Sudra

Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 06 Mar 2010 09:13 and updated at 06 Mar 2010 09:13

Mahabharata: 18 Parvas

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MAHABHARATA NOUN

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Mbh.1.63.3156 Thou shalt, therefore, be born on earth in the Sudra order'
Mbh.1.63.3157 And for that curse Dharma was born a Sudra in the form of the learned Vidura of pure body who was perfectly sinless.
Mbh.1.63.3175 And from Dwaipayana also born, in the Sudra caste, the wise and intelligent Vidura, conversant with both religion and profit, and free from all sins.
Mbh.1.64.3212 And, O king, no Brahmana in those days ever sold the Vedas ie, taught for money or ever read aloud the Vedas in the presence of a Sudra.
Mbh.1.104.5880 And upon that Sudra woman the virtuous Rishi of passions under full control begat eleven children of whom Kakshivat was the eldest.
Mbh.1.104.5883 Kakshivat and others have been begotten by me upon a Sudra woman.
Mbh.1.106.6001 And Krishna-Dwaipayana, when he met his mother as before, informed her as to how he had been deceived by the seniormost of the princesses and how he had begotten a son upon a Sudra woman.
Mbh.1.107.6005 And who was the Brahmana ascetic from whose curse the god had to be born in the Sudra caste'
Mbh.1.108.6049 Thou shall, therefore, O god of justice, have to be born among men even in the Sudra order.
Mbh.1.108.6052 Vaisampayana continued, Cursed for this fault by that illustrious Rishi, the god of justice had his birth as Vidura in the Sudra order.
Mbh.1.109.6082 Pandu became king, for Dhritarashtra, owing to the blindness, and Vidura, for his birth by a Sudra woman, did not obtain the kingdom.
Mbh.1.114.6218 Meanwhile the son of the ocean-going Ganga heard that king Devaka had a daughter endued with youth and beauty and begotten upon a Sudra wife.
Mbh.1.164.8518 One of the kingly tribe should protect even the Sudra who cometh to him for protection.
Mbh.1.172.8806 The hand of the Brahmana with which he poureth libations on the sacrificial fire, the chariot upon which the Kshatriya fighteth, the charity of the Vaisya, and the service of the Sudra rendered unto the three other classes, are all fragments of the thunderbolt.
Mbh.1.193.9639 Hath any Sudra or anybody of mean descent, or hath a tribute-paying Vaisya by taking my daughter away, placed his dirty foot on my head?
Mbh.2.21.906 It was here that the illustrious Gautama of rigid vows begat on the Sudra woman Ausinari the daughter of Usinara Kakshivat and other celebrated sons.
Mbh.2.35.1469 O monarch, there was then no Sudra near that platform of Yudhisthira's mansion, nor anybody that was without vows.
Mbh.2.44.1779 But the fool obtained her not, like a Sudra failing to obtain the audition of the Vedas
Mbh.2.50.2109 And the Sudra kings that dwelt in the regions on the seacoast, brought with them, O king, hundred thousands of serving girls of the Karpasika country, all of beautiful features and slender waist and luxuriant hair and decked in golden ornaments; and also many skins of the Ranku deer worthy even of Brahmanas as tribute unto king Yudhishthira.
Mbh.3.33.1706 Neither mendicancy, nor the life of a Sudra is what is proper for thee.
Mbh.3.33.1751 This also, O Bharata, the people are saying amongst themselves, viz, that as milk in a bag of dog's hide, as the Vedas in a Sudra, as truth in a robber, as strength in a woman, so is sovereignty in Duryodhana.
Mbh.3.85.4714 By reading this narrative the sonless obtains sons, the destitute obtains riches, a person of the royal order conquereth the whole earth, the Vaisya cometh by wealth, the Sudra obtaineth all his desires, and the Brahmana crosseth the ocean of the world.
Mbh.3.136.6992 But there, O king, he was repulsed by a blind Sudra warder, and he remained at the door, grasped by the man.
Mbh.3.136.6993 And, finding Yavakri thus grasped by the Sudra, the demon hurled his spear at him, and thereupon he fell down dead, pierced in the heart.
Mbh.3.137.6997 And marking this change in the Agnihotra, the great sage asked the blind Sudra warder seated there, saying, Why is it.
Mbh.3.137.6998 O Sudra, that the fires rejoice not at sight of me?
Mbh.3.137.7002 Answer speedily, O Sudra, all these questions of mine.
Mbh.3.137.7004 The Sudra said, Thy son of little sense had gone to the sage Raivya, and therefore it is that lie lieth prostrate on the ground, having been slain by a powerful demon.
Mbh.3.137.7007 On hearing from the Sudra of this great calamity, Bharadwaja, sorely afflicted with grief, began to lament, embracing his dead son.
Mbh.3.149.7657 To rule the subjects is the duty of the Kshatriya; and to tend cattle, that of the Vaisya, while to serve the twice-born orders is said to be the duty of the Sudra.
Mbh.3.179.8901 The serpent said, O Yudhishthira, truth, charity, forgiveness, benevolence, benignity, kindness and the Veda which worketh the benefit of the four orders, which is the authority in matters of religion and which is true, are seen even in the Sudra.
Mbh.3.179.8903 Yudhishthira said, Those characteristics that are present in a Sudra, do not exist in a Brahmana; nor do those that are in a Brahmana exist in a Sudra.
Mbh.3.179.8904 And a Sudra is not a Sudra by birth alone, nor a Brahmana is Brahmana by birth alone.
Mbh.3.179.8906 And people term him a Sudra in whom those qualities do not exist, even though he be a Brahmana by birth.
Mbh.3.179.8918 He is considered as a Sudra as long as he is not initiated in the Vedas.
Mbh.3.199.10105 The gift to an untruthful man, to a person that is sinful, to one that is ungrateful, to one that officiates at sacrifices performed by all classes of people residing in a village, to one that sells the Vedas to a Brahmana that cooks for Sudra, to one that too by birth is a Brahmana but who is destitute of the occupations of his order, is in vain.
Mbh.3.206.10604 Service of the other three orders hath been ordained to be the duty of the Sudra.
Mbh.3.211.10884 A man, O Brahmana, may be born in the Sudra caste, but if he is possessed of good qualities, he may attain the state of Vaisya and similarly that of a Kshatriya, and if he is steadfast in rectitude, he may even become a Brahmana.
Mbh.3.214.10983 As it is very difficult for a person born in the Sudra class to learn the mysteries of the eternal religion, I do not consider thee to be a Sudra.
Mbh.3.214.11001 But, O Brahmana, the rishi, lashing himself into a fury, said to me, Thou shalt be born as a cruel fowler in the Sudra class
Mbh.3.215.11007 Though born in the Sudra class thou shalt remain a pious man and thou shalt undoubtedly honour thy parents; and by honouring them thou shalt attain great spiritual perfection; thou shalt also remember the events of thy past life and shalt go to heaven; and on the expiation of this curse, thou shalt again become a Brahmana.
Mbh.3.215.11015 For the Brahmana who is vain and haughty, who is addicted to vices and wedded to evil and degrading practices, is like a Sudra.
Mbh.3.215.11016 On the other hand, I consider a Sudra who is always adorned with these virtues, righteousness, self-restraint, and truthfulness, as a Brahmana.
Mbh.3.311.15453 He even that hath studied the four Vedas is to be regarded as a wicked wretch scarcely distinguishable from a Sudra if his conduct be not correct.
Mbh.4.50.1924 A Sudra should always wait upon and serve the other three orders.
Mbh.5.29.1245 The following are the duties declared for a Sudra from the olden times.
Mbh.5.33.1583 These six are instantly destroyed, if neglected, viz, kine, service, agriculture, a wife, learning, and the wealth of a Sudra.
Mbh.5.37.1919 He who appropriates to himself the wife of one who hath confided in him; he who violates the bed of his preceptor; that Brahmana, O Bharata, who becomes the husband of a Sudra woman, or drinks wines; he who commendeth Brahmanas or becometh their master, or taketh away the lands that support them; and he who taketh the lives of those who yield asking for protection, are all guilty of the sin of slaying Brahmanas.
Mbh.5.40.2210 Having properly worshipped Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisayas in due order, and having burnt his sins, by gratifying them, and then peacefully casting off his body, the Sudra enjoyeth the bliss of heaven.
Mbh.5.41.2226 Vidura said, I am born in the Sudra order and, therefore, do not venture to say more than what I have already said.
Mbh.5.72.3581 He is incapable of earning religious merit, and is like a Sudra.
Mbh.5.72.3594 A Sudra serveth; a Vaisya liveth by trade; the Brahmana have choosen the wooden bowl for begging, while we are to live by slaughter!
Mbh.5.96.4534 And that mighty car-warrior, rising every morning after the night had passed away, called the Brahmanas and the Kshatriyas unto himself and asked them, saying, Be he a Sudra, a Vaisya, a Kshatriya, or a Brahmana, is there any one who is superior or even equal to me in battle'
Mbh.5.132.5899 A Brahmana should adopt mendicancy; a Kshatriya should protect subjects; a Vaisya should earn wealth; and a Sudra should serve the other three.
Mbh.5.180.8063 This also was, O great Muni, the vow then made by thee, O Rama, the vow made by thee before Brahmanas after thou hadst conquered all the Kshatriyas, viz, that thou wouldst slay in battle the person, be he a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, or a Sudra, who would be a foe to the Brahmanas.
Mbh.6.9.507 These countries are, besides, the abodes of many Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra tribes.
Mbh.7.69.2941 Or, are all these lost like Sraddha as performed by a person of regenerate classes having a Sudra wife'
Mbh.12.35.1874 Plates made of the alloy of brass and copper stained by a Sudra eating off it, or a vessel of the same metal that has been smelt by a cow, or stained by a Brahmana's Gandusha, may be cleansed by means of the ten purifying substances
Mbh.12.35.1877 So, a Vaisya should acquire a measure less than a Kshatriya's by a fourth and a Sudra less than a Vaisya's by a fourth.
Mbh.12.36.1938 If a Brahmana takes food that has been cooked by a Kshatriya, it diminishes his energy; if he takes the food provided by a Sudra, it dims his Brahmanic lustre; and if he takes the food provided by a goldsmith or a woman who has neither husband nor children it lessens the period of his life.
Mbh.12.49.2653 Though born in one of the regenerate orders, yet like a Sudra he does everything for that Rishi and has, therefore, been named Sarvakarman servant of all work.
Mbh.12.59.3333 I should tell thee, O Bharata, what the duties of a Sudra are.
Mbh.12.59.3334 The Creator intended the Sudra to become the servant of the other three orders.
Mbh.12.59.3335 For this, the service of the three other classes is the duty of Sudra.
Mbh.12.59.3336 By such service of the other three, a Sudra may obtain great happiness.
Mbh.12.59.3338 A Sudra should never amass wealth, lest, by his wealth, he makes the members of the three superior classes obedient to him.
Mbh.12.59.3340 With the king's permission, however, a Sudra, for performing religious acts, may earn wealth.
Mbh.12.59.3343 Worn-out umbrellas, turbans, beds and seats, shoes, and fans, should be given to the Sudra servants
Mbh.12.59.3344 Torn clothes which are no longer fit for wear, should be given away by the regenerate classes unto the Sudra.
Mbh.12.59.3346 Men conversant with morality say that if the Sudra approaches any one belonging to the three regenerate orders from desire of doing menial service, the latter should assign him proper work.
Mbh.12.59.3347 Unto the sonless Sudra his master should offer the funeral cake.
Mbh.12.59.3349 The Sudra should never abandon his master, whatever the nature or degree of the distress into which the latter may fall.
Mbh.12.59.3350 If the master loses his wealth, he should with excessive zeal be supported by the Sudra servant.
Mbh.12.59.3351 A Sudra cannot have any wealth that is his own.
Mbh.12.59.3354 It has been ordained for the Sudra also, O Bharata!
Mbh.12.59.3355 A Sudra, however, is not competent to titter swaha and swadha or any other Vedic mantra.
Mbh.12.59.3356 For this reason, the Sudra, without observing the vows laid down in the Vedas, should worship the gods in minor sacrifices called Paka-yajnas.
Mbh.12.59.3358 It has been heard by us that in days of old a Sudra of the name of Paijavana gave a Dakshina in one of his sacrifices consisting of a hundred thousand Purnapatras, according to the ordinance called Aindragni
Mbh.12.59.3359 Sacrifice as has been already said, is as much laid down for the Sudra as for the three other classes.
Mbh.12.59.3363 Then again Brahmanas are the foremost of gods unto their respective Sudra attendants.
Mbh.12.59.3371 The Sudra, who is without Richs and Yajuses and Samans, has Prajapati for his god
Mbh.12.59.3374 It is not true that the gods and other Superior persons do not manifest a desire to share the offerings in such sacrifices of even the Sudra
Mbh.12.62.3448 That wretched Brahmana who falls away from his duties and whose behaviour becomes wicked, becomes, O king, a Sudra.
Mbh.12.62.3449 The Brahmana who weds a Sudra woman, who becomes vile in conduct or a dancer or a village servant or does other improper acts, becomes a Sudra.
Mbh.12.62.3450 Whether he recites the Vedas or not, O king, if he does such improper acts, he becomes equal to a Sudra and on occasions of feeding he should be assigned a place amongst Sudras.
Mbh.12.62.3461 For a Sudra who is desirous of hearing Such scriptures as are not forbidden in his case who has accomplished his duties, who has begotten a son, between whom and the superior orders there is not Much difference in consequence of the purity of his conduct, all the modes of life have been laid down excepting the observance of universal peacefulness and self-restraint which are not necessary for him.
Mbh.12.62.3462 For a Sudra practising all these duties as also for a Vaisya, O king, and a Kshatriya, the Bhikshu mode of life has been laid down.
Mbh.12.64.3556 If a Brahmana acts otherwise, he should be punished like a Sudra.
Mbh.12.71.4031 For waiting upon these three orders, O ruler of men, a fourth order, viz, the Sudra, sprung into life, being created from the feet of Brahman.
Mbh.12.71.4034 The Vaisya was created for supporting the two other orders and himself by cultivation and trade, and finally, it was ordained by Brahman that the Sudra should serve the three orders as a menial'
Mbh.12.77.4384 Yudhishthira said, If when robbers raise their heads and an inter-mixture of the orders begins to take place in consequence of confusion, and Kshatriyas become incompetent, some powerful person other than a Kshatriya seeks to subdue those robbers for the sake of protecting the people indeed, O best of kings, if that powerful person happens to be a Brahmana or a Vaisya or a Sudra, and if he succeeds in protecting the people by righteously wielding the rod of chastisement is he justified in doing what he does or is he restrained by the ordinances from accomplishing that duty?
Mbh.12.77.4386 Bhishma said, Be he a Sudra or be he the member of any other orders, he that becomes a raft on a raftless current, or a means of crossing where means there are none, certainly deserves respect in every way.
Mbh.12.90.5091 That person among Brahmanas or Kshatriyas or Vaisyas who, having fallen away from the proper duties of his order, has become a Sudra, is truly to be compared to such a washerman.
Mbh.12.90.5092 Menial service attaches to the Sudra; agriculture to the Vaisya; the science of chastisement to the Kshatriya, and Brahmacharya, penances, mantras, and truth, attach, to the Brahmana.
Mbh.12.129.7338 For a Kshatriya that has, in consequence of the weakness of his treasury and army, become exceedingly humiliated, neither a life of mendicancy nor the profession of a Vaisya or that of a Sudra has been laid down.
Mbh.12.152.9158 It is heard that a Sudra named Samvuka having been slain and righteousness having been upheld by Rama of true prowess, a dead Brahmana child was restored to life
Mbh.12.164.9685 The Sudra has no competence for performing a sacrifice.
Mbh.12.164.9686 The king should, therefore, take away wealth for such a purpose from a Sudra house of ours
Mbh.12.164.9706 The Vaisya and the Sudra should conquer their difficulties by wealth; the Brahmana should do so by Mantras and homa.
Mbh.12.164.9716 That Brahmana who, having married a Sudra girl, resides for twelve continuous years in a village has only a well for its water supply, becomes a Sudra in act.
Mbh.12.164.9717 That Brahmana who summons to his bed an unmarried maiden, or suffers a Sudra, thinking him worthy of respect, to sit upon the same carpet with him, should sit on a bed of dry grass behind some Kshatriya or Vaisya and give him respect in that fashion
Mbh.12.164.9766 Having slain a Sudra, one should perform such a sacrifice for one year and make a present of a hundred kine with one bull.
Mbh.12.164.9767 Having slain a dog or bear or camel, one should perform the same penance that is laid down for the slaughter of a Sudra.
Mbh.12.167.10086 He never accepted any food if given by a Sudra and, therefore, began to search for the house of a Brahmana there for accepting the duties of hospitality
Mbh.12.170.10199 I have married a Sudra spouse who had been a widow.
Mbh.12.172.10314 Gautama also, returning to his home in the village of the hunters, begot many sinful children upon his Sudra wife.
Mbh.12.188.11274 O best of regenerate ones, by what acts again does one become a Vaisya or a Sudra?
Mbh.12.188.11280 He who takes pleasure in eating every kind of food, who is engaged in doing every kind of work, who is impure in behaviour, who does not study the Vedas, and whose conduct is unclean, is said to be a Sudra.
Mbh.12.188.11281 If these characteristics be observable in a Sudra, and if they be not found in a Brahmana, then such a Sudra is no Sudra, and, such a Brahmana is no Brahmana.
Mbh.12.209.12680 One who is a Vaisya should hear it from Vaisyas, and a high-souled Sudra should hear it from Sudras.
Mbh.12.290.18240 A Kshatriya bereft of courage, a Brahmana that takes every kind of food, a Vaisya unendued with exertion in respect of agriculture and other moneymaking pursuits, a Sudra that is idle and, therefore, averse to labour, a learned person without good behaviour, one of high birth but destitute of righteous conduct, a Brahmana fallen away from truth, a woman that is unchaste and wicked, a Yogin endued with attachments, one that cooks food for one's own self, an ignorant person employed in making a discourse, a kingdom without a king and a king that cherishes no affection for his subjects and who is destitute of Yoga, these all, O king, are deserving of pity
Mbh.12.293.18319 If the ancestors of any Sudra were not engaged in service, he should not still engage himself in any other occupation than service.
Mbh.12.293.18342 Similarly, the Brahmana that is employed in studying the scriptures, the Vaisya that is engaged in earning wealth, and the Sudra that is always engaged in serving the three other classes with concentrated attention, become objects of respect.
Mbh.12.293.18352 The Brahmana shines by self restraint; the Kshatriya by victory; the Vaisya by wealth; while the Sudra always shines in glory through cleverness in serving the three other orders
Mbh.12.294.18353 SECTION CCXCV Parasara said, In the Brahmana, wealth acquired by acceptance of gifts, in the Kshatriya that won by victory in battle, in the Vaisya that obtained by following the duties laid down for his order, and in the Sudra that earned by serving the three other orders, however small its measure, is worthy of praise, and spent for the acquisition of virtue is productive of great benefits.
Mbh.12.294.18354 The Sudra is said to be the constant servitor of the three other classes.
Mbh.12.294.18357 When the Sudra is unable to obtain his living by service of the three other orders, then trade, rearing of cattle, and the practice of the mechanical arts are lawful for him to follow.
Mbh.12.296.18499 The Sudra never falls down by doing forbidden acts; nor is he worthy of any of the rites of regeneration.
Mbh.12.296.18502 O ruler of the Videhas, Brahmanas learned in the Vedas, O monarch, regard a virtuous Sudra as equal to Brahmana himself.
Mbh.12.296.18503 I, however, O king, look upon such a Sudra as the effulgent Vishnu of the universe, the foremost one in all the worlds
Mbh.12.308.19396 When Jiva considers himself different from what he truly is ie when he regards himself as fat or lean, fair or dark a Brahmana or a Sudra, it is only then that he fails to know the Supreme Soul and himself and Prakriti with which he is united.
Mbh.12.318.19931 Obtaining knowledge from a Brahmana or a Kshatriya or Vaisya or even a Sudra who is of low birth, one endued with faith should always show reverence for such knowledge.
Mbh.12.320.20341 Nor am I a Vaisya, nor a Sudra.
Mbh.12.340.22207 A Vaisya, by doing it, makes considerable profits, and a Sudra attains to great felicity.
Mbh.12.358.23733 The duty of the Sudra is to serve with humility persons of the three regenerate orders, viz, Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas.
Mbh.13.6.392 The Brahmana attains to prosperity by holy living, the Kshatriya by prowess, the Vaisya by manly exertion, and the Sudra by service.
Mbh.13.10.587 Once upon a time a Sudra endued with compassion for all creatures, ventured to come into that asylum.
Mbh.13.10.589 Beholding those ascetics of diverse classes that were endued with great energy, that resembled the deities in purity and power, and that were observing diverse kinds of Diksha, O Bharata, the Sudra became highly pleased at heart.
Mbh.13.10.590 Beholding everything, O chief of Bharata's race, the Sudra felt inclined to devote himself to the practice of penances.
Mbh.13.10.593 I am certainly inferior in colour, O illustrious one, for I am by caste a Sudra, O best of men.
Mbh.13.10.596 The Kulapati said, It is impossible that a Sudra should live here adopting the marks specially intended for those practising lives of Renunciation.
Mbh.13.10.599 Bhishma continued, Thus addressed by the ascetic, the Sudra began to reflect in his mind, O king, saying, How should I now act?
Mbh.13.10.608 The Sudra welcomed and worshipped the Rishi with due rites, and gratified him highly.
Mbh.13.10.610 In this way, O chief of the Bharatas, that Rishi, O best of men, came into the asylum of the Sudra times out of a number for the object of seeing him.
Mbh.13.10.611 On one of these occasions, the Sudra, O king, addressing the Rishi said, I desire to perform the rites that are ordained for the Pitris.
Mbh.13.10.614 The Sudra then, purifying himself by a bath, brought water for the Rishi to wash his feet, and he also brought some Kusa grass, and wild herbs and fruits, and a sacred seat, and the seat called Vrishi.
Mbh.13.10.615 The Vrishi, however, was placed by the Sudra towards the south, with his head turned to the west.
Mbh.13.10.616 Beholding, this and knowing that it was against the ordinance, the Rishi addressed the Sudra, saying, Place the Vrishi with its head turned towards the East, and having purified thyself, do thou sit with thy face turned towards the north, The Sudra did everything as the Rishi directed.
Mbh.13.10.617 Possessed of great intelligence, and observant of righteousness, the Sudra received every direction, about the Sraddha, as laid down in the ordinance, from that Rishi endued with penances regarding the manner of spreading the Kusa grass, and placing the Arghyas, and as regards the rites to be observed in the matter of the libations to be poured and the food to be offered.
Mbh.13.10.618 After the rites in honour of the Pitris had been accomplished, the Rishi, was dismissed by the Sudra, whereupon he returned to his own abode
Mbh.13.10.619 After a long time, the whole of which he passed in the practice of such penances and vows, the Sudra ascetic met with his death in those woods.
Mbh.13.10.620 In consequence of the merit he acquired by those practices, the Sudra in the next life, took birth in the family of a great king, and in course of time became possessed of great splendour.
Mbh.13.10.623 It was in this way that those two, viz, that Sudra who had passed a life of penances and that regenerate Rishi who had in kindness given the former some instructions in the matter of the rites performed in honour of the Pitris, became reborn, the one as scion of a royal race and the other as the member of a priestly family.
Mbh.13.10.628 Meanwhile, the reborn Sudra who had become a prince, when his father, the king died, performed his last rites; and after he had purified himself by accomplishing all the obsequial ceremonies, he was installed by the subjects of his father as their king on his paternal throne.
Mbh.13.10.633 In this way, O monarch, the reborn Sudra who had become a king, laughed at sight of his priest on numberless occasions
Mbh.13.10.659 In my former life I was a Sudra employed in the practice of severe penances.
Mbh.13.18.2887 By reciting this hymn the Brahmana succeeds in acquiring all the Vedas; the Kshatriya becomes crowned with victory, O son of Pritha; the Vaisya becomes successful in obtaining wealth and cleverness; and the Sudra, in winning happiness here and a good end hereafter.
Mbh.13.23.3282 Gifts of articles that have been proclaimed before many people or from which a portion has been eaten by a Sudra, or that have been seen or licked by a dog, form portions of Rakshasas.
Mbh.13.23.3295 Those Brahmanas who pour libations on the sacred fire for Sudras, or who are preceptors of Sudras, or who as servants of Sudra masters, do not deserve to be invited.
Mbh.13.23.3297 That Brahmana who has been once induced to accept the gift of food in a Sraddha at the very outset, as also he who has married a Sudra wife, even if possessed of every kind of knowledge do not deserve to be invited
Mbh.13.23.3319 Similarly, upon the conclusion of a Sraddha performed by a Sudra, the word that should be uttered is Swasti, In respect of a Brahmana, the declaration regarding Punyaham should be accompanied with the utterance of the syllable Om.
Mbh.13.27.3662 O best of kings, how may one, if he happens to be a Kshatriya or a Vaisya or a Sudra, succeed in acquiring the status of a Brahmana?
Mbh.13.27.3693 The she-ass said, Begotten thou wert, upon a Brahmana woman excited with desire, by a Sudra following the profession of a barber.
Mbh.13.27.3702 O father, this she-ass, who seems to be more than a human being, tells me that I have been begotten upon a Brahmani woman by a Sudra.
Mbh.13.28.3735 Passing a period of one thousand years in that order, one attains next to the status of a Sudra.
Mbh.13.28.3736 In the Sudra order, again, one has to wander for a long time.
Mbh.13.28.3739 After a time that is sixty times longer than what has been stated as the period of Sudra existence, one becomes a person of the fighting order.
Mbh.13.40.4389 Sometimes he shows himself as young and sometimes as old Sometimes he appears as a Brahmana, sometimes as a Kshatriya, sometimes as a Vaisya, and sometimes as a Sudra.
Mbh.13.44.4630 Some say that persons belonging to the three higher orders may take, only for purposes of enjoyment and not for those of virtue, wives from the lowest or the Sudra order.
Mbh.13.44.4632 The righteous condemn the practice of begetting issue upon Sudra women.
Mbh.13.44.4633 A Brahmana, by begetting children upon a Sudra woman, incurs the liability of performing an expiation.
Mbh.13.47.4817 It has been laid down, O grandsire, that a Brahmana can take four wives, viz, one that belongs to his own order, one that is a Kshatriya, one that is a Vaisya, and one that is a Sudra, if the Brahmana wishes to indulge in the desire of sexual intercourse.
Mbh.13.47.4823 Through erroneous judgment or cupidity or lust, O scorcher of foes, a Brahmana takes a Sudra wife.
Mbh.13.47.4825 A Brahmana, by taking a Sudra woman to his bed, attains to a low end in the next world.
Mbh.13.47.4835 It has been said that the son that has been begotten by the Brahmana sire upon the Sudra wife should not take any portion of the father's wealth, for he is not to be considered an heir.
Mbh.13.47.4836 A little, however, of the paternal wealth should be given to the son of the Sudra wife, hence the one remaining share should be given to him out of compassion.
Mbh.13.47.4839 The son born of the Sudra wife should not be regarded as invested with the status of a Brahmana in consequence of his being unskilled in the scriptures and the duties ordained for the Brahmana.
Mbh.13.47.4842 The son by the Sudra wife shall take the tenth part of his sire's wealth that remains after the allotment has been made to the others in the way spoken of.
Mbh.13.47.4845 Some portion of the sire's wealth should without doubt, be given, O Bharata, to the son of the Sudra wife.
Mbh.13.47.4847 It is through compassion that something is given to the son of the Sudra wife.
Mbh.13.47.4849 Whether the sire happens to have children by his spouses belonging to the other orders or to have no children by such spouses, unto the son by the Sudra wife, O Bharata, nothing more than a tenth part of the sire's wealth should be given.
Mbh.13.47.4861 Yudhishthira said, If the son born of a Sudra woman by a Brahmana father has been declared in the scriptures to be disentitled to any wealth, by what exceptional rule then is a tenth part of the paternal property to be given to him?
Mbh.13.47.4901 The Kshatriya may take a third wife from the Sudra order.
Mbh.13.47.4907 The remaining one or the eighth share shall be taken by the son of the Sudra wife.
Mbh.13.47.4908 The son of the Sudra wife, however, shall take only when the father gives but not otherwise.
Mbh.13.47.4910 A second wife is taken from the Sudra order.
Mbh.13.47.4912 If a Vaisya has two wives, one of whom is a Vaisya and the other a Sudra, there is a difference between them in respect of status.
Mbh.13.47.4916 The fifth share, O Bharata, has been said to belong to the son born of the Sudra wife.
Mbh.13.47.4919 The son that is begotten on a Sudra wife by persons of the three higher orders should always be regarded as disentitled to any share of the sire's wealth.
Mbh.13.47.4920 The Sudra should have only one wife taken from his own order.
Mbh.13.48.4937 Those sons, however, that are begotten by him on the two spouses that belong to the next two orders viz, Vaisya and Sudra, are inferior, their status being determined not by that of their father but by that of their mothers.
Mbh.13.48.4938 The son that is begotten by a Brahmana upon a Sudra wife is called Parasara, implying one born of a corpse, for the Sudra woman's body is as inauspicious as a corpse.
Mbh.13.48.4945 His third wife being of the Sudra order is regarded as very inferior.
Mbh.13.48.4949 The Sudra can take only one wife, viz, she that is taken from his own order.
Mbh.13.48.4950 The son begotten by him upon her becomes a Sudra.
Mbh.13.48.4957 If a Sudra unites with a woman belonging to the foremost of the four orders, the son that is begotten is called a Chandala.
Mbh.13.48.4963 The son begotten through transgression, by a Sudra upon a Kshatriya women, becomes a Nishada and the duties assigned to him have reference to the catching of fish.
Mbh.13.48.4964 If a Sudra happens to have intercourse with a Vaisya woman, the son begotten upon her comes to be called Ayogava.
Mbh.13.48.4973 As an example of this it may be said that a Sudra begets upon a woman belonging to the most superior order a son that is outside the pale of the four orders for such a son comes to be regarded as a Chandala who is much inferior.
Mbh.13.49.5044 One may worship even a Sudra if he happens to be conversant with duties and be of good conduct.
Mbh.13.49.5067 The son that a Sudra begets upon a Brahmana woman is called a Chandala.
Mbh.13.49.5068 Begotten upon a Kshatriya woman by a person of the Sudra order, the son is called a Vratya.
Mbh.13.49.5069 He who is born of a Vaisya woman by a Sudra father is called a Vaidya.
Mbh.13.59.5826 The Vaisya in a similar manner used in those days to worship the royal order, and the Sudra to worship the Vaisya.
Mbh.13.59.5829 Without being able to touch him or approach his presence, the Sudra used to serve the Brahmana from a distance.
Mbh.13.63.6113 One made to a Sudra becomes productive of great merit.
Mbh.13.73.6763 If a Vaisya, possessed of similar accomplishments, were to make a gift of a single cow, that cow would be equal to five hundred kine in respect of the merit she would produce If a Sudra endued with humility were to make a gift of a cow, such a cow would be equal to a hundred and twenty-five kine in respect of the merit it would produce Devoted to penances and truth, proficient in the scriptures and all acts through dutiful services rendered to his preceptor, endued with forgiveness of disposition, engaged in the worship of the deities, possessed of a tranquil soul, pure in body and mind, enlightened, observant of all duties, and freed from every kind of egotism, that man who makes a gift of a cow unto a Brahmana, certainly attains to great merit through that act of his, viz, the gift, according to proper rites, of a cow yielding copious milk.
Mbh.13.73.6775 A Vaisya, by such conduct, acquires only half the merit of a Kshatriya, and a Sudra, by such conduct, earns half the merit that a Vaisya does.
Mbh.13.75.6872 The Sudra, who duly observes the duties of his order which consist of services rendered to the three other orders wins heaven as the reward of such services.
Mbh.13.90.8071 That person who having eaten at a Sraddha does not abstain that day from study of the Vedas or who has sexual congress that day with a Sudra woman, must know that his Pitris, in consequence of such acts of his, have to lie for a month on his dung.
Mbh.13.93.8279 A Sudra of the name of Pasusakha married Ganda and became her husband.
Mbh.13.93.8492 Let him live with that Brahmana who resides in a village which has only one well from which water is drawn by all classes and who has married a Sudra woman
Mbh.13.94.8585 Let him take birth in a Sudra woman!
Mbh.13.94.8587 Dilipa said, Let him who has stolen thy stalks descend to those regions of misery and infamy which are reserved for that Brahmana who re-sides in a village having but one well and who has sexual congress with a Sudra woman
Mbh.13.94.8596 Let him eat at the Sraddha of a Sudra'
Mbh.13.104.9302 One should not set out on a journey at early dawn, or at midday, or in the evening twilight, or with a companion that is unknown, or with a Sudra, or alone.
Mbh.13.111.10076 That Sudra who has sexual intercourse with a Brahmana woman, has, after death, to take birth as a hog.
Mbh.13.111.10081 The Sudra who begets offspring upon a Brahmana woman, leaving off his human form, becomes reborn as a mouse.
Mbh.13.112.10176 That Sudra who, earning food by hard labour and at the risk of life itself, makes a gift of it to Brahmanas, becomes cleansed from every sin.
Mbh.13.117.10487 O puissant one, I was a Sudra possessed of great wealth.
Mbh.13.118.10529 He had, before becoming a Kshatriya, to pass through diverse orders of being, such as hedgehog and Iguana and boar and deer and bird, and Chandala and Sudra and Vaisya.
Mbh.13.118.10546 The sin thou committed in a former life has not yet been destroyed, that sin, viz, which was earned by thee while thou wert a Sudra covetous of wealth and cruel in behaviour and hostile to the Brahmanas.
Mbh.13.118.10552 The Sudra rises to the status of the Vaisya; and the Vaisya to that of the Kshatriya.
Mbh.13.126.11003 Dharma said, The offerings made in all rites in honour of the deities and in those in honour of the Pitris should never be given away to a Brahmana that has accepted service under the king, or that rings the bell or attends to subsidiary duties in acts of worship or at Sraddhas, or that keeps kine, or that is engaged in trade, or that follows some art as a profession, or that is an actor, or that quarrels with friends or that is destitute of Vedic studies, or that marries a Sudra woman.
Mbh.13.128.11082 That man who thinks it all right when a Sudra ignites the fire upon which he is to pour libations or who does not see any fault when women who are incompetent to assist at Sraddhas and other rites are allowed to assist at them, really becomes stained with sin.
Mbh.13.128.11084 In his next life he has to take birth as a Sudra.
Mbh.13.135.11279 From whom may a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, and a Sudra take their food respectively'
Mbh.13.135.11280 Bhishma said, A Brahmana may take his food from another Brahmana or from a Kshatriya or a Vaisya, but he must never accept food from a Sudra.
Mbh.13.135.11284 But the man who takes food from a Sudra, swallows the very abomination of the earth, and drinks the excretions of the human body, and partakes of the filth of all the world.
Mbh.13.135.11285 He partakes of the very filth of the earth who takes his food thus from a Sudra.
Mbh.13.135.11287 If one engages in the service of a Sudra, one is doomed to perdition though one may duly perform all the rites of one's order.
Mbh.13.135.11292 The man who abandons his own proper occupation and betakes himself to that of a Sudra, should be considered as a Sudra and on no account should any food be accepted from him.
Mbh.13.135.11297 If a Brahmana approved by the good, takes the food of one who lives by his learning, he is regarded as taking the food of a Sudra.
Mbh.13.136.11331 By eating with a Sudra from off the same plate the Sudra loses his family respectability; the Vaisya by eating from off the same plate with a Vaisya, loses his cattle and friends.
Mbh.13.141.11618 And what kind of duties appertain to the Sudra'
Mbh.13.141.11634 Another duty of the Brahmana consists in avoiding the food prepared by the Sudra.
Mbh.13.141.11673 The service of the three regenerate classes constitutes the high duty of the Sudra.
Mbh.13.141.11674 That Sudra who is truthful in speech and who has subdued his senses is regarded as having acquired meritorious penances.
Mbh.13.141.11675 Verily, the Sudra, who having got a guest, discharges the duties of hospitality towards him, is regarded as acquiring the merit of high penances.
Mbh.13.141.11676 That intelligent Sudra whose conduct is righteous and who worships the deities and Brahmanas, becomes endued with the desirable rewards of righteousness.
Mbh.13.141.11709 The duties of the Sudra consist in the pursuit of the aggregate of three.
Mbh.13.143.11882 Through the evil consequence of what acts cloth a Vaisya become a Sudra?
Mbh.13.143.11885 Through what acts does a Brahmana take birth in his next life, in the Sudra order?
Mbh.13.143.11886 Through what acts, O puissant deity, does a Kshatriya also descend to the status of Sudra?
Mbh.13.143.11891 After the same manner the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra, all become so through original creation.
Mbh.13.143.11898 Similarly, one that is a Vaisya by birth may, by following the practices of a Sudra, become a Sudra.
Mbh.13.143.11899 Indeed, a Brahmana, falling away from the duties of his own order, may descend to the status of even a Sudra, Such a Brahmana, falling away from the order of his birth and turned out of it, without attaining to the region of Brahmana which is his goal if he duly observes his own duties, sinks into Hell and in his next birth becomes born as a Sudra.
Mbh.13.143.11900 A highly blessed Kshatriya or a Vaisya, that abandons those practices of his that are consistent with the duties laid down for his order, and follows the practices laid down for the Sudra, falls away from his own order and becomes a person of mixed caste.
Mbh.13.143.11902 or a Kshatriya, or a Vaisya, sinks into the status of a Sudra.
Mbh.13.143.11909 So also is the food that is stained in consequence of the usual faults and the food that is supplied by a Sudra.
Mbh.13.143.11911 The food of a Sudra, O goddess, is always disapproved of by the high-souled deities.
Mbh.13.143.11913 If a Brahmana, who has set up the sacred fire and who performs sacrifices, were to die with any portion of a Sudra's food remaining undigested in his stomach, he is sure to take birth in his next life as a Sudra.
Mbh.13.143.11915 Such a Brahmana becomes invested with the status of a Sudra.
Mbh.13.143.11919 That Brahmana who drinks alcohol, who becomes guilty of Brahmanicide or mean in his behaviour, or a thief, or who breaks his vows, or becomes impure, or unmindful of his Vedic studies, or sinful, or characterised by cupidity, or guilty of cunning or cheating, or who does not observe vows, or who weds a Sudra woman, or who derives his subsistence by pandering to the lusts of other people or who sells the Soma plant, or who serves a person of an order below his, falls away from his status of Brahmanahood
Mbh.13.143.11921 By these good acts, again, O goddess, when performed, a Sudra becomes a Brahmana, and a Vaisya becomes a Kshatriya.
Mbh.13.143.11922 The Sudra should perform all the duties laid down for him, properly and according to the ordinance.
Mbh.13.143.11924 Always adhering to the path of righteousness, the Sudra should cheerfully do all this.
Mbh.13.143.11930 If, indeed, the Sudra desires to be a Vaisya in his next life, he should also abstain from meat of animals not slain in sacrifices.
Mbh.13.143.11965 It is with the aid of these acts, O goddess, that a person who has sprung from a degraded order, viz, a Sudra, may become a Brahmana refined of all stains and possessed of Vedic lore, One that is a Brahmana, when he becomes wicked in conduct and observes no distinction in respect of food, falls away from the status of Brahmanahood and becomes a Sudra.
Mbh.13.143.11966 Even a Sudra, O goddess, that has purified his soul by pure deeds and that has subjugated all his senses, deserves to be waited upon and served with reverence as a Brahmana.
Mbh.13.143.11968 When a pious nature and pious deeds are noticeable in even a Sudra, he should, according to my opinion, be held superior to a person of the three regenerate classes.
Mbh.13.143.11972 A Sudra, if he is established on good conduct, is regarded as possessed of the status of a Brahmana.
Mbh.13.143.11986 I have thus told thee a mystery, viz, the manner in which a Sudra may become a Brahmana, or that by which a Brahmana falls away from his own pure status and becomes a Sudra
Mbh.13.149.12542 A Vaisya, by doing it, becomes possessed of affluence, while a Sudra earns great happiness.
Mbh.13.164.13655 They that are righteous among the Sudras never betake themselves to such hypocrisy under the plea that persons of the Sudra order are not permitted to live according to any of the four prescribed modes.
Mbh.14.36.1488 Coming to sinful births and becoming Chandalas or human beings that are deaf or that lisp indistinctly, they attain to higher and higher castes, one after another in proper turn, transcending the Sudra order, and other consequences of qualities that appertain to Darkness and that abide in it in course of migrations in this world
Mbh.14.39.1548 Darkness occurs in the Sudra; Passion in the Kshatriya; and Goodness, which is the highest, in the Brahmana.
Jijith.JPG
Jijith Nadumuri Ravi
Research data published for the interest of people researching on Mahabharata.
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Reference:- Mahabharata of Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, translated to English by Kisari Mohan Ganguli; Source of Plain Text: www.sacred-texts.com; Wikified at AncientVoice.

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