Krita Yuga 2
2000 BC to 1000 BC
As discussed, length of Krita Yuga 2 can be 1000 years (2000 BC to 1000 BC) or 400 years (2000 BC to 1600 BC). Currently I am giving more weight to a 1000 year long Krita-Yuga-2.
Birth and life of Kalki
2000 BC to 1900 BC
At Vana Parva of Mahabharata, Markandeya mentions about Kalki, in the style of a future prediction. Many such narrations in Puranas like Bhavishya_Purana mentioned in the style of future predictions were actually narrations of events occurred in the past. These narrations got added to these texts as contemporary history. As a result these text grew with the passage of time. Hence the reader need not be surprised to know that Kalki was already born and became part of history.
Following is how Markandeya described Kalki in Vana Parva (Book 3) of Mahabharata, section-189:-
When the Sun, the Moon, and Vrihaspati (planet Jupiter) will, with the constellation Pushya, enter the same sign, the Krita age will begin again. A Brahmana of the name of Kalki will take his birth. He will glorify Vishnu and possess great energy, great intelligence, and great prowess. He will take his birth in a town of the name of Sambhala in an auspicious Brahmana family. Vehicles and weapons, and warriors and arms, and coats of mail will be at his disposal as soon as he will think of them. He will be the king of kings, and ever victorious with the strength of virtue. He will restore order and peace in this world crowded with creatures and contradictory in its course. That blazing Brahmana of mighty intellect, having appeared, will destroy all things. He will be the Destroyer of all, and will inaugurate a new Yuga. Surrounded by the Brahmanas, that Brahmana will exterminate all the Mlecchas wherever those low and despicable persons may take refuge.
Kalki, a Vaishnava Brahmana Ruler
As per our analysis, Kali Yuga 1 ended in 2000 BC. Hence Kalki was born around 2000 BC, at the junction of Kali Yuga 1 and Krita Yuga 2. The new Yuga created by (ensued after) Kalki is the Krita Yuga 2. Mention of the alignment of Sun, Moon, Jupiter and the constellation Pushya is usually considered as the start of a 12 year long Brihaspati (Jupiter) Yuga. This does not allow us to accurately predict when exactly Kalki was born. It could be any of the Jupiter-Pushya alignments occurred close to 2000 BC, that occurs once in every 12 years. Kumbhamela is based on this 12 year long Brihaspati Yuga. Kali was probably a Vaishnava-Brahmana saint or king who rebelled against the western tribes collectively known as the Mlecchas (viz. the Andhhas, the Sakas, the Pulindas, the Yavanas, the Kamvojas, the Valhikas and the Abhiras) and defeated them all. He was born in a town named Sambhala. He was a worshiper of Vishnu, hence a Vaishnava. Vaishava religion was then gaining prominence. He probably mobilized the society to defeat the invaders. They were either converted into Vaishnava religion or were driven out completely.
Brahmanical rule after Kalki
1900 BC to 1500 BC?
section-190:- Markandeya continued, Having exterminated the thieves and robbers, Kalki will, at a great Horse-sacrifice (Ashwamedha), duly give away this earth to the Brahmanas, and having established anew the blessed rectitude ordained by the Self-create, Kalki, of sacred deeds and illustrious reputation, will enter a delightful forest, and the people of this earth will imitate his conduct, and when the Brahmanas will have exterminated the thieves and robbers, there will be prosperity everywhere on earth. And as the countries of the earth will one after another be subjugated, that tiger among Brahmanas, Kalki, having placed deer skins and lances and tridents there, will roam over the earth, adored by foremost Brahmanas and showing his regard for them and engaged all the while in slaughtering thieves and robbers. And he will exterminate the thieves and robbers amid heart-rending cries of Oh, father, Oh, mother, O son' and the like, and O Bharata, when sin will thus have been rooted out and virtue will flourish on arrival of the Krita age, men will once more betake themselves to the practice of religious rites. And in the age that will set in, viz, the Krita, well-planted gardens and sacrificial compounds and large tanks and educational centres for the cultivation of Brahmanic lore and ponds and temples will re-appear everywhere. And the ceremonies and rites of sacrifices will also begin to be performed. I have now told thee everything appertaining to both the past and the future as narrated by Vayu in the Purana which goes by his name and which is adored by the Rishis.
In conducting of a final sacrifice and giving away the territories he controlled to the Brahmanas, Kalki has some similarity with Parasurama of Treta-Yuga. Parasurama too defeated many Kshatriyas like Haihayas who were hostile to Brahmana (Bhrigu) settlements, made a final sacrifice and then gave away the territories to Brahmanas. This raises a doubt if Parasurama was from Treta-2 that ensued after the Krita-1 of Kalki's life time instead of being from Treta-1. This will be discussed in another thread. What is clear from this passage is that, at the end of Kalki's career as a warrior who fought against the western tribes, he made an Aswamedha sacrifice. This was not necessarily an animal sacrifice involving killing of a horse. In fact in Krita Yuga 2 there were no animal sacrifices. It was introduced in Treta Yuga 2. In Krita-2, only seed (Aja) was used for sacrifice. In Treta-2, the meaning of Aja changed to denote a goat. Thus animal sacrifices originated. Similarly then Aswamedha also started to mean slaying of horses for sacrifices.
We can also understand from the passage that this was an era when Brahmanas became rulers. Many other Brahmana rulers, following Kalki engaged in the oppression of the Mleccha tribes. Brahminical religious rites were thus re-established. Many gardens, sacrificial compounds, artificial lakes, ponds, education centers and temples were constructed in this period. Education centers were then used to spread Brahmanic lore and Brahmanic (Vaishnava?) religion. From the concluding line we can also understand that this information was added to Mahabharata from Vayu_Purana which was being developed during this period.
Emergence of Sattwata religion
1900 BC to 1000 BC
Mbh.12.348:- Do thou receive also from me this excellent religion known by the name of Sattwata. Aided by that religion do thou create the Krita age and ordain it duly. Thus addressed, Brahma bowed his head unto the illustrious Hari, the god of the gods and received from him that foremost of all cults with all its mysteries and its abstract of details, together with the Aranyakas
Mbh.12.348:- From Sanatkumara, the Prajapati Virana, in the beginning of the Krita age, obtained this cult.
Mbh.12.348:- Having created this religion in days of yore, viz, in the Krita age, in perfect consonance with the Samans..
Sattwata religion is same as Vaishnava religion with worship of Krishna as the primary form of Vishnu. From this narration we get that the Aranyakas the final parts of the Vedas too were formed in the same period. The Prajapati (patriarch) Virana seems to be a Krita Yuga 2 figure since he was never mentioned in the list of any of the ancient Prajapatis like Daksha. The Krita age after the emergence of Samans (Sama Veda) is certainly Krita-2 and not Krita-1, because the bulk of the Vedas were authored in Treata-1 (8000 BC to 5000 BC) and Sama Veda was the last to emerge.
Yogini named Sulabha
Mbh.12.320 Yogini Sulabha and King Janaka of Mithila:-
In the same Satya Yuga (Krita Yuga), a woman of the name of Sulabha, belonging to the mendicant order, practised the duties of Yoga and wandered over the whole Earth. In course of her wanderings over the Earth, Sulabha heard from many Dandis of different places that the ruler of Mithila was devoted to the religion of Emancipation. Hearing this report about king Janaka and desirous of ascertaining whether it was true or not, Sulabha became desirous of having a personal interview with Janaka.
From the above narration in Santi Parva of Mahabharata, it becomes clear that in Krita Yuga 2 there were many noble female scholars practicing Yoga. The Yogini Sulabha mentioned in this passage of Santi Parva of Mahabharata wandered over and spread Yoga. She even conversed with the Janakas, the rulers of Mithila (of Videha kingdom) well known for their scholarship. This could be the result of liberalizing effect of the rule of Kalki. Whatever be the case, in this Krita Yuga women enjoyed a greater freedom.
Population Explosion event
Mbh.3.141, Lomasa to Yudhisthira, while climbing himalayas near Manthara mountain close to Gangotri:-
There was once a terrible time in the Krita Yuga when the eternal and primeval Deity assumed the duties of Yama. Then there died not a creature while the births were as usual. Then there began to multiply birds and beasts and kine, and sheep, and deer and all kinds of carnivorous animals. Then the human race also increased by thousands even like unto a current of water. When the increase of population had been so frightful, the Earth oppressed with the excessive burden, sank down for a hundred yojanas.
This narration mentions about a population explosion that occurred in Indo-Gangatic plains during Krita Yuga 2. This could also be a reference to more number of people who started inhabiting the Himalayan terrain (in the formerly uninhabited valleys and slopes between mountain folds) due to saturation of population in the Indo-Gangatic plain. The mention of earth sinking down could be reference to a tectonic activity that occurred in Himalaya near Gangotri. This region is prone to tectonic activity which sometimes result in tremors and sinking of pieces of land which can also happen in inhabited terrains.
Camels in the desert
1500 BC onwards
Mbh.12.111:- There was, in the Krita age, a huge camel who had recollection of all the acts of his former life
This narration indicates the usage of camels in the desert regions of Rajastan the place where Saraswati flowed once in all its glory.
Sacrifice of 12 years in Naimisha
Mbh.9.35:- Vaishampayana said, Formerly, in the Krita age, the ascetics dwelling in Naimisha were engaged in a grand sacrifice extending for twelve years. After the completion of that twelve years' sacrifice at Naimisha, set out in large number for visiting the tirthas. In consequence of the number of the Rishis, O king, the tirthas on the southern banks of the Sarasvati all looked like towns and cities. They took up their abodes on the bank of the river up to the site of Samantapanchaka. (Himachal to Hariyana?)
Mahabharata mentions in Adi Parva, in the very first chapter about a sacrifice that occurred in the start of Kali Yuga (Kali Yuga 1: 3000 BC to 2000 BC). This sacrifice occurred around 2800 BC and was headed by Saunaka and occurred at Naimisha a forest that lied between Panchala and Kosala kingdoms. I guess the tradition of conducting 12 year long sacrifice at Naimisha continued as a tradition. These sages then set out to visit pilgrim centers and seems to have settled on the lakes in Kurukshetra formed along the former course of river Saraswati. These places later grew into areas of population centers due to frequent visits and permanent settlements of pilgrims.
Emergence of the Laws of Manu
Mbh.12.36:- In the Krita age, an assembly of Rishis, of rigid vows, having approached the great and puissant lord of creation, Manu, while seated at his ease, solicited him to discourse on duties, saying, What food should be taken, who is to be regarded a deserving person for gifts, what gifts should be made, how should a person study, and what penances should one perform and how, and what acts should be done and what acts should not be done, O lord of creation, tell us everything about all this'
The lineage of Manu originated from prehistoric times (Krita Yuga1). The epics and Puranas mentions as many as fourteen most popular members of this lineage. Some of them were sages and some others were kings. In later stages like in Krita Yuga 2 prominent members of Manu's lineage engaged in law making. This resulted in the laws of Manu (Manusmriti), often criticized or misinterpreted by subsequent thinkers even in 20th century.
Mbh.13.14:- There was a celebrated Rishi of the name of Savarni in the Krita age….He become an author celebrated through all the worlds.
The sage (Rishi) Savarni mentioned here seems to be the Manu who played a role in the authoring of the law of Manu.
Emergene of Danda Neeti of Prithu
Mbh.12.58:- Bhishma said, listen to it in detail as to how in the Krita age sovereignty first began.
This narration goes on and towards the end speaks about the science of punishment (in kingdoms to uphold justice). As per this Dandaniti the science of punishment initially contained 10,000 lessons (Dandaniti named Vaisalaksha) which was then abridged to 5000 lessons (Dandaniti named Vahu-dandanaka), to 3000 lessons (Varhaspatya Dandaniti) and finally to 1000 lessons (Sukra's / Kavi's Dandaniti).
Here we also gets the lineage of Prithu. As per this Prithu's lineage originate from Vishnu. This was the impact of Vaishnava religion where kings were considered as originating from Vishnu or as born in the lineage originating from Vishnu. This ideology is also seen among kings of Nepal even in 21st century. Prior to Krita Yuga 2 (2000 BC to 1000 BC) no body is mentioned as direct descendant of Vishnu and there is no mention of any sons born to Vishnu.
Prithu's lineage is mentioned as Vishnu > Virajas > Krittimat > Kardama > Anaga > Ativala > Vena > Prithu. The Nishadas and Mlechas who inhabited Rajastan region in this period too were considered as sons of Vena and thus contemporary of Prithu. The Mlechas mentioned here probably were the Kambojas or other tribes who inhabited the sea shore or those who invaded to these regions since the start of Kali Yuga 1 (3000 BC). Prithu was assisted by Saraswatas and Valikhilyas as priests and had Sutas (belonging to the Anga kingdom, Bihar) and Magadhas (belonging to the Magadha kingdom, Bihar) as his bards.
Prithu was thus a ruler who controlled a large territory including the current Rajastan and Bihar. He probably also had influence on Iranian territories. The name Parthia, a kingdom in Iran seems to be derived from the name of Prithu. In Bhavishya-Purana sage Kardama is mentioned as the father of Adama, who banished Adama from his hermitage due to mis-conduct. This is very similar to the banishment of the Biblical Adem from heaven by the Biblical God.
Integration of new tribes and castes
1200 BC to 1000 BC
Mbh.12.64:- Here we have the following interesting passage mentioned as told by Vishnu in the form of Indra (!) to king Mandhatri:- What duties should be performed by the Yavanas, the Kiratas, the Gandharvas, the Chinas, the Savaras, the Barbaras, the Sakas, the Tusharas, the Kankas, the Pathavas, the Andhras, the Madrakas, the Paundras, the Pulindas, the Ramathas, the Kamvojas, the several castes that have sprung up from Brahmanas and Kshatriyas, the Vaisyas, and the Sudras, that reside in the dominions of Arya kings? What are those duties again to the observance of which kings like ourselves should force those tribes that subsist by robbery? I desire to hear all this.
O illustrious god, instruct me. O chief of all the deities, thou art the friend of us Kshatriyas' Indra said, All the robber tribes should serve their mothers and fathers, their preceptors and other seniors, and recluses living in the woods. All the robber tribes should also serve their kings. The duties and rites inculcated in the Vedas should also be followed by them. They should perform sacrifices in honour of the Pitris, dig wells, and dedicate them to universal service, give water to thirsty travellers, give away beds and make other seasonable presents unto Brahmanas.
This narration gives us a glimpse of all the tribes that were settled in ancient India by the end of Krita Yuga 2 (1000 BC). Obiviously it includes a larger number or tribes mentioned in the list of invasion mentioned in Kali Yuga1 (3000 BC to 2000 BC). This list now includes Chinas (China). In Kali Yuga (3000 BC to 2000 BC) a king of China named Dhautamulaka (2200 BC?) is mentioned. He probably ruled in Tibet. By the end of Krita Yuga 2 (1000 BC) they are assimilated and accepted along with the Savaras, Barbaras and Ramathas who reached India in these periods (2500 BC to 1000 BC). Similarly Kiratas ruled in Nepal and [wkipedia:Himachal_Pradesh].
We also see that the varna-system (caste-system) that formerly had only four castes or varnas viz. Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra multiplied into 16 and then 256 castes. These too was accepted by the society. Subsequently, as the narration indicates rules and guidelines were laid out for them to follow.
Mention of digging of wells indicated dependence of society on water sources other than naturally occurring rivers and lakes.
Works on the Upanishads
1500 BC to 1000 BC
Mbh.12.335:- Vrihaspati was born in Angiras's race in the first or the Krita age, those seven Rishis charged him with the task of promulgating their treatise which was consistent with the Upanishads and the several branches of the Vedas This passage gives a glimpse of the continuing work on the Upanishads the last portions of the Vedas and the philosophical conclusion of the Vedas. The Vrihaspati mentioned here is indeed a sage in the Angira's race but not the ancient Vrihaspati.
Vyasa of Krita Yuga 2
1100 BC to 1000 BC
Mbh.12.349:- In the Krita age, Narayana of great puissance and mighty energy, created him (Vyasa) as his son.
Vyasa referred in this narration is a Vyasa in the lineage of the original Vyasa of Dwapara-1. He like his forefathers engaged in the authorship of Puranas as well as in the modification and addition of new verses into Mahabharata.
Changing meaning of the word Aja
1100 BC to 1000 BC
Mbh.12.336:- In this Krita age, this anger to which thou (Vasu) hast given way, should not be the characteristic of any one
Mbh.12.337:- This, again, is the Krita age. How can animals be slaughtered in this epoch of righteousness?
These narrations mentions about a dispute. The dispute is about the meaning of the word Aja. In most part of Krita Yuga 2 (2000 BC to 1000 BC) the word 'Aja' meant 'vegetable-seed'. A sacrifice of 'Aja' thus meant sacrifice of vegetable seeds. But the tribes of Devas (could be some western tribe who invaded and came to India during Kali Yuga 1 or in Krita Yuga 2, imposting themselves as the new tribe of Devas) argued that the word Aja meant the animal 'goat'. Thus they wanted permission for animal-sacrifice and wanted to slay goats as part of sacrifices. The sages who were against animal sacrifices as ordained by Kalki in the beginning of Krita Yuga 2 (2000 BC) opposed this new comer Devas and maintained that Aja means seed. During this time the king of the land was Vasu (not to be confused with the ancient Vasu). He probably ruled his kingdom making an alliance with the invading tribes of the Devas and declared that Aja meant goat and thus permitted animal sacrifices (slaying of goat).
All these indicate how animal sacrifices were reintroduced into ancient India towards the end of Krita-2 and the beginning of Treta-2 by redefining the meaning of words like 'Aja'. At Mbh.13.150 we learn that a king named Rantideva too performed a sacrifice named Gomedha (which would then mean the slaying of cows as per the new definition effected by this new Deva tribe) in Krita age (Krita-2). to satisfy the Devas. These corruption thus occurred towards the end of Krita-2 (1000 BC) onwards.
Confusion on Yuga System
1100 BC to 1000 BC
- Mbh.12.68:- When, the king rules with a complete and strict reliance on the science of chastisement, the foremost of ages called Krita is then said to set in. Following this we have a very good passage on king-rulership science, spies, fortification etc
- Mbh.12.68:- //The king is the creator of the Krita age, of the Treta, and of the Dwapara.
- Mbh.12.90:- The respective ages called Krita, Treta, Dwapara and Kali, O bull of Bharata's race, are all dependent on the conduct of the king.
- Mbh.12.140:- Krita, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali, as regards their setting in, are all dependent on the king's conduct
All these above passage indicates that by the end of Krita-Yuga-2, people lost the ability to ascertain in which Yuga they were living and started having a philosophical explanation on the Yugas based on the conduct of kings and on the nature of society.
We also have at Mbh.14.44 the following statement:- The Krita is the first of all the Yugas; there is no doubt in this.. All these indicates total confusion on the assessment of Yuga system. There were some who considered that after the last Kali Yuga, the next Yuga should be counted as ascending Kali Yuga. Some others wanted to count it as Krita Yuga asserting that Krita Yuga is always the first Yuga.
Dasavatara definition in Treta Yuga 2
1000 BC ?
Mbh.12.339:- Appearing in the forms of a swan, a tortoise, a fish, I shall then display myself as a boar, then as a Man-lion Nrisingha, then as a dwarf, then as Rama of Bhrigu's race, then as Rama, the son of Dasaratha, then as Krishna the scion of the Sattwata race, and lastly as Kalki. When the auditions in the Vedas disappeared from the world, I brought them back. The Vedas with the auditions in them, were re-created by me in the Krita age. They have once more disappeared or may only be partially heard here and there in the Puranas. Many of my best appearances also in the world have become events of the past.
Mbh.12.340:- The portions, thus offered with great reverence unto Vishnu, were, in respect of both the measure and the quality of the articles used, according to the ordinances laid down for the Krita age.
Here the ten Avataras (incarnations) of Vishnu is mentioned. This was the definition prevailed towards the end of Krita Yuga 2 (2000 BC to 1000 BC). As per this the first incarnation was a swan (!), and subsequently as a tortoise (Kurma), fish (Matsya), boar (Varaha), man-lion (Nrisingha), dwarf (Vamana), Parasu-Rama, Dasarathi-Rama, Krishna and finally Kalki. The difference with the current version is the presence of swan as the first incarnation and mention of Kurma (tortoise) as earlier than Matsya (fish). It is also clear that this definition emerged after Kalki's life also became an event in the remote past. Kalik became anticipated incarnation of future only subsequently after the advent of Aryabhata's Yuga System based on which Kali Yuga is yet to end (after 400,000 more years).
Here the mention of the Vedas with the auditions in them as being recreated in Krita Age is actually referring to the activities of Kalki at the start of Krita Yuga 2 (2000 BC), as he revived the ailing Vedic knowledge after a 1000 year long Kali Yuga 1 (3000 BC to 2000 BC). By the end of Krita Yuga (1000 BC) they again declined (// They have once more disappeared or may only be partially heard here and there in the Puranas//). General population get to know about the Vedas only through the Puranas, which were gaining popularity in these periods. The narration mentioned in the subsequent chapter (13.340) allows us to place this narration in Krita Yuga 2, towards the very end of this Yuga (around 1000 BC).
Krita Yuga 2 Treta Yuga 2 Junction
Mbh.12.340:- This present epoch that has been set to run is the foremost of all epochs and should be known by the name of Krita. In this Yuga living creatures should not be slain in the sacrifices that may be performed. It should be as I ordain and let it not be otherwise. In this age, ye celestials, Righteousness will flourish in its entirety. After this age will come the epoch called Treta. The Vedas, in that Yuga, will lose one quarter. Only three of them will exist. In the sacrifice that will be performed in that age, animals, after dedication with the aid of sacred mantras, will be slain. As regards Righteousness again, it will lose one quarter; only three quarters thereof will flourish. On the expiration of the Treta will come the mixed Yuga known by the name of Dwapara. In that Yuga, Righteousness will lose two quarters and only two quarters thereof will flourish. Upon the expiration of Dwapara the Yuga that will set in will be called Kali yuga which will come under the influence of Tisya (Pushya) constellation.
Here we see a glimpse of the general understanding prevailed during the junction of Krita-Yuga-2 and Dwapara-Yuga-2 (1000 BC). Knowledge about the Vedas which were revived by Kalki during the start of Krita Yuga-2 (1900 BC) declined and was heard only in the Puranas. Due to the influence of Kalki, animal sacrifices were still banned. People generally saw a deteriorating society around them and concluded that the subsequent Yugas (Treta-2, Dwapara-2 and Kali-2 will be worser than that they are now seeing at the end of Krita-2.
Many people like Arshtishena (9.38), Sindhudwipa (9.38), Rakshasa Charvaka (12.39), Vyaghrapada (13.14), Tandi (13.16) were mentioned as living in Krita Yuga but their circumstances indicate they lived in Puranic era, thus in Krita Yuga 2. These needs further investigation.