof and all the future
 Within the womb Prajapati is moving: he, though unseen, is born in sundry places.
He with one half engendered all creation.
What sign is there to tell us of the other?
 All men behold him with the eye, but with the mind they know not him.
Holding aloft the water as a water bearer in her jar.
 With the full vase he dwells afar, is left far off what time it fails, A mighty Being in creation s centre: to him the rulers of the realms bring tribute. [p. 29]
 That, whence the Sun arises, that whither he goes to take his rest, That verily I hold supreme: naught in the world surpasses it.
 Those who in recent times, midmost, or ancient, on all sides.
greet the sage who knows the Veda, One and all, verily discuss Aditya, the second Agni, and the threefold Hansa.
 This gold hued Hamsa s wings, flying to heaven, spread over a thousand days continued journey.
Supporting all the Gods upon his bosom, he goes his way behol ding every creature.
 By truth he blazes up aloft by Brahma, he looks down below: He breathes obliquely with his breath, he on whom what is.
 The sage who knows the kindling sticks whence by attrition wealth is drawn, Will comprehend what is most high, will know the mighty Brahmana.
 Footless at first was he produced, footless he brought celestial light.
Four footed grown, and meet for use, he seized each thing enjoyable.
 Useful will he become, and then will he consume great store of food The man who humbly worshippeth the eternal and victorious God.
 Him too they call eternal; he may become new again to day.
Day and Night reproduce themselves, each from the form the other wears.
 A hundred, thousand, myriad, yea a hundred million stores of wealth that passes count are laid in him.
This wealth they kill as he looks on, and now this God shines bright therefrom.
 One is yet finer than a hair, one is not even visible.
And hence the Deity who grasps with firmer hold is dear to me.
 This fair one is untouched by age, immortal in a mortal s house.
He for whom she was made lies low, and he who formed her hath grown old.
 Thou art a woman, and a man; thou art a damsel and a boy. [p. 30] Grown old thou totterest with a staff, new born thou lookest every way.
 Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child.
As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.
 Forth from the full he lifts the full, the full he sprinkles with the full.
Now also may we know the source from which the stream is sprinkled round.
 Brought forth in olden time, the everlasting, high over all that is was she, the Ancient.
The mighty Goddess of the Morn, refulgent with one eye, looketh round with one that winketh,
 Known by the name of Guardian Grace the Deity sits girt by Right.
The trees have taken from her hue, green garlanded, their robe of green.
 When he is near she leaves him not, she sees him not though he is near.
Behold the wisdom of the God; he hath not died, he grows not old.
 Voices that never were before emitted speak as fitteth them.
Whither they go and speak, they say there is the mighty Brahmana.
 I ask thee where the waters flower by wondrous magic art was placed, Thereon the Gods and men are set as spokes are fastened in the nave.
 Who gave command unto the wind that blowet! Who ranged the five united heavenly regions? Who were the Gods who cared not for oblations! Which of them brought the sacrificial waters?
 One God inhabiteth the earth we live on; another hath encom passed air s mid region.
One, the Supporter, takes the heaven and bears it: some keep ing watch guard all the quarters safely.
 The man who knows the drawn out string on which these crea tures all are strung, The man who knows the thread s thread, he may know the mighty Brahmana. [p. 31]
 I know the drawn out string, the thread whereon these creatures all are strung.
I know the thread s thread also, thus I know the mighty Brahmana.
 When Agni passed between the earth and heaven devouring with his flame the all consumer, Where dwelt afar the spouses of one husband, where at that moment, where was Matarisvan? 40.
Into the floods had Matarisvan entered, the deities had past in to the waters.
There stood the mighty measurer of the region: into the ver dant plants went Pavamana.
 Over the Gayatri, above the immortal world he strode away.
Those who by Song discovered Song where did the Unborn see that thing?
 Luller to rest, and gatherer up of treasures, Savitar like a God whose laws are constant, hath stood like Indra in the war for riches.
 Men versed in sacred knowledge know that living Being that abides.
In the nine portalled Lotus Flower, enclosed with triple bands and bonds.
 Desireless, firm, immortal, self existent, contented with the es sence, lacking nothing, Free from the fear of Death is he who knoweth that Soul cou rageous, youthful, undecaying.
HYMN IX (9)
The Sataudana or Hundredfold Oblation
 Binding the mouths of those who threaten mischief, against my rivals cast this bolt of thunder, Indra first gave the Hundredfold Oblation, welfare of him who worships, foe destroying.
 Thy skin shall be the Altar; let thine hair become the Sacred Grass.
This cord hath held thee firmly: let this pressing stone dance round on thee:
 The holy water be thy hair: let thy tongue make thee clean, O Cow.
Go, Hundredfold Oblation, made bright and adorable, to hea ven. [p. 34]
 He who prepares the Hundredfold Oblation gains each wish thereby: For all his ministering priests, contented, move as fitteth them.
 He rises up to heaven, ascends to younder third celestial height.
Whoever gives the Hundredfold Oblation with the central cake.
 That man completely wins those worlds, both of the heavens and of the earth, Whoever pays the Hundredfold.
Oblation with its golden light.
 Thine Immolators, Goddess! and the men who dress thee for the feast, all these will guard thee, Hundredfold Oblation! Have no fear of them.
 The Vasus from the South will be thy guards, the Maruts from the North, Adityas from the West; overtake and pass the Agnishtoma, thou!
 The Gods, the Fathers, mortal men, Gandharvas, and Apsara ses, All these will be the guards: overtake and pass the Atiratra, thou!
 The man who pays the Hundredfold Oblation winneth all the worlds, Air, heaven, and earth, Adityas, and Maruts, and regions of the sky.
 Sprinkling down fatness, to the Gods will the beneficent God dess go.
Harm not thy dresser, Cow! To heaven, O Hundredfold Oblation, speed!
 From all the Gods enthroned in heaven, in air, from those who dwell on earth, Draw forth for evermore a stream of milk, of butter, and of mead.
 Let thy head, let thy mouth, let both thine ears, and those two jaws of thine.
Pour for the giver mingled curd, and flowing butter, milk, and mead.
 Let both thy lips, thy nostrils, both thy horns, and these two eyes of thine. [p. 35] Pour for the given, etc.
 Let heart and pericardium, let thy lungs with all the bronchial tubes, etc.
 Let liver, and let kidneys, let thine entrails, and the parts within, etc.
 Let rectum and omentum, let thy belly s hollows, and thy skin, etc.
 Let all thy marrow, every bone, let all thy flesh, and all thy blood, etc.
 Let both thy shoulders and thy hump, thy forelegs, and their lower parts, etc.
 Let neck and nape and shoulder joints, thy ribs and inter costal parts, etc.
 So let thy thighs and thy knee bones, thy hinder quarters, and thy hips, etc.
 So let thy tail and all the hairs thereof, thine udder, and thy teats, etc.
 Let all thy legs, the refuse of thy feet, thy heelropes, and thy hooves.
Pour for the giver mingled curd, and flowing butter milk, and mead.
 Let all thy skin, Sataudana! let every hair thou hast, O Cow, Pour for the giver mingled curd, and flowing butter, milk, and mead.
 Sprinkled with molten butter, let the two meal cakes be sport for thee.
Make them thy wings, O Goddess, and bear him who dresses thee to heaven.
 Each grain of rice in mortar or on pestle, all on the skin or in the winnowing basket, Whatever purifying Matarisvan, the Wind, hath sifted, let the Hotar Agni make of it an acceptable oblation.
 In the priest s hands I lay, in separate order, the sweet celestial Waters, dropping fatness.
As here I sprinkle them may all my wishes be granted unto me in perfect fulness.
May we have ample wealth in our posses sion.